282 relations: Ab Asturica Burdigalam, Adriatic Sea, Aedile, Africa (Roman province), Akeman Street, Albania, Alexandria, Alsace, Altinum, Amelia, Umbria, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Rome, Ancient trackway, Antioch, Antonine Itinerary, Apennine Mountains, Appian Way, Apulia, Apulum (castra), Aquileia, Arabia Petraea, Arch, Arch bridge, Aternum, Augsburg, Augustus, Ötztal Alps, Barcelona, Biga (chariot), Bolsena, Bordeaux, Brenner Pass, Bridle path, Bulgaria, Byzantium, Caligula, Camino de Santiago, Camlet Way, Canton (country subdivision), Capua, Caput, Carinthia, Cart, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Castra, Causeway, Cádiz, Central Europe, Chalcis, ..., Chariot, Chellah, Cicero, Civil engineer, Claudius, Clivus Capitolinus, Codex Theodosianus, Commissioner, Concrete, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Controlled-access highway, Corduroy road, Coriolanus, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Corpus Juris Civilis, Cursus publicus, Dalmatia (Roman province), Damascus, Danube, Decemviri, Deep foundation, Dere Street, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, District, Domitian, Durrës, Duumviri, Egypt, Equites, Ermine Street, Etruscan civilization, Euergetism, Euphrates, Fen Causeway, Fosse Way, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Scribonius Curio, Gaul, Gemona del Friuli, General contractor, Genoa, Germania Inferior, Gig (carriage), Gijón, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Greece, Groma surveying, Gromatici, Hadrian, Hadrian's Wall, Hispania, History of Cluj-Napoca, Icknield Way, Iron Gates, Isidore of Seville, Itinerarium, Jaś Elsner, John Peter Oleson, Jordan, Julius Caesar, Karst, King Street (Roman road), King's Highway (ancient), Klana, La Jonquera, Land tenure, Lars Porsena, Latin, Legionary, Lex Julia, Lictor, Lime mortar, Limes Arabicus, Limes Germanicus, Lindau, Lipa, Beltinci, Livy, Magistrate, Mansio, March (territorial entity), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir), Mark Antony, Materija, Mauretania Tingitana, Middle Ages, Milan, Milestone, Milion, Military history of ancient Rome, Milliarium Aureum, Milliarium of Aiton, Modern history, Narbonne, Nîmes, Nero Claudius Drusus, Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Obrov, Ostia Antica, Pace (unit), Palestrina, Palmyra, Pantheon, Rome, Passport, Peddars Way, Perusia, Petra, Petra Roman Road, Piacenza, Piroboridava, Plough, Pomponia (gens), Praetor, Pye Road, Pyrenees, Quadriga, Quaestor, Quarto d'Altino, Reggio Calabria, Republic of Macedonia, Rheinzabern, Rhine, Rijeka, Rimini, Road, Roman bridge, Roman censor, Roman commerce, Roman Dacia, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Roman legion, Roman magistrate, Roman Republic, Roman road (Nord), Roman road from Silchester to Bath, Roman road in Cilicia, Roman roads in Morocco, Roman Senate, Roman Syria, Romania, Royal Road, Salzburg, San Bernardino Pass, Sanitary sewer, Saverne, Septimius Severus, Serbia, Seville, Siculus Flaccus, Sidewalk, Sinuessa, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Spade, Stane Street (Chichester), Stane Street (Colchester), Stanegate, Statius, Strata Diocletiana, Szeged, Tabula Peutingeriana, Taiwan Star Telecom, Tarragona, Temple of Saturn, Terracina, The Ridgeway, Theodolite, Thessaloniki, Tiberius, Tingi, Titus, Toulouse, Trajan, Trajan's Bridge, Trieste, Trigarium, Troesmis, Trsat, Turda, Turkey, Tuscany, Twelve Tables, Udine, Ulpian, Umbilicus urbis Romae, Valencia, Vía de la Plata, Veneto, Verona, Vespasian, Via Aemilia, Via Aemilia Scauri, Via Agrippa, Via Aquitania, Via Augusta, Via Aurelia, Via Cassia, Via Claudia Augusta, Via Claudia Nova, Via Clodia, Via Devana, Via Domitia, Via Domiziana, Via Egnatia, Via Flaminia, Via Flavia, Via Gemina, Via Hadriana, Via Julia Augusta, Via Labicana, Via Latina, Via Maris, Via Militaris, Via Nomentana, Via Ostiensis, Via Pontica, Via Popilia, Via Postumia, Via Praenestina, Via Salaria, Via Severiana, Via Tiburtina, Via Traiana, Via Traiana Nova, Viamala, Vicus, Vienna, Vigintisexviri, Villa, Villach, Vitruvius, Watling Street. Expand index (232 more) » « Shrink index
Ab Asturica Burdigalam was a Roman road that linked the towns of Asturica Augusta (modern Astorga) in Gallaecia and Burdigala (modern Bordeaux) in Aquitania.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Akeman Street was a major Roman road in England that linked Watling Street with the Fosse Way.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
decumanus''. Altinum (modern Altino, a frazione of Quarto d'Altino) is the name of an ancient coastal town of the Veneti 15 km SE of the modern Treviso, northern Italy, on the edge of the lagoons.
Amelia is a town and comune of the province of Terni, in the Umbria region of central Italy.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient trackway can refer to any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Antonine Itinerary (Itinerarium Antonini Augusti, "The Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus") is a famous itinerarium, a register of the stations and distances along various roads.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Apulum was a fort in the Roman province of Dacia in the 2nd and 4th centuries AD, located in today's Alba-Iulia, Romania.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch.
Aternum was a Roman town, on the site of Pescara, in Italy.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The biga (Latin, plural bigae) is the two-horse chariot as used in ancient Rome for sport, transportation, and ceremonies.
Bolsena is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Viterbo in northern Lazio on the eastern shore of Lake Bolsena.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Brenner Pass (Brennerpass; Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass through the Alps which forms the border between Italy and Austria.
A bridle path, also bridleway, equestrian trail, horse riding path, ride, bridle road, or horse trail, is a path, trail or a thoroughfare that is used by people riding on horses.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
Camlet Way was a Roman road in England which ran roughly east-west between Colchester (Camalodunum) in Essex and Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum) in Hampshire via St Albans (Verulamium).
A canton is a type of administrative division of a country.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
Caput, a Latin word meaning literally "head" and by metonymy "top", has been borrowed in a variety of English words, including capital, captain, and decapitate.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway on top of an embankment usually across a broad body of water or wetland.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
The Chellah or Shalla (Sla or Calla; شالة), is a medieval fortified Muslim necropolis located in the metro area of Rabat, Morocco, on the south (left) side of the Bou Regreg estuary.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
The main road to the Roman Capitol, the Clivus Capitolinus ("Capitoline Rise") starts at the head of the Forum Romanum beside the Arch of Tiberius as a continuation of the Via Sacra; proceeding around the Temple of Saturn and turning to the south in front of the Portico Dii Consentes, it then climbs up the slope of the Capitoline Hill to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at its summit.
The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.
A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something).
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
A corduroy road or log road is a type of road made by placing logs, perpendicular to the direction of the road over a low or swampy area.
Coriolanus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1605 and 1608.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
The cursus publicus (Latin: "the public way"; δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmósios drómos) was the state-run courier and transportation service of the Roman Empire, later inherited by the Byzantine Empire.
Dalmatia was a Roman province.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic.
A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
The duumviri (Latin for "two men"), originally duoviri and also known in English as the duumvirs, were any of various joint magistrates of ancient Rome.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Ermine Street is the name of a major Roman road in England that ran from London (Londinium) to Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) and York (Eboracum).
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Euergetism (also called evergetism), derived from the Greek word "εὐεργετέω," meaning "doing good deeds," was the ancient practice of high-status and wealthy individuals in society distributing part of their wealth to the community.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Fen Causeway or the Fen Road is the modern name for a Roman road of England that runs between Denver, Norfolk in the east and Peterborough in the west.
The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England that linked Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England to Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) in Lincolnshire, via Ilchester (Lindinis), Bath (Aquae Sulis), Cirencester (Corinium) and Leicester (Ratae Corieltauvorum).
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius Scribonius Curio was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gemona del Friuli (Glemone, Humin, German: Klemaun) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about northwest of Trieste and about northwest of Udine.
A general contractor (main contractor, prime contractor) is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of a construction site, management of vendors and trades, and the communication of information to all involved parties throughout the course of a building project.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
A gig, also called chair or chaise, is a light, two-wheeled sprung cart pulled by one horse.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (Peltuinum c. 7 – 67 AD) was a Roman general, brother-in-law of the emperor Caligula and father-in-law of Domitian.
The Groma or gruma was a Roman surveying instrument.
Gromatici (from Latin groma or gruma, a surveyor's pole) or agrimensores was the name for land-surveyors amongst the ancient Romans.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The history of Cluj-Napoca covers the time from the Roman conquest of Dacia, when it was known as Napoca, through its flourishing as the main cultural and religious center in the historic province of Transylvania, until its modern existence as a city, the seat of Cluj County in north-western Romania.
The Icknield Way is an ancient trackway in southern and eastern England that goes from Norfolk to Wiltshire.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
An itinerarium (plural: itineraria) was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a listing of cities, villages (''vici'') and other stops, with the intervening distances.
Jaś Elsner, FBA (born 19 December 1962) is a British art historian and classicist, who in 2013 was Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford, based at Corpus Christi College (since 1999), and Visiting Professor of Art History at the University of Chicago (since 2003).
John Peter Oleson (born 1946) is a Canadian classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
King Street is the name of a modern road on the line of a Roman road.
The King’s Highway was a trade route of vital importance in the ancient Near East, connecting Africa with Mesopotamia.
Klana (Clana) is a municipality in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County in western Croatia.
La Jonquera is a municipality in the comarca of l'Alt Empordà, in Catalonia, Spain.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
Lars Porsena (Etruscan: Pursenas; sometimes spelled Lars Porsenna) was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Roman legionary (Latin: legionarius, pl. legionarii) was a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army after the Marian reforms.
A Lex Julia (or: Lex Iulia, plural: Leges Juliae/Leges Iuliae) is an ancient Roman law that was introduced by any member of the Julian family.
A lictor (possibly from ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium.
Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.
The Limes Arabicus was a desert frontier of the Roman Empire, mostly in the province of Arabia Petraea.
The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.
Lindau (officially in German: Lindau (Bodensee)) is a major town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee in German).
Lipa (Kislippa) is a village in the Municipality of Beltinci in the Prekmurje region of northeastern Slovenia.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
In the Roman Empire, a mansio (from the Latin word mansus the perfect passive participle of manere "to remain" or "to stay") was an official stopping place on a Roman road, or via, maintained by the central government for the use of officials and those on official business whilst travelling.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Materija (Matteria) is a small settlement in the Municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina in the Littoral region of Slovenia.
Mauritania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauritania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.
The Milion (Μίλιον or Μίλλιον, Míllion; Milyon taşı) was a monument erected in the early 4th century AD in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey).
The military history of ancient Rome is inseparable from its political system, based from an early date upon competition within the ruling elite.
The Milliarium Aureum (Miliario Aureo), also known by the translation Golden Milestone, was a monument, probably of marble or gilded bronze, erected by the Emperor Caesar Augustus near the Temple of Saturn in the central Forum of Ancient Rome.
Milliarium of Aiton is an ancient Roman milestone (milliarium) discovered in the 1758 in Aiton commune, near Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Obrov (Obrovo Santa Maria) is a village in the Municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina in the Littoral region of Slovenia.
Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.
A pace is a unit of length consisting either of one normal walking step (~0.75 m), or of a double step, returning to the same foot (~1.5 m).
Palestrina (ancient Praeneste; Πραίνεστος, Prainestos) is an ancient city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 21,000, in Lazio, about east of Rome.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
The Peddars Way is a long distance footpath in Norfolk, England.
The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
Petra Road was the main road of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan built by the Romans in the 1st century CE.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Piroboridava (Πιροβορίδαυα) was a Dacian town mentioned by Ptolemy, and archaeologically identified at Poiana, Galați, Romania.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
The gens Pomponia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
Pye Road is a Roman road running from the capital of the Iceni at Venta Icenorum (Caistor St Edmund near Norwich) to the original Roman provincial capital and legionary base at Camulodunum (Colchester).
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
A quadriga (Latin quadri-, four, and iugum, yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire's equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon).
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quarto d'Altino is a town in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Rheinzabern is a small town in the south-east of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany near the Rhine river.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
There are 7 Roman roads (Voie romaine) in the Nord département in France.
The Roman road from Silchester to Bath connected Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester) with Aquae Sulis (Bath) via Spinae (Speen) and Cunetio.
The Roman road in Cilicia (Roma yolu) is a part of a Roman road in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Roman roads in Morocco were the western roads of Roman Africa.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
San Bernardino Pass (Passo del San Bernardino, Bernhardinpass) is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps connecting the Hinterrhein and the Mesolcina (Misox) valleys between Thusis (canton of Graubünden) and Bellinzona (canton of Ticino).
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Saverne (Saverne,; Alsatian: Zàwere; (German)) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Siculus Flaccus (date uncertain) was an ancient Roman gromaticus (land surveyor), and writer in Latin on land surveying.
A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.
Sinuessa (Σινούεσσα or Σινόεσσα) was a city of Latium, in the more extended sense of the name, situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 10 km north of the mouth of the Volturno River (the ancient Vulturnus).
The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (The Roman Society) was founded in 1910 as the sister society to the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
A spade is a tool primarily for digging, comprising a blade – typically narrower and less curved than that of a shovel – and a long handle.
Stane Street is the modern name given to an important Roman road in England that linked London to the Roman town of Noviomagus Reginorum, or Regnentium, later renamed Chichester by the Saxons.
Stane Street is a Roman road that runs from Ermine Street at Braughing, Hertfordshire to Colchester in Essex.
The Stanegate, or "stone road" (Old Norse), was an important Roman road built in what is now northern England.
Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45c. 96 AD) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).
The Strata Diocletiana (Latin for "Road of Diocletian") was a fortified road that ran along the eastern desert border, the limes Arabicus, of the Roman Empire.
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
Taiwan Star Telecom Corporation Limited(), formerly Vibo Telecom Inc. is a 3G mobile network operator in Taiwan.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
The Temple of Saturn (Latin: Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturni; Tempio di Saturno) was an ancient Roman temple to the god Saturn.
Terracina is a city and comune of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, southeast of Rome by rail and by the Via Appia by car.
The ancient tree-lined path winds over the downs countryside The Ridgeway is a ridgeway or ancient trackway described as Britain's oldest road.
A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tingi (current Tangier in Morocco) was an important Roman-Berber colonia in the Maghreb.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Trajan's Bridge (Podul lui Traian; Трајанов мост, Trajanov Most) or Bridge of Apollodorus over the Danube was a Roman segmental arch bridge, the first bridge to be built over the lower Danube and one of the greatest achievements in Roman architecture.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
The Trigarium was an equestrian training ground in the northwest corner of the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars") in ancient Rome.
Troesmis was an ancient Geto-Dacian town.
Trsat (Tersatto, Tarsatica) is part of the city of Rijeka, Croatia, with a historic castle or fortress in a strategic location and several historic churches, in one of which the Croatian noble Prince Vuk Krsto Frankopan is buried.
Turda (Thorenburg; Torda; Potaissa) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieș River.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
Udine (Udin, Weiden in Friaul, Utinum, Videm) is a city and comune in northeastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche).
Ulpian (Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; c. 170223) was a prominent Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry.
The Umbilicus Urbis Romae—"Navel of the City of Rome"—was the symbolic centre of the city from which, and to which, all distances in Ancient Rome were measured.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Vía de La Plata (Silver Way) or Ruta de la Plata (Silver Route) is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
The Via Aemilia (Via Emilia) was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain, running from Ariminum (Rimini), on the Adriatic coast, to Placentia (Piacenza) on the river Padus (Po).
The Via Aemilia Scauri was an ancient Roman road built by the consul Marcus Aemilius Scaurus during his term as Censor in 109 BC.
Via Agrippa, is any stretch of the network of Roman roads in Gaul that was built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, to whom Octavian entrusted the reorganization of the Gauls.
The Via Aquitania was a Roman road created in 118 BC in the Roman province of Gaul.
The Via Augusta (also known as the Via Herculea or Via Exterior), was the longest and busiest of the major roads built by the Romans in ancient Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
The Via Aurelia (Latin for "Aurelian Way") was a Roman road in Italy constructed in approximately 241 BC.
The Via Cassia was an important Roman road striking out of the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge in the immediate vicinity of Rome and passing not far from Veii traversed Etruria.
The Via Claudia Augusta is an ancient Roman road, which linked the valley of the Po River with Rhaetia (modern Southern Germany) across the Alps.
The Via Claudia Nova was an ancient Roman road, built in 47 AD by the Roman emperor Claudius to connect the Via Caecilia with the Via Claudia Valeria in central Italy.
The Via Clodia was an ancient high-road of Italy.
The Via Devana was a Roman Road in England that ran from Colchester in the south-east to Chester in the north-west.
The Via Domitia was the first Roman road built in Gaul, to link Italy and Hispania through Gallia Narbonensis, across what is now southern France.
Via Domiziana is the modern name for the Via Domitiana in the Campania region of Italy, a major Roman road built in 95 AD under (and named for) the emperor, Domitian, to facilitate access to and from the important ports of Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli) and Portus Julius (home port of the western Imperial fleet, consisting of the waters around Baiae and Cape Misenum) in the Gulf of Naples.
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
The Via Flaminia was an ancient Roman road leading from Rome over the Apennine Mountains to Ariminum (Rimini) on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and due to the ruggedness of the mountains was the major option the Romans had for travel between Etruria, Latium, Campania, and the Po Valley.
The Via Flavia was an ancient Roman road which connected Trieste (ancient Tergeste) to Dalmatia, running across the Istrian coast.
Via Gemina was the Roman road linking Aquileia and Emona (the modern Ljubljana).
The Via Hadriana was an ancient Roman road established by the emperor Hadrian, which stretched from Antinopolis on the River Nile to the Red Sea at Berenice Troglodytica (Berenike).
The Via Julia Augusta (modern Italian Via Giulia Augusta) is the name given to the Roman road formed by the merging of the Via Aemilia Scauri with the Via Postumia. The road runs from Placentia (modern Piacenza) to Arelate (modern Arles), initially westward along the edge of the plain of the River Po to Derthona (Tortona), then southward to the Ligurian coast. There it formed a continuous route westward along the precipitous descent of the Ligurian mountains into the sea. This takes it to Vada Sabatia (Vado Ligure), Albingaunum (Albenga) and Album Intimilium (Ventimiglia), continuing to La Turbie (above modern Monaco), where its original terminus was marked by a triumphal arch. Later it was extended, taking a route away from the coast via the valley of the River Laghet, north of Nice and westward to Arles where it joined the Via Domitia. It was begun in 13 BCE by Augustus, and its engineering works were repeatedly renewed by later emperors. However by about 420 CE, when Rutilius Namatianus returned to Gaul from Italia, he took ship past the Maritime Alps rather than rely upon the decaying road. In 1764 Tobias Smollett similarly travelled by sea rather than use the seaside tracks, fit only for "mules and foot passengers". Road access was not restored until the time of Napoleon.
The Via Labicana was an ancient road of Italy, leading east-southeast from Rome.
The Via Latina (Latin: "Latin Road") was a Roman road of Italy, running southeast from Rome for about 200 kilometers.
Via Maris is the modern name for an ancient trade route, dating from the early Bronze Age, linking Egypt with the northern empires of Syria, Anatolia and Mesopotamia — modern day Iran, Iraq, Israel, Turkey and Syria.
Via Militaris or Via Diagonalis was an ancient Roman road, starting from Singidunum (today the Serbian capital Belgrade), passing by Danube coast to Viminacium (mod. Požarevac), through Naissus (mod. Niš), Serdica (mod. Sofia), Philippopolis (mod. Plovdiv), Adrianopolis (mod. Edirne in Turkish Thrace), and reaching Constantinople (mod. Istanbul).
Via Nomentana is an ancient road of Italy, leading North-East from Rome to Nomentum (modern Mentana), a distance of.
The Via Ostiensis (via Ostiense) was an important road in ancient Rome.
Via Pontica was an ancient Roman road in Thrace along the Black Sea, starting from Byzantium and passing through Deultum (today Debelt), Aquae Calidae (today an outlying neighborhood of Burgas), Apollonia, Mesembria, Odessos, Byzone, and Kaliakra (today in Bulgaria); and then through Kallatis, Tomis, and Istros (today in Romania).
The Via Popilia is the name of two different ancient Roman roads begun in the consulship of Publius Popilius Laenas.
The Via Postumia was an ancient Roman road of northern Italy constructed in 148 BC by the consul Spurius Postumius Albinus Magnus.
The Via Praenestina (modern Italian: Via Prenestina) was an ancient Roman road in central Italy.
The Via Salaria was an ancient Roman road in Italy.
Via Severiana was an ancient Roman road in central Italy leading from Latium to Campania (now in Lazio), running southeast from Ostia to Terracina, a distance of 80 Roman miles (c.) along the coast.
Via Tiburtina is an ancient road in Italy leading east-northeast from Rome to Tivoli (Latin, Tibur) and then on to Pescara (Latin, Aternum).
Via Traiana The Via Traiana was an ancient Roman road.
The Via Traiana Nova (previously known as the Via Regia) was an ancient Roman road built by the emperor Trajan in the province of Arabia Petraea, from Aqaba on the Red Sea to Bostra.
Viamala or Via Mala (which in Romansh literally means "bad path") is an ancient and notorious section of a path along the river Hinterrhein between Zillis-Reischen and Thusis in the Canton of Graubünden.
In Ancient Rome, the vicus (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vigintisexviri (sing. vigintisexvir) was a college (collegium) of minor magistrates (magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic; the name literally means "Twenty-Six Men".
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
Villach (German pronunciation:; Beljak, Villaco, Vilac) is the seventh-largest city in Austria and the second-largest in the federal state of Carinthia.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Watling Street is a route in England and Wales that began as an ancient trackway first used by the Britons, mainly between the areas of modern Canterbury and using a natural ford near Westminster.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.