185 relations: A History of Warfare, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Adrian Goldsworthy, Ala (Roman allied military unit), Aquila (Roman), Aquilifer, Arther Ferrill, Artillery, As (Roman coin), Augustus, Auxilia, Auxilia palatina, Ballista, Barrier troops, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Battle of Vercellae, Border guard, Byzantine Empire, Caligae, Caracalla, Carpentry, Castra, Cataphract, Cavalry, Census, Centuria, Centurion, Cohort (military unit), Comitatenses, Conscription, Constantine II (emperor), Constitutional crisis, Contubernium, Cookware and bakeware, Cornicen, Corporal, Cursus honorum, Danube, De re militari, Decanus, Decimation (Roman army), Decurion (Roman cavalry officer), Demagogue, Denarius, Diocletian, Disciplina, Division (military), Domitian, Duplicarius, Early Roman army, ..., East Roman army, Engineer, Equites, Evocatus, Favorinus, Field artillery, First sergeant, Flanking maneuver, Fustuarium, Gaius Marius, Germanic peoples, Gladius, Gratian, Hans Delbrück, Hasta (spear), Hastati, Heavy infantry, Hellenistic-era warships, Heraclius, Heraldic flag, Honesta missio, Honorius (emperor), Hunting, Idiom, Imaginifer, Immunes, Imperial Roman army, Infantry, John Keegan, Jovians and Herculians, Julius Caesar, Lance, Late antiquity, Late Roman army, Latin, Legatus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore, Legio V Alaudae, Legio V Macedonica, Legio X Gemina, Legionary, Lieutenant, Light infantry, Limitanei, List of Roman auxiliary regiments, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, List of Roman legions, List of Roman wars and battles, Livy, Lorica hamata, Maniple (military unit), Manius Valerius Maximus, Marian reforms, Mark Antony, Military establishment of the Roman Empire, Military history of ancient Rome, Military intelligence, Military police, Military tribune, Montesquieu, Mounted archery, Mounted infantry, Musician, Muslim conquest of Egypt, Nigel Rodgers, Notitia Dignitatum, Numidians, Onager (weapon), Optio, Outline of ancient Rome, Palatini (Roman military), Parthia, Pax Romana, Peter Connolly, Phalanx, Pilum, Pontifex maximus, Praefectus castrorum, Praetorian Guard, Primus pilus, Principes, Prisoner of war, Pseudocomitatenses, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Quartermaster, Quaternion (disambiguation), Reconnaissance, Reduction in rank, Roman agriculture, Roman army, Roman army of the late Republic, Roman army of the mid-Republic, Roman citizenship, Roman consul, Roman Empire, Roman governor, Roman infantry tactics, Roman Kingdom, Roman military diploma, Roman military personal equipment, Roman navy, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman usurper, Rubicon, Sacramentum (oath), Scourge, Scutum (shield), Septimius Severus, Sergeant, Servius Tullius, Sestertius, Signifer, Singlestick, Skirmisher, Speculatores, Squad, Staff sergeant, Stirrup, Structural history of the Roman military, Sudis (stake), Tesserarius, Tetrarchy, Theme (Byzantine district), Triarii, Turma, Velites, Vespasian, Veterans' benefits, Vexillatio, Vitellius, Western Roman Empire, Year of the Four Emperors. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
A History of Warfare is a book by military historian John Keegan, which was published in 1993 by Random House.
Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
Adrian Keith Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and author who specialises in ancient Roman history.
An Ala (Latin for "wing", plural form: alae) was the term used during the mid- Roman Republic (338-88 BC) to denote a military formation composed of conscripts from the socii, Rome's Italian military allies.
An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion.
An aquilifer was a soldier signifer bearing the eagle standard of a Roman legion.
Arther Ferrill (born 1938),"Arther Ferrill." Contemporary Authors Online.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The as (plural assēs), occasionally assarius (plural assarii, rendered into Greek as ἀσσάριον, assarion) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
Auxilia palatina (sing. auxilium palatinum) were infantry units of the Late Roman army, first raised by Constantine I as part of the new field army he created in about 325.
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
Barrier troops, blocking units, or anti-retreat forces are troops that are placed behind the front lines during a battle in order to shoot any soldiers attempting to retreat or escape from the battle.
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald, Hermannsschlacht, or Varusschlacht, Disfatta di Varo), described as the Varian Disaster (Clades Variana) by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus.
The Battle of Vercellae, or Battle of the Raudine Plain, in 101 BC was the Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the invading Celto-Germanic tribe of the Cimbri near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul.
A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border control, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caligae (Latin; singular caliga) are heavy-soled hobnailed military boots known for being issued to Roman legionary soldiers and auxiliaries throughout the Roman Republic and Empire.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Centuria (Latin plural centuriae) is a Latin term (from the stem centum meaning one hundred) denoting military units consisting of (originally only approximately) 100 men (80 soldiers and 20 auxiliary servants).
A centurion (centurio; κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes, see wikt:cohors for full inflection table) was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, and was composed of between 360-800 soldiers.
The comitatenses and later the palatini were the units of the field armies of the late Roman Empire.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus;Jones, pg. 223 January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.
In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve.
The contubernium was the smallest organized unit of soldiers in the Roman Army and was composed of eight legionaries, the equivalent of a modern squad.
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen.
A cornicen (plural cornicines) was a junior officer in the Roman Army.
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
De re militari (Latin "Concerning Military Matters"), also Epitoma rei militaris, is a treatise by the late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of methods and practices in use during the height of Rome's power, and responsible for that power.
Decanus means "chief of ten" in Late Latin.
Decimation (decimatio; decem.
A decurion (Latin: decurio, plural decuriones) was a Roman cavalry officer in command of a squadron (turma) of cavalrymen in the Roman army.
A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
In Roman mythology, Disciplina was a minor deity and the personification of discipline.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
Duplicarius (duplicārius) was a pay grade in the Roman Army receiving double the basic pay.
The Early Roman army was deployed by ancient Rome during its Regal Era and into the early Republic around 300 BC, when the so-called "Polybian" or manipular legion was introduced.
The East Roman army refers to the army of the Eastern section of the Roman Empire, from the empire's definitive split in 395 AD to the army's reorganization by themes after the permanent loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Arabs in the 7th century during the Byzantine-Arab Wars.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Evocatus (plural Evocati) was the Latin term for a soldier in the Roman army who had served out his time and obtained a discharge (Honesta missio) but had voluntarily enlisted again at the invitation of the consul or other commander.
Favorinus of Arelate (c. 80 – c. 160 AD) was a Roman sophist and philosopher who flourished during the reign of Hadrian and the Second Sophistic.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
First sergeant is typically a senior non-commissioned officer rank, used in many countries.
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
In the military of ancient Rome, fustuarium (Greek ξυλοκοπία, xylokopia.) or fustuarium supplicium ("the punishment of cudgeling") was a severe form of military discipline in which a soldier was cudgeled to death.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
(Note: the sword above is actually not a Pompeii Gladius but, instead, a Fulham Gladius) Gladius was one Latin word for sword, and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
Hans Delbrück (11 November 1848 – 14 July 1929) was a German historian.
Hasta (plural: hastae) is a Latin word meaning "spear".
Hastati (singular: Hastatus) were a class of infantry employed in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as spearmen, and later as swordsmen.
Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured infantrymen trained to mount frontal assaults and/or anchor the defensive center of a battle line.
From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
In heraldry and vexillology, a heraldic flag is any of several types of flags, containing coats of arms, heraldic badges, or other devices used for personal identification.
The honesta missio was the honorable discharge from the military service in the Roman Empire.
Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
The imaginifer was one of the signiferi in a legion in the times of the Roman Empire, who carried the imago—the image—of the emperor.
The immunes were Ancient Roman soldiers who possessed specialized skills.
The Imperial Roman army are the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire from about 30 BC to 476 AD.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.
The Jovians (Ioviani) and Herculians (Latin: Herculiani) were the senior palatine imperial guard units under the rule of Diocletian (r. 284–305).
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
In modern scholarship, the "late" period of the Roman army begins with the accession of the Emperor Diocletian in AD 284, and ends in 476 with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, being roughly coterminous with the Dominate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
A legatus Augusti pro praetore (literally: "envoy of the emperor - acting praetor") was the official title of the governor of some imperial provinces of the Roman Empire during the Principate era, normally the larger ones or those where legions were based.
Legio quinta alaudae ("Lark-crested Fifth Legion"), sometimes also known as Gallica, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in 52 BC by the general Gaius Julius Caesar (dictator of Rome 49-44 BC).
Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion.
Legio decima Gemina ("The Twins' Tenth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
The Roman legionary (Latin: legionarius, pl. legionarii) was a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army after the Marian reforms.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
The limitanei or ripenses, meaning respectively "the soldiers in frontier districts" (from the Latin phrase limes, meaning a military district of a frontier province) or "the soldiers on the riverbank" (from the Rhine and Danube), were an important part of the late Roman and early Byzantine army after the reorganizations of the late 3rd and early 4th centuries.
This article lists auxilia, non-legionary auxiliary regiments of the imperial Roman army, attested in the epigraphic record, by Roman province of deployment during the reign of emperor Hadrian (117–).
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).
This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion, primarily focusing on the Principate (early Empire, 27 BC – 284 AD) legions, for which there exists substantial literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence.
The following is a List of Roman wars and battles fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The lorica hamata is a type of mail armour used by soldiers of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Maniple (Latin: manipulus, literally meaning "a handful") was a tactical unit of the Roman legion adopted from the Samnites during the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC).
Manius Valerius Maximus was Roman dictator in 494 BC during the first secession of the plebs.
The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Augustan reforms didn't change the military structure that much.
The military history of ancient Rome is inseparable from its political system, based from an early date upon competition within the ruling elite.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
Nigel Rodgers (born 1952) is a British writer, environmentalist and critic.
The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires.
The Numidians were the Berber population of Numidia (present day Algeria) and in a smaller part of Tunisia.
The onager (British /ˈɒnədʒə/, /ˈɒnəɡə/, U.S. /ˈɑnədʒər/) was a imperial-aera Roman torsion powered siege engine.
An optio (plural optiones; optio, optiōnēs, from optāre, "to choose", because an optio was chosen by his centurion), sometimes anglicised option (though rarely, to avoid confusion with "option"), was a soldier in the Roman army who held a position similar to that of a company's executive officer in modern armies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Rome: Ancient Rome – former civilization that thrived on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
The palatini (Latin for "palace troops") were elite units of the Late Roman army mostly attached to the comitatus praesentales, or imperial escort armies.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".
Peter Connolly FSA (8 May 1935 – 2 May 2012) was a renowned British scholar of the ancient world, Greek and Roman military equipment historian, reconstructional archaeologist and illustrator.
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
The pilum (plural pila) was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
The praefectus castrorum ("camp prefect") was, in the Roman army of the early Empire, the third most senior commander of the Roman legion after the legate (legatus) and the senior military tribune (tribunus laticlavius).
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
The Primus pilus or Primipilus was the senior centurion of a Roman legion.
Principes (Singular: princeps) were spearmen, and later swordsmen, in the armies of the early Roman Republic.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Pseudocomitatenses were a class of regiment in the Late Roman army.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, commonly referred to simply as Vegetius, was a writer of the Later Roman Empire (late 4th century).
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Reduction in rank may refer to three separate concepts.
Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but was idealized among the social elite as a way of life.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Roman army of the late Republic refers to the armed forces deployed by the late Roman Republic, from the beginning of the first century B.C. until the establishment of the Imperial Roman army by Augustus in 30 B.C. Shaped by major social, political, and economic change, the late Republic saw the transition from the Roman army of the mid-Republic, which was a temporary levy based solely on the conscription of Roman citizens, to the Imperial Roman army of the Principate, which was a standing, professional army based on the recruitment of volunteers.
The Roman army of the mid-Republic (also known as the manipular Roman army or the "Polybian army"), refers to the armed forces deployed by the mid-Roman Republic, from the end of the Samnite Wars (290 BC) to the end of the Social War (88 BC).
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation, and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
A Roman military diploma was a document inscribed in bronze certifying that the holder was honourably discharged from the Roman armed forces and/or had received the grant of Roman citizenship from the emperor as reward for service.
Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns, and it was used in an established way.
The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Usurpers are individuals or groups of individuals who obtain and maintain the power or rights of another by force and without legal authority.
The Rubicon (Rubicō, Rubicone) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.
In ancient Roman religion and law, the sacramentum was an oath or vow that rendered the swearer sacer, "given to the gods," in the negative sense if he violated it.
A scourge is a whip or lash, especially a multi-thong type, used to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back.
The Scutum (plural scuta) was a type of shield used among Italic peoples in the archaic period, and then by the army of ancient Rome starting about the fourth century BC.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
A signifer was a standard bearer of the Roman legions.
Singlestick, also known as cudgels, refers to both a martial art that uses a wooden stick as well as the weapon used in the art.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Speculatores and Exploratores were the scouts and reconnaissance element of the Roman army.
In military terminology, a squad or squadron is a sub-subunit led by a non-commissioned officer that is subordinate to an infantry platoon.
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries.
A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.
The structural history of the Roman military concerns the major transformations in the organization and constitution of ancient Rome's armed forces, "the most effective and long-lived military institution known to history."Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1911), The Roman Army From its origins around 800 BC to its final dissolution in AD 476 with the demise of the Western Roman Empire, Rome's military organization underwent substantial structural change.
The sudis (plural sudes) is a Latin word meaning stake.
A tesserarius (tesserārius, from tessera, a small tile or block of wood on which watchwords were written), was a watch commander in the Roman army.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Triarii (singular: Triarius) were one of the elements of the early Roman military manipular legions of the early Roman Republic (509 BC – 107 BC).
A turma (Latin for "swarm, squadron", plural turmae) was a cavalry unit in the Roman army of the Republic and Empire.
Velites (singular) were a class of infantry in the Roman army of the mid-Republic from 211 to 107 BC.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Throughout history war veterans have received compensation.
A vexillatio (plural vexillationes) was a detachment of a Roman legion formed as a temporary task force created by the Roman army of the Principate.
Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus; 24 September 15 – 22 December 69 AD) was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December AD 69.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
Legion (Roman), Legion camp, Legion commander, Ranks within a Roman Legion, Roman Legion, Roman Legionaires, Roman Legionairre, Roman Legionaries, Roman Legionnaire, Roman Legions, Roman legionarie, Roman legionaries, Roman legionnaire, Roman legions, Rome Legions.