97 relations: Ab urbe condita, Abuse of power, Alfred the Great, Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius, Augur, Augustus, Byzantine calendar, Caligula, Campus Martius, Cassius Dio, Census, Century Assembly, Chairman, Chariot racing, Charles Martel, Circus Maximus, Cisalpine Gaul, Commander-in-chief, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Conflict of the Orders, Conscription, Constans II, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Constitution of the Roman Republic, Curiate Assembly, Cursus honorum, Decius Paulinus, Diplomacy, Etruscan civilization, Executive (government), Fasces, Fasti, French Consulate, Gallic Empire, Greek language, Head of government, Honorius (emperor), Hypatos, Imperator, Imperium, Incitatus, Incumbent, Indiction, Judiciary, Julius Caesar, Justin II, Justinian I, Latin, Latin grammar, ..., Leo VI the Wise, Lex curiata de imperio, Lex Licinia Sextia, Lictor, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman consuls designate, List of undated Roman consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Sextius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, Marcus Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus, Marcus Valerius Messalla Niger, Novus homo, Overthrow of the Roman monarchy, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Patrician (ancient Rome), Plebs, Pomerium, Praetor, Praetorian prefect, Principate, Proconsul, Promagistrate, Quaestor, Regnal year, Rex Sacrorum, Roman assemblies, Roman censor, Roman dictator, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman governor, Roman Kingdom, Roman legion, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman triumph, Rome, Scipio Africanus, Strategos, Sulla, Theodosius I, Tribal Assembly, Tribune, Tribuni militum consulari potestate, Veto. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
"ab urbe condita" (related to "anno urbis conditae"; A. U. C., AUC, a.u.c.; also "anno urbis", short a.u.) is a Latin phrase meaning "from the founding of the City (Rome)", traditionally dated to 753 BC.
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Abuse of power, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct," is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties.
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Alfred the Great (849 – 26 October 899) (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf") was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
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Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius was a high official of the Eastern Roman Empire and the last consul of Roman history, holding the office in 541.
The augur was a priest and official in the classical world, especially ancient Rome and Etruria.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου) was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
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Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37–41).
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The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.
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Lucius (or Claudius) Cassius Dio (alleged to have the cognomen Cocceianus; Δίων Κάσσιος Κοκκηϊανός Dion Kassios Kokkeianos, c. AD 155–235), known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio, was of Greek origin, Roman consul and noted historian who wrote in Greek.
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A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
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The Century Assembly or Centuriate Assembly (Latin: comitia centuriata) of the Roman Republic was one of the three voting assemblies in the Roman constitution.
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The chairman or chairwoman, or simply the chair, sometimes known as chairperson, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
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Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
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Charles Martel (c. 688 or 686, 680 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
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The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
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Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Northern Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
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Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
The Conflict of the Orders, also referred to as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic lasting from 494 BCE to 287 BCE, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.
Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Constans is a diminutive nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography.
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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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The Constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent.
The Curiate Assembly (comitia curiata) was the principal assembly during the first two decades of the Roman Republic.
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The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire.
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Decius Paulinus (floruit 534 AD) was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire.
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Diplomacy (from the Greek δίπλωμα, meaning making a deal with other countries) is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
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Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio.
The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
Fasces (a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging.
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In ancient Rome, the fasti (Latin plural) were chronological or calendar-based lists, or other diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events.
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The Consulate was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804.
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The Gallic Empire (Imperium GalliarumThe state was never officially styled as Imperium Galliarum on the official monuments, inscriptions or coins that have survived; rather, the phrase comes from a phrase in Eutropius (Galliarum accepit imperium, " command of the Gallic provinces", Drinkwater 1987, p. 15). Instead, the titles and administrative structures of the empire followed their Roman models (Drinkwater 1987, pp. 126-127).) is the modern name for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423), was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
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Hýpatos (ὕπατος, plural: hýpatoi) and the variant apó hypátōn (ἀπὸ ὑπάτων, "former hýpatos", literally: "from among the consuls") was a Byzantine court dignity, originally the Greek translation of Latin consul (the literal meaning of hypatos is "the supreme one," which reflects the office, but not the etymology of the Roman consul).
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The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic.
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Imperium is a Latin word which, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
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Incitatus was the favored horse of Roman emperor Caligula (reigned 37–41 AD).
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The incumbent, in United States politics, is the current holder of a political office.
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An indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe, both East and West.
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.
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Justin II (Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Byzantine Emperor from 565 to 574.
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Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The grammar of Latin, like that of other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflected; consequently, it allows for a large degree of flexibility in choosing word order.
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Leo VI, surnamed the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
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In the constitution of ancient Rome, the lex curiata de imperio (plural leges curiatae) was the law confirming the rights of higher magistrates to hold power, or imperium.
Lex Licinia Sextia was a Roman law introduced around 376 BCE and enacted in 367 BCE.
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A lictor (possibly from ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium, the right to command.
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This is a list of Roman consuls, the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic and a high office of the Empire.
This is a list of Roman consuls designate, individuals who were either elected or nominated to the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, or a high office of the Empire, but whom for some reason did not enter office at the beginning of the year, either through death, disgrace, or due to changes in imperial administration.
This is a list of Roman consuls, individuals who were either elected or nominated to the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, or a high office of the Empire, but for whom an exact date of when they served in office is absent.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Sextius Lateranus was a Roman tribune of the plebs and is noted for having been one of two men (the other being Gaius Licinius) behind the Lex Licinia Sextia, permitting him in 366 BC to become what is often considered the "first plebeian consul".
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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (c. 102 BC – 48 BC) was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus belonged originally to the gens Calpurnia, but was adopted by Marcus Pupius, when the latter was an old man.
Marcus Valerius Messalla Niger was a senator of the Roman Republic.
Homo novus (or: novus homo, Latin for "new man"; plural homines novi) was the term in ancient Rome for a man who was the first in his family to serve in the Roman Senate or, more specifically, to be elected as consul.
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The Overthrow of the Roman monarchy was a political revolution in ancient Rome in around 509 BC, which resulted in the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
The term patrician (patricius, πατρίκιος, patrikios) originally referred to a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
In ancient Rome, the plebs were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
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The pomerium or pomoerium (Latin, from post and moerium / murum, "wall") was a religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.
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Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
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Praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire.
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The principate (27 BC – 284 AD), the first period of the Roman Empire, extended from the beginning of the reign of Augustus Caesar to the Crisis of the Third Century, after which it evolved into the dominate.
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A proconsul was a governor of a province in the Roman Republic appointed for one year by the senate.
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A promagistrate (pro magistratu) is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office.
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A quaestor was a type of public official in the "cursus honorum" system who supervised the financial affairs of the state and conducted audits.
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A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.
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In ancient Roman religion, the rex sacrorum ("king of the sacred", also sometimes rex sacrificulus, " offerings made by the king") was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians.
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The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome.
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The censor was an officer in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
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In the Roman Republic, the dictator, was an 'extraordinary magistrate' (magistratus extraordinarius) with the absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the authority of the ordinary magistrate (magistratus ordinarius).
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The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
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The Roman Kingdom (Rēgnum Rōmānum) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
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A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.
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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy (293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state, or originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
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Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder, and Scipio the Great, is renowned as one of the greatest generals, not only of ancient Rome, but of all time.
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Strategos, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; literally meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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The Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) of the Roman Republic was the democratic assembly of Roman citizens.
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Tribunus, in English tribune, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome.
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The tribuni militum consulari potestate ("military tribunes with consular authority"), in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
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