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Roman army of the late Republic

Index Roman army of the late Republic

The Roman army of the late Republic refers to the armed forces deployed by the late Roman Republic, from the beginning of the first century B.C. until the establishment of the Imperial Roman army by Augustus in 30 B.C. Shaped by major social, political, and economic change, the late Republic saw the transition from the Roman army of the mid-Republic, which was a temporary levy based solely on the conscription of Roman citizens, to the Imperial Roman army of the Principate, which was a standing, professional army based on the recruitment of volunteers. [1]

102 relations: Aedui, Ala (Roman allied military unit), Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Augustus, Ballista, Barley, Battle of Actium, Battle of Arausio, Belgae, Campaign history of the Roman military, Campanians, Celts, Cimbri, Cisalpine Gaul, Civic Crown, Cohort (military unit), Commentarii de Bello Civili, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Coolus helmet, Crete, Crucifixion, Cyprus, Decimation (Roman army), Equites, Etruscan civilization, First Triumvirate, Flagellation, Fustuarium, Gafsa, Gaius Marius, Gallia Narbonensis, Gaul, Germanic peoples, Gladiator, Gladius, Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, Great Britain, Hastati, Imperial Roman army, Jeremiah McCall, Jugurthine War, Julius Caesar, Latins, Legio III Augusta, Legio III Gallica, Legionary, Levant, Livy, Lorica hamata, ..., Lorica segmentata, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Maniple (military unit), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marian reforms, Mark Antony, Marsi, Military tribune, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Montefortino helmet, Nervii, North Africa, Numidian cavalry, Parthia, Pilum, Plebeian Council, Po (river), Polybius, Pompey, Populares, Prefect, Principate, Principes, Proletariat, Publican, Pugio, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, Roman army, Roman army of the mid-Republic, Roman cavalry, Roman Republic, Roman triumph, Sagum, Sallust, Samnites, Scutum (shield), Second Triumvirate, Sestertius, Socii, Stoning, Structural history of the Roman military, Sulla, Tencteri, Teutons, The Histories (Polybius), Triarii, Umbri, Usipetes, Velites, Vercelli, Wheat. Expand index (52 more) »

Aedui

The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui (Αἰδούοι) were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar (Saône) and Liger (Loire), in today's France.

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Ala (Roman allied military unit)

An Ala (Latin for "wing", plural form: alae) was the term used during the mid- Roman Republic (338-88 BC) to denote a military formation composed of conscripts from the socii, Rome's Italian military allies.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Ballista

The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Battle of Actium

The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.

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Battle of Arausio

The Battle of Arausio took place on 6 October 105 BC, at a site between the town of Arausio (modern day Orange, Vaucluse) and the Rhône River.

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Belgae

The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.

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Campaign history of the Roman military

From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was closely entwined with its military history.

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Campanians

The Campanians (also Campani) were an ancient Italic tribe, part of the Osci nation, speaking an Oscan language.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Cimbri

The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.

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Cisalpine Gaul

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

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Civic Crown

The Civic Crown (corona civica) was a military decoration during the Roman Republic and the subsequent Principate, regarded as the second highest to which a citizen could aspire (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard).

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Cohort (military unit)

A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes, see wikt:cohors for full inflection table) was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, and was composed of between 360-800 soldiers.

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Commentarii de Bello Civili

Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Coolus helmet

The Coolus helmet was a type of ancient Celtic and Roman helmet.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Crucifixion

Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Decimation (Roman army)

Decimation (decimatio; decem.

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Equites

The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

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Flagellation

Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.

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Fustuarium

In the military of ancient Rome, fustuarium (Greek ξυλοκοπία, xylokopia.) or fustuarium supplicium ("the punishment of cudgeling") was a severe form of military discipline in which a soldier was cudgeled to death.

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Gafsa

Gafsa (ڨفصة), originally called Capsa in Latin, is the capital of Gafsa Governorate of Tunisia.

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Gaius Marius

Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gladiator

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Gladius

(Note: the sword above is actually not a Pompeii Gladius but, instead, a Fulham Gladius) Gladius was one Latin word for sword, and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers.

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Gnaeus Mallius Maximus

Gnaeus Mallius Maximus was a Roman politician and general.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Hastati

Hastati (singular: Hastatus) were a class of infantry employed in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as spearmen, and later as swordsmen.

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Imperial Roman army

The Imperial Roman army are the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire from about 30 BC to 476 AD.

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Jeremiah McCall

Dr.

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Jugurthine War

The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Latins

The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.

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Legio III Augusta

Legio tertia Augusta ("Third Augustan Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.

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Legio III Gallica

Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.

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Legionary

The Roman legionary (Latin: legionarius, pl. legionarii) was a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army after the Marian reforms.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Livy

Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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Lorica hamata

The lorica hamata is a type of mail armour used by soldiers of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Lorica segmentata

The lorica segmentata (segmented cuirass) is a type of personal armour used by soldiers of the Roman Empire, consisting of metal strips ("girth hoops" fashioned into circular bands), fastened to internal leather straps.

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Lucius Cornelius Cinna

Lucius Cornelius Cinna (died 84 BC) was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens.

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Maniple (military unit)

Maniple (Latin: manipulus, literally meaning "a handful") was a tactical unit of the Roman legion adopted from the Samnites during the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC).

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Marcus Aemilius Lepidus

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a name used by several ancient Roman men of the gens Aemilia.

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Marcus Licinius Crassus

Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Marian reforms

The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.

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Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

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Marsi

Marsi is the Latin exonym for an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus (which was drained for agricultural land in the late 19th century).

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Military tribune

A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.

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Mithridates VI of Pontus

Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.

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Montefortino helmet

The Montefortino helmet was a type of Celtic, and later Roman, military helmet used from around 300 BC through the 1st century AD with continuing modifications.

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Nervii

The Nervii were one of the most powerful Celtic tribes,; living in northern Gaul at the time of its conquest by Rome.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Numidian cavalry

Numidian cavalry was a type of light cavalry developed by the Numidians.

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Parthia

Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Pilum

The pilum (plural pila) was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times.

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Plebeian Council

The Concilium Plebis (English: Plebeian Council or Plebeian Assembly) was the principal assembly of the ancient Roman Republic.

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Po (river)

The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.

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Polybius

Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.

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Populares

The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).

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Prefect

Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.

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Principate

The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.

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Principes

Principes (Singular: princeps) were spearmen, and later swordsmen, in the armies of the early Roman Republic.

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Proletariat

The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).

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Publican

In antiquity, publicans (Greek τελώνης telōnēs (singular); Latin publicanus (singular); publicani (plural)) were public contractors, in which role they often supplied the Roman legions and military, managed the collection of port duties, and oversaw public building projects.

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Pugio

The pugio (plural: pugiones) was a dagger used by Roman soldiers as a sidearm.

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (ca 160 BC – 91 BC) was the leader of the conservative faction of the Roman Senate and a bitter enemy of Gaius Marius.

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Roman army

The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Roman army of the mid-Republic

The Roman army of the mid-Republic (also known as the manipular Roman army or the "Polybian army"), refers to the armed forces deployed by the mid-Roman Republic, from the end of the Samnite Wars (290 BC) to the end of the Social War (88 BC).

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Roman cavalry

Roman cavalry (Latin: equites Romani) refers to the horse-mounted forces of the Roman army throughout the Regal, Republican, and Imperial eras.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman triumph

The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

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Sagum

The sagum was a garment of note generally worn by members of the Roman military during both the Republic and early Empire.

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Sallust

Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.

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Samnites

The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.

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Scutum (shield)

The Scutum (plural scuta) was a type of shield used among Italic peoples in the archaic period, and then by the army of ancient Rome starting about the fourth century BC.

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Second Triumvirate

The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.

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Sestertius

The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.

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Socii

The socii (in Classical Latin; in Italian Latin; in English; "allies") were the autonomous tribes and city-states of the Italian Peninsula in permanent military alliance with the Roman Republic until the Social War of 91–88 BC.

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Stoning

Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.

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Structural history of the Roman military

The structural history of the Roman military concerns the major transformations in the organization and constitution of ancient Rome's armed forces, "the most effective and long-lived military institution known to history."Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1911), The Roman Army From its origins around 800 BC to its final dissolution in AD 476 with the demise of the Western Roman Empire, Rome's military organization underwent substantial structural change.

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Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Tencteri

The Tencteri or Tenchteri or Tenctheri (in Plutarch's Greek, Tenteritē and possibly the same as the Tenkeroi mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy if these were not the Tungri) were an ancient tribe, who moved into the area on the right bank (the northern or eastern bank) of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC.

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Teutons

The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.

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The Histories (Polybius)

Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.

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Triarii

Triarii (singular: Triarius) were one of the elements of the early Roman military manipular legions of the early Roman Republic (509 BC – 107 BC).

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Umbri

The Umbri were Italic peoples of ancient Italy.

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Usipetes

Usipetes or Usipii (in Plutarch's Greek, Ousipai, and possibly the same as the Ouispoi of Claudius Ptolemy) were an ancient tribe who moved into the area on the right bank (the northern or eastern bank) of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC, putting them in contact with Gaul and the Roman empire.

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Velites

Velites (singular) were a class of infantry in the Roman army of the mid-Republic from 211 to 107 BC.

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Vercelli

Vercelli (Vërsèj in Piedmontese), is a city and comune of 46.552 inhabitants (1-1-2017) in the Province of Vercelli, Piedmont, northern Italy.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Redirects here:

"Caesarian" Roman army, Caesarian Roman army, Marian Roman army, Roman "Caesarian" army.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_army_of_the_late_Republic

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