110 relations: Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Acta Senatus, Aedile, Altar of Victory, Anastasius I Dicorus, Ancient Rome, Andrew Lintott, Anicia (gens), Antipope Laurentius, Augury, Augustus, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Senate, Centuria, Commune of Rome, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Constantius II, Coup d'état, Curia, Curia Julia, Curiate Assembly, Cursus honorum, Diocletian, Equites, Erich S. Gruen, Eugenius, Eunuch, Fergus Millar, Filibuster, Fourth Crusade, Gaius Marius, Gerousia, Giordano Pierleoni, Gracchi, Heraclius, Interregnum, Interrex, James Hampton (priest), Justinian I, King, King of Rome, Latin, Leontia, Livy, Lombards, Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Master of the Horse, ..., Nathaniel Hooke, New York City Police Commissioner, Nicholas Kanabos, Nikephoros II Phokas, Odoacer, Ostrogothic Kingdom, Ostrogoths, Pater familias, Patrician (ancient Rome), Patrician (post-Roman Europe), Phocas, Pier Leoni, Plebeian Council, Pomerium, Pontifex maximus, Pope, Pope Gregory I, Pope Honorius I, Pope Symmachus, Praetor, Princeps senatus, Principate, Proedros, Promagistrate, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Publius Valerius Publicola, Quaestor, Roman assemblies, Roman censor, Roman consul, Roman dictator, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Kingdom, Roman law, Roman magistrate, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Rome, Romulus, Routledge, Senate, Senatus consultum, Senatus consultum ultimum, Servius Tullius, SPQR, Summus Senator, Theodahad, Theodor Mommsen, Theodosius I, Tiberius, Tiberius II Constantine, Toga, Totila, Tribune, Veto, Western Roman Empire, Wilhelm Ihne, Wise old man, 14 regions of Medieval Rome. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
Acta Senatus, or Commentarii Senatus, were minutes of the discussions and decisions of the Roman Senate.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) and bore a gold statue of the goddess Victory.
Anastasius I (Flavius Anastasius Augustus; Ἀναστάσιος; 9 July 518) was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew William Lintott (born 9 December 1936) is a British classical scholar who specialises in the political and administrative history of ancient Rome, Roman law and epigraphy.
The gens Anicia was a plebeian family at Rome, mentioned first towards the end of the fourth century BC.
Laurentius (possibly Caelius) was an antipope of the Roman Catholic Church from 498 until 506.
Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds (aves).
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate (Σύγκλητος, Synklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed, the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century.
Centuria (Latin plural centuriae) is a Latin term (from the stem centum meaning one hundred) denoting military units consisting of (originally only approximately) 100 men (80 soldiers and 20 auxiliary servants).
The Commune of Rome (Comune di Roma) was established in 1144 after a rebellion led by Giordano Pierleoni.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one.
The Curia Julia (Curia Iulia, Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome.
The Curiate Assembly (comitia curiata) was the principal assembly during the first two decades of the Roman Republic.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Erich Stephen Gruen (born May, 1935, in Vienna, Austria) is an American classicist and ancient historian.
Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394) was a usurper in the Western Roman Empire (392–394) against Emperor Theodosius I. Though himself a Christian, he was the last Emperor to support Roman polytheism.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Sir Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar FBA (born 5 July 1935) is a British historian and Camden Professor of Ancient History Emeritus, Oxford University.
A filibuster is a political procedure where one or more members of parliament or congress debate over a proposed piece of legislation so as to delay or entirely prevent a decision being made on the proposal.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the Spartan council of elders, which was made up of men over the age of sixty.
Giordano (sometimes anglicized as Jordan) Pierleoni (in contemporary Latin, Jordanus filius Petrus Leonis) was the son of the Consul Pier Leoni and therefore brother of Antipope Anacletus II and leader of the Commune of Rome which the people set up in 1143.
The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were Romans who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
The interrex (plural interreges) was literally a ruler "between kings" (Latin inter reges) during the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic.
James Hampton (1721–1778) was an English cleric and writer, known as the translator of the Ancient Greek historian Polybius.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The King of Rome (Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leontia (fl. 610), was the Empress consort of Phocas of the Byzantine Empire.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.
Nathaniel Hooke (died 1763) was an English historian.
The New York City Police Commissioner is the head of the New York City Police Department.
Nicholaus Kanabus was elected Emperor of the Byzantine Empire during the 4th Crusade on 25 or 27 January 1204 by an assembly of the Byzantine Senate, priests, and the mob of Constantinople in direct opposition to co-emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas; – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610.
Pier Leoni (or Pierleone) (Petrus Leo or Petrus filius Leonis) (died 2 June 1128) was the son of the Jewish convert Leo de Benedicto and founder of the great and important medieval Roman family of the Pierleoni.
The Concilium Plebis (English: Plebeian Council or Plebeian Assembly) was the principal assembly of the ancient Roman Republic.
The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope Honorius I (died 12 October 638) was Pope from 27 October 625 to his death in 638.
Pope Symmachus (d. 19 July 514) was Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
Proedros (πρόεδρος, "president") was a senior Byzantine court and ecclesiastic title in the 10th to mid-12th centuries.
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Publius Valerius Poplicola or Publicola (d. 503 BC) was one of four Roman aristocrats who led the overthrow of the monarchy, and became a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
A senatus consultum (Latin – decree of the senate; plural senatus consulta) is a text emanating from the senate in Ancient Rome.
Senatus consultum ultimum ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), more properly senatus consultum de re publica defendenda ("decree of the Senate about defending the Republic") is the modern term (based on Caesar's wording at Bell. Civ. 1.5) given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency.
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
Summus Senator is a medieval title of Rome for the head of the civil government in the city.
Theodahad, also known as Thiudahad (Rex, Theodahadus, Theodatus; born 480 AD in Tauresium – died 536) was king of the Ostrogoths from 534 to 536 and a nephew of Theodoric the Great through his mother Amalafrida.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus; Τιβέριος Βʹ; 520 – 14 August 582) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 574 to 582.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Totila, original name Baduila (died July 1, 552), was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552 AD.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Joseph Anton Friedrich Wilhelm Ihne (2 February 1821 – 21 March 1902) was a German historian who was a native of Fürth.
The wise old man (also called senex, '''sage''' or '''sophos''') is an archetype as described by Carl Jung, as well as a classic literary figure, and may be seen as a stock character.
During the Middle Ages, Rome was divided into a number of administrative regions (Latin, regiones), usually numbering between twelve and fourteen, which changed over time.
Conscript Fathers, Conscript fathers, Conscripti, Patres, Patres Conscripti, Patres conscripti, Roman Senator, Roman senate, Roman senator, Roman senators, Senate of Rome, Senator of Rome, Senatorial lieutenant, Senatrix.