520 relations: Ablative case, Accusative case, Acute accent, Affix, Affricate consonant, Africa, Africa (Roman province), African French, African Romance, Agglutinative language, Al-Andalus, Albanian language, Alghero, Aljamiado, Allophone, Alphabetical order, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Americas, Analytic language, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andorra, Angola, Angolar Creole, Antillean Creole, Aosta Valley, Apennine Mountains, Apocope, Appendix Probi, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Aragon, Aragonese language, Areal feature, Aromanian language, Aromanians, Article (grammar), Aspirated consonant, Astur-Leonese languages, Asturian language, Augmentative, Australia, Autonomous communities of Spain, Balearic Islands, Balkan sprachbund, Balkans, Barbarian, Bari dialect, Basilicata, ..., Basque language, Belize, Bilabial consonant, Bolognese dialect, Branching (linguistics), Brasiguayos, Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese, Brithenig, British Latin, Budjak, Bug River, Bukovina, Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian language, Campaign history of the Roman military, Campidanese dialect, Cape Verde, Cape Verdean Creole, Cardinal direction, Caribbean, Carolingian minuscule, Castile and León, Catalan language, Catalan personal pronouns, Catalonia, Cedilla, Celtic languages, Central America, Central Italian, Charlemagne, Chavacano, Chivalric romance, Cicero, Circumflex, Clade, Classical Latin, Clitic, Clitic doubling, Close front rounded vowel, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cognate, Colonial empire, Comparison (grammar), Conditional mood, Conservative (language), Consonant cluster, Continental Celtic languages, Continuous and progressive aspects, Contraction (grammar), Copula (linguistics), Corsican language, Council of Tours, Courtly love, Creole language, Cuba, Culture of ancient Rome, Dalmatian language, Dante Alighieri, Dark Ages (historiography), Dative case, Declension, Defenestration, Dekasegi, Demonstrative, Dental consonant, Deponent verb, Determiner, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Diminutive, Diphthong, Disjunctive pronoun, Dniester, Dominican Creole French, Dominican Republic, Doublet (linguistics), Dual (grammatical number), Early Middle Ages, East Timor, Eastern Lombard dialect, Eastern Romance languages, Elision, Elision (French), Emilian dialect, Emilian-Romagnol language, English language, Epenthesis, Equatorial Guinea, Ergative–absolutive language, Eritrea, Esperanto, Ethnologue, Etymology, Europe, European Portuguese, European Union, Extremaduran language, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fascism, First language, Flap consonant, Florence, Forro Creole, Franco-Provençal language, Francophonie, Free indirect speech, French colonial empire, French language, French West Indies, French-based creole languages, Frequentative, Fricative consonant, Friulian language, Front rounded vowel, Fusional language, Future perfect, Future tense, Galicia (Spain), Galician language, Galician-Portuguese, Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Romance languages, Gallurese dialect, Gascon language, Gaul, Gemination, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic umlaut, Gerundive, Giacomo da Lentini, Giuseppe Peano, Glottal consonant, Gorals, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grammaticalization, Grave accent, Greater Romania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Creole, Guttural R, Haiti, Haitian Creole, Hebrew alphabet, Hellenism (neoclassicism), Henri Wittmann, Hiatus (linguistics), Hindi, Hispania, Hispanophone, Homonym, Homophone, Homophony, Huns, Hutsuls, Iberian Romance languages, Icelandic language, Idiom Neutral, Imperfect, Imperfective aspect, Impersonal passive voice, Indefinite pronoun, Indirect speech, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Inflection, Interdental consonant, Interlingua, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interrogative, Iotation, Irish language, Isogloss, Israel, Istriot language, Istro-Romanian language, Italian language, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Italo-Dalmatian languages, Italo-Western languages, Italy, Japanese Brazilians, Japanese language, Jèrriais, Jerome, Jews, Jireček Line, Judaeo-Spanish, Keszthely culture, Kristang language, La Franja, La Spezia–Rimini Line, Labial consonant, Labiodental consonant, Ladin language, Language death, Languages of Europe, Languages of Iberia, Languages of Italy, Languedocien dialect, Langues d'oïl, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin grammar, Latin peoples, Latin Union, Latin-script alphabet, Latinism, Latino sine flexione, Latins, Legacy of the Roman Empire, Lenition, Leonese dialect, Letter case, Lexical similarity, Lexicon, Liaison (French), Libya, Ligurian (Romance language), Lingua franca, Lingua Franca Nova, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an official language, Lists of languages by number of speakers, Locative adverb, Logudorese dialect, Lombard language, Lombardic language, Louisiana Creole, Lusophone, Macanese Patois, Macau, Madagascar, Maghreb, Magoua dialect, Marche, Mass noun, Mauritian Creole, Mauritius, Medieval Latin, Medieval literature, Mediterranean Sea, Megleno-Romanian language, Merchant, Metaphony, Metre (poetry), Mexico, Middle English, Middle English creole hypothesis, Migration Period, Mirandese language, Mixed language, Moldova, Moldovan language, Monophthong, Morlachs, Morphology (linguistics), Moselle Romance, Mozambique, Mozarabic language, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, National language, Nationalencyklopedin, Neapolitan language, Near-close vowel, New Brunswick, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, Nonfinite verb, Norman language, North America, Null-subject language, Oaths of Strasbourg, Object pronoun, Oblique case, Occidental language, Occitan language, Occitano-Romance languages, Oceania, Official language, Old English, Old French, Old Occitan, Old Spanish language, Oltenia, Onomatopoeia, Ontario, Open-mid vowel, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palatal nasal, Palatalization (sound change), Palenquero, Papiamento, Parable, Penult, Perfect (grammar), Periphrasis, Personal pronoun, Phoneme, Phonology, Picard language, Pidgin, Piedmontese language, Pitch-accent language, Placiti Cassinesi, Pluperfect, Polish language, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese language, Portuguese language in Africa, Portuguese language in Asia, Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990, Portuguese-based creole languages, Possessive, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Present perfect, Present tense, Preterite, Printing press, Pro-drop language, Prosthesis, Proto-Romanian language, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Puerto Rico, Pyrenees, Quebec, Quill, Réunion, Réunion Creole, Red Book of Endangered Languages, Reduced relative clause, Reflexive pronoun, Reichenau Glosses, Relative pronoun, Renaissance, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Rhotic consonant, Romagnol dialect, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman Italy, Romance copula, Romance novel, Romance studies, Romance verbs, Romance-speaking world, Romanche, Romanesco dialect, Romania, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian language, Romansh language, Saint Lucian Creole French, Sanskrit, Sardinia, Sardinian language, Sardinian people, Sassarese language, São Tomé and Príncipe, Schwa, Scrambling (linguistics), Semantic change, Semivowel, Sentence (linguistics), Separatism, Sequence of Saint Eulalia, Servigliano, Seychelles, Seychellois Creole, Sibilant, Sicilian language, Silent letter, Slavic languages, Slavs, Sociolect, Soldier, Somalia, Sound change, South America, Southeast Asia, Southeast Europe, Southern Italy, Southern Romance languages, Soviet Union, Spain, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish-based creole languages, Split ergativity, Standard language, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Stress (linguistics), Subject pronoun, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Sursilvan dialects (Romansh), Syllable, Syllable weight, Syntactic gemination, Synthetic language, Talossa, T–V distinction, The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Tilde, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Turkish language, Tuscan dialect, United Nations, United States of Latin Africa, Uruguayan Portuguese, Uvular consonant, V2 word order, Valencian, Valencian Community, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Venetian language, Verb, Vernacular, Vlachs, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voiced bilabial fricative, Voiced palatal fricative, Voiced palatal stop, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex stop, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless pharyngeal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Volapük, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, Vulgate, Walloon language, Welsh language, Wenedyk, Western Europe, Western Lombard dialect, Western Roman Empire, Western Romance languages, World War II. 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The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.
African Romance or African Latin is an extinct Romance language that is assumed to have been spoken in the Roman province of Africa by the Roman Africans during the later Roman and early Byzantine Empires and several centuries after the annexation of the region by the Umayyad Caliphate in 696.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
Aljamiado (عَجَمِيَة trans. ''ʿajamiyah'') or Aljamía texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially Romance languages such as Mozarabic, Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino, and Bosnian with its Arebica script.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Angolar Creole, also Ngola (Lungua N'golá), is a minority language of São Tomé and Príncipe, spoken in the southernmost towns of São Tomé Island and sparsely along the coast.
Antillean Creole is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles.
The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
In phonology, apocope is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
The Appendix Probi ("Probus' Appendix") is a palimpsest appended to the Instituta Artium, a work written in the third or fourth century AD.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
The Aromanians (Rrãmãnj, Armãnj; Aromâni) are a Latin European ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece, central and southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and south-western Bulgaria.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
An augmentative (abbreviated) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Bari dialect (dialetto barese) is a dialect of Neapolitan spoken in the Apulia and Basilicata regions of Italy.
Basilicata, also known with its ancient name Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia (Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria to the south.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bolognese (in Bolognese: bulgnaiś) is a dialect of the Emiliano language, spoken in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and along the border of Tuscany to the south.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
Brasiguaio (Portuguese) or brasiguayo (Spanish) is a term referring to Brazilian migrants in Paraguay and their descendants.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Brithenig is an invented language, or constructed language ("conlang").
British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods.
Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was closely entwined with its military history.
Campidanese Sardinian (Sardu Campidanesu, Sardo Campidanese) is a standardised variety of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari, Italy.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Cape Verdean Creole (also known as Kabuverdianu) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
This article discusses the forms and functions of the personal pronouns in Catalan grammar.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Central Italian (italiano centrale or mediano) is a group of Italo-Dalmatian Romance lects spoken in central Italy in Lazio, Umbria, central Marche, the far south of Tuscany, and a small part of Abruzzo.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Chavacano or Chabacano refers to a number of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
In linguistics, clitic doubling, or pronominal reduplication is a phenomenon by which clitic pronouns appear in verb phrases together with the full noun phrases that they refer to (as opposed to the cases where such pronouns and full noun phrases are in complementary distribution).
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
In the medieval Roman Catholic church there were several Councils of Tours, that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered fairly centrally located in France.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
Defenestration is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window.
Dekasegi (decassegui, decasségui) is a term used in Brazil to refer to people, primarily Japanese Brazilians, who have migrated to Japan, having taken advantage of Japanese citizenship or nisei visa and immigration laws to escape economic instability in Brazil.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In linguistics, a deponent verb is a verb that is active in meaning but takes its form from a different voice, most commonly the middle or passive.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
A disjunctive pronoun is a stressed form of a personal pronoun reserved for use in isolation or in certain syntactic contexts.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
In etymology, two or more words in the same language are called doublets or etymological twins (or possibly triplets, etc.) when they have different phonological forms but the same etymological root.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.
The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Eastern Europe (specifically in the Balkans) from the local variant of Vulgar Latin.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
In French, elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel (usually) immediately before another word beginning with a vowel.
Emilian is a group of dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the area historically called Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region in Italy.
Emilian-Romagnol (emiliân-rumagnōl or langua emiglièna-rumagnôla), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is a Gallo-Italic language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extremaduran (autonym: estremeñu, represents a variable vowel -->) is a Romance linguistic variety, spoken by several hundred thousand people in Spain, in an area covering the north-western part of the autonomous community of Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Forro Creole, Sãotomense or Santomense, is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French.
Free indirect speech is a style of third-person narration which uses some of the characteristics of third-person along with the essence of first-person direct speech; it is also referred to as free indirect discourse, free indirect style, or, in French, discours indirect libre.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
In grammar, a frequentative form (abbreviated or) of a word is one that indicates repeated action, but is not to be confused with iterative aspect.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.
A front rounded vowel is a particular type of vowel that is both front and rounded.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future, such as will have finished in the English sentence "I will have finished by tomorrow." It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance lect spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In Latin grammar, a gerundive is a verb form that functions as a verbal adjective.
Giacomo da Lentini, also known as Jacopo (il) Notaro, was an Italian poet of the 13th century.
Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Gorals (Górale; Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are an ethnographic (or ethnic) group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic (Silesian Gorals).
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Guinea-Bissau Creole (native name kriol, kiriol, kriolu and Portuguis varying with dialects; crioulo da Guiné in Portuguese) is the lingua franca of Guinea Bissau.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Neoclassical Hellenism is a term introduced primarily during the European Romantic era by Johann Joachim Winckelmann.
Henri Wittmann (born 1937) is a Canadian linguist from Quebec.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hutsuls (гуцули, hutsuly; Hucuł, plural Huculi, Hucułowie; huțul, plural huțuli) is an ethno-cultural group of Ukrainians,Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Richard T.Schaefer (ed.), 2008, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, p. 1341.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Idiom Neutral is an international auxiliary language, published in 1902 by the International Academy of the Universal Language (Akademi Internasional de Lingu Universal) under the leadership of Waldemar Rosenberger, a St. Petersburg engineer.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
The impersonal voice, sometimes called pseudo-passive voice, is a verb voice that decreases the valency of an intransitive verb (which has valency one) to zero.
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istriot is a Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan.
The Istro-Romanian language (Istro-Romanian: Rumârește) is an Eastern Romance language, spoken in a few villages and hamlets in the peninsula of Istria in Croatia, as well as in diaspora, most notably in Italy, Sweden, Germany, Northern and Southern America, and Australia.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).
Italo-Western is, in some classifications, the largest branch of the Romance languages.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
are Brazilian citizens who are nationals or naturals of Japanese ancestry, or Japanese immigrants living in Brazil.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jireček Line is a conceptual boundary through the ancient Balkans that divides the influence of the Latin (in the north) and Greek (in the south) languages in the Roman Empire from Antiquity until the 4th century.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Keszthely culture was created ca.
Papia Kristang ("speak kristang"), or just Kristang, is a creole language.
La Franja ("The Strip") is the area of Catalan-speaking territories of Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain.
The La Spezia–Rimini Line (also known as the Massa–Senigallia Line), in the linguistics of the Romance languages, is a line that demarcates a number of important isoglosses that distinguish Romance languages south and east of the line from Romance languages north and west of it.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
Languedocien (French name) or Lengadocian (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken in rural parts of southern France such as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.
The Latin Union was an international organization of nations that used Romance languages that existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012.
A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses letters of the Latin script.
A Latinism (rarely also known as a Latinity) is an word, idiom, or structure a language other than Latin that is derived from, or suggestive of, the Latin language.
Latino sine flexione ("Latin without inflections"), Interlingua de Academia pro Interlingua (IL de ApI) or Peano’s Interlingua (abbreviated as IL), is an international auxiliary language compiled by the Academia pro Interlingua under chairmanship of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) in 1887-1914.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
The legacy of the Roman Empire includes the set of cultural values, religious beliefs, technological advancements, engineering and language.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lingua Franca Nova (abbreviated as LFN or Elefen) is an auxiliary constructed language originally created by C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.
There are two lists of languages which are sorted by number of speakers.
A locative adverb is a type of adverb that refers to a location or to a combination of a location and a relation to that location.
Logudorese Sardinian (Sardu Logudoresu, Sardo Logudorese) is a standardised variety of Sardinian, often considered the most conservative of all Romance languages.
Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.
Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic people who settled in Italy in the 6th century.
Louisiana Creole (kréyol la lwizyàn; créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by far fewer than 10,000 people, mostly in the state of Louisiana.
Lusophones (lusófonos) are people who speak the Portuguese language, either as native speakers or as learners.
Macanese Patois (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a Portuguese-based creole language with a substrate from Malay, Cantonese and Sinhalese, which was originally spoken by the Macanese community of the Portuguese colony of Macau.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Magoua, which may derive from a word in an Algonquian language (Makwa; Algonquin: Magwish; Mi'kmaq: Gwimu; huard) which means loon, is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the Trois-Rivières area, between Trois-Rivières and Maskinongé.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
Mauritian Creole or Morisien (Mauritian Creole: kreol morisien, pronunciation: /kʁeol moʁisjɛ̃, -iʃɛ̃/) is a French-based creole language spoken in Mauritius.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Megleno-Romanian language (Megleno-Romanian: Vlăheshte), also known as Meglenitic or Moglenitic, is an Eastern Romance language.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
In historical linguistics, metaphony is a class of sound change in which one vowel in a word is influenced by another in a process of assimilation.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Middle English creole hypothesis is the concept that the English language is a creole, i.e. a language that developed from a pidgin.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is an Astur-Leonese language that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Morlachs (Morlaci, Vlaji, Морлаци) has been an exonym used for a rural Christian community in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Lika and the Dalmatian Hinterland.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Moselle Romance is an extinct Romance language that developed after the fall of the Roman Empire along the Moselle river in modern-day Germany, near the border with France.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.
A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
In linguistics, an object pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used typically as a grammatical object: the direct or indirect object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan language, the Catalan language, and the Aragonese language.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
Oltenia (also called Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions, with the alternate Latin names Wallachia Minor, Wallachia Alutana, Wallachia Caesarea between 1718 and 1739) is a historical province and geographical region of Romania in western Wallachia.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Palenquero or palenque (Palenquero: Lengua) is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in Colombia.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
Penult is a linguistics term for the second to last syllable of a word.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The Placiti Cassinesi are four official juridical documents written between 960 and 963 in southern Italy, regarding a dispute on several lands among three Benedictine monasteries and a local landowner.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
The Portuguese language is spoken in Asia by small communities either in regions which formerly served as colonies to Portugal, notably Macau and East Timor where the language is official albeit not widely spoken, or of Lusophone immigrants, notably the Brazilians in Japan.
The Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) is an international treaty whose purpose is to create a unified orthography for the Portuguese language, to be used by all the countries that have Portuguese as their official language.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and perfect aspect that is used to express a past event that has present consequences.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Proto-Romanian (also known as "Common Romanian", româna comună or "Ancient Romanian", străromâna, Balkan Latin) is a hypothetical and unattested Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples (Vlachs) before 900 (7th–11th century AD).
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
A quill pen is a writing implement made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Réunion Creole, or Reunionese Creole (kréol rénioné; créole réunionnais), is a French-based creole language spoken on Réunion.
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that.
In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.
The Reichenau Glosses were compiled in the 8th century in Picardy to help local monks understand archaic terms in the Vulgate, which had been written over three centuries prior.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Romagnol (also known as Rumagnol) is a group of closely related dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the historical region of Romagna, which is today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
A copula is a word that links the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement).
Although the genre is very old, the romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market version.
Romance studies is an academic discipline that covers the study of the languages, literatures, and cultures of areas that speak a Romance language.
Romance verbs refers to the verbs of the Romance languages.
The Romance-speaking world, romanophone, neolatin world, or Latin-speaking world, is the part of the world where Romance languages (those derived from Latin) are either official, co-official, or significantly used, comprising Latin America, Latin Europe, Romance-speaking Africa and Romance-speaking Asia.
The Romanche is a long mountain river in southeastern France, right tributary of the Drac (itself a tributary of the Isère).
Romanesco is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Saint Lucian Creole French, known locally as Patwá, is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Saint Lucia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; Gallurese: Saldi; Ligurian: Sordi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.
Sassarese (Sassaresu or Turritanu) is an Italo-Dalmatian language and transitional variety between Corsican and Sardinian.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order.
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
The Sequence of Saint Eulalia, also known as the Canticle of Saint Eulalia (Séquence/Cantilène de sainte Eulalie) is the earliest surviving piece of French hagiography and one of the earliest extant texts in the vernacular langues d'oïl (Old French).
Servigliano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Fermo in the Italian region Marche, located about south of Ancona and about north of Ascoli Piceno.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Seychellois Creole, also known as kreol or seselwa, is the French-based creole language of the Seychelles.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
The Southern Romance languages make up a sub-group of the family of Romance languages suggested by Ethnologue and Glottolog, but with little support among other linguists.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The different varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Americas are distinct from Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
A Spanish creole, or Spanish-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which Spanish serves as its substantial lexifier.
Split ergativity is a term used by comparative linguists to refer to languages where some constructions use ergative syntax and morphology, but other constructions show another pattern, usually nominative-accusative.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistics, a subject pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a verb.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sursilvan (or romontsch sursilvan) is a group of dialects of the Romansh language spoken in the Swiss district of Surselva.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.
Syntactic gemination, or syntactic doubling, is an external sandhi phenomenon in Italian, Finnish and some Western Romance languages.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Talossa, officially the Kingdom of Talossa (Regipäts Talossan), is one of the earliest micronations — founded in 1979 by then 14-year-old Robert Ben Madison of Milwaukee and at first confined to his bedroom; he adopted the name after discovering that the word means "inside the house" in Finnish.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is an etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of Latin Africa (French: Les États-Unis de l'Afrique Latine, Portuguese: Estados Unidos da África Latina, Spanish: Estados Unidos de África Latina) was the proposed union of Romance-language-speaking Central African countries envisioned by Barthélémy Boganda.
Uruguayan Portuguese (português uruguaio), also known as fronteiriço and portunhol riverense, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal stop, or voiced palatal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound in some vocal languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
Volapük (in English; in Volapük) is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Wenedyk (Venedic) is a naturalistic constructed language, created by the Dutch translator Jan van Steenbergen (who also co-created the international auxiliary language Interslavic).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western Lombard is one of the main varieties of Lombard, a Romance language spoken in Italy.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Continental Romance languages, Eastern and Southern Romance languages, Eastern and Southern languages, ISO 639:roa, Languages derived from Latin, Latin languages, Latin tongues, Latinate language, Latinate languages, Latino Asian, List of Asturo-Leonese languages, List of Castilian languages, List of Eastern Romance languages, List of Gallo-Iberian languages, List of Gallo-Italian languages, List of Gallo-Rhaetian languages, List of Gallo-Romance languages, List of Ibero-Romance languages, List of Italo-Dalmatian languages, List of Italo-Western Romance languages, List of Oc languages, List of Portuguese-Galician languages, List of Pyrenean-Mozarabic languages, List of Rhaetian languages, List of Romance languages, List of Sardinian languages, List of Southern Romance languages, List of West Iberian languages, Neo Latin languages, Neo-Latin languages, Neo-Romance, Neo-Romance languages, Neo-Romanic languages, Neo-romance languages, Neolatin languages, Neolatine language, New Latin languages, Other Romance language, Romance Language, Romance Languages, Romance dialect, Romance language, Romance tongues, Romance-language, Romance-speaking, RomanceLanguages, Romanic, Romanic language, Romanic languages, Romantic Language, Romantic Languages, Romantic languages, Romlang.