170 relations: Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Agia Varvara, Albania, Alveolar consonant, Anatolia, Angloromani language, Approximant consonant, Armenia, Armenian language, August Pott, Austria, Šuto Orizari Municipality, Back vowel, Balkan Romani, Balkan sprachbund, Baltic Romani, Baltic states, Basque Country (greater region), Bohemian Romani, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Isles, Bulgaria, Caló language, Calvinism, Carpathian Romani, Carpathian Ruthenia, Central vowel, Central Zone (Hindi), Chandigarh, Chav, Christian Jakob Kraus, Clause, Clitic, Close vowel, Colombia, Comitative case, Constitution of Kosovo, Cyrillic script, Declension, Demonym, Domari language, English language, Erromintxela language, Ethnologue, Europe, European Union, Finland, Finnish Kalo language, Franc Miklošič, ..., France, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Germany, Gheorghe Sarău, Glottal consonant, Government of Ukraine, Grammatical gender, Great Britain, Greek language, Győr, Hindi, Hindustani language, Hungarian language, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Iranian languages, Isogloss, Kalderash Romani language, Kashmiri language, Königsberg, Korçë, Kosovo, Kurdish languages, Labial consonant, Laiuse Romani language, Lambadi, Language contact, Languages of Europe, Languages of the Balkans, Lexical aspect, Lexical item, Linguistic prescription, Lomavren language, Lotegorisch, Marwari language, Medieval Greek, Mid vowel, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Mixed language, Mongol invasion of Europe, Muslim Roma, Nasal consonant, Neologism, Netherlands, Nominative case, Northern Europe, Northern Romani dialects, Norway, Open vowel, Palatal consonant, Para-Romani, Peaky Blinders (TV series), Persian language, Persian wine, Pluperfect, Podgorica, Poland, Portugal, Postalveolar consonant, Prakrit, Pristina, Ralph Lilley Turner, Relativizer, Republic of Macedonia, Rhotic consonant, Roman language, Romang language, Romani alphabets, Romani language standardization, Romani people, Romani people in Romania, Romania, Romanian language, Romano-Greek language, Romano-Serbian language, Romansh language, Sanskrit, Satu Mare, Scandinavia, Scandoromani language, Scotland, Scottish Cant, Serbia, Shina language, SIL International, Sinhalese language, Sinte Romani, Slavery in Romania, Slavic studies, Slovak language, Slovakia, Sound change, Southeast Europe, Soviet Union, Spain, Sri Lanka, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Sweden, Tatar language, Tirana, Transylvania, Ukraine, United Kingdom, University of Manchester, Valency (linguistics), Velar consonant, Verb–subject–object, Victor Friedman, Vlachs, Vlax Romani language, VO language, Welsh-Romani language, Yugoslavia, Zargari Romani. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agia Varvara (Αγία Βαρβάρα, meaning Saint Barbara) is a suburb in the western part of Athens, Greece.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Angloromani or Anglo-Romani (literally "English Romani"; also known as Angloromany, Rummaness, or Pogadi Chib) is a language combining aspects of English and Romani, which is a language spoken by the Romani people, an ethnic group who trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
August Friedrich Pott (14 November 1802, Nettelrede, Hanover5 July 1887, Halle) was a German pioneer in linguistics.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Šuto Orizari (Шуто Оризари; Romani: Shuto Orizari; Shutkë), often shortened as Šutka (Шутка), is one of the ten municipalities that make up the City of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Balkan Romani is a specific dialect, spoken by groups within the Balkans, which include countries such as Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia, etc.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
Baltic Romani is group of dialects of the Romani language spoken in the Baltic states and adjoining regions of Poland and Russia.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
Bohemian Romani or Bohemian Romany is a dialect of Romani (a European Indo-Aryan language) formerly spoken by the Romani people of Bohemia, the western part of today's Czech Republic.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Caló is a language spoken by the Spanish and Portuguese Romani.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carpathian Romani, also known as Central Romani or Romungro Romani, is a group of dialects of the Romani language spoken from southern Poland to Hungary, and from eastern Austria to Ukraine.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chav (charver in parts of Northern England) is a pejorative epithet used in Britain to describe a particular stereotype of anti-social youth dressed in sportswear.
Christian Jakob Kraus (27 July 1753 – 25 August 1807) was a German comparative and historical linguist.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
The Constitution of Kosovo (Kushtetuta e Kosovës, Устав Косовa, Ustav Kosova), refers to the supreme law (article 16) of the Republic of Kosovo.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Domari is an endangered Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Erromintxela is the distinctive language of a group of Romani living in the Basque Country, who also go by the name Erromintxela.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish Kalo (Fíntika Rómma) is a language of the Romani language family (a subgroup of Indo-European) spoken by Finnish Kale.
Franc Miklošič (also known in German as Franz Xaver Ritter von Miklosich) (20 November 1813 – 7 March 1891) was a Slovene philologist.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gheorghe Sarău (born 21 April 1956, Segarcea-Vale, Teleorman County, Romania) is a Romanian linguist specialized in the Romani language.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Győr (Raab, Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Kalderash Romani is a group of Vlax dialects spoken by the Kalderash Romani, mainly in Romania.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Laiuse Romani was a Romani variety spoken in Estonia.
Lambani or Goar-boali, also called Banjari, is a language spoken by the once nomadic Banjara people across India and it belongs to Indo-Aryan group of languages.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
The lexical aspect or aktionsart (plural aktionsarten) of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb is structured in relation to time.
In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Lomavren (Լոմավրեն) is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari and the Armenian language.
Lotegorisch or Lottegorisch (older own description: lochne kodesch, from the laschon.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
Muslim Roma or Muslim Gypsies are Romani people who adopted Islam.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Romani is group of dialects of the Romani language spoken in various Northern European, Central European and Eastern European countries.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Para-Romani are various mixed languages of non-Indo-Aryan linguistic classification containing considerable admixture from the Romani language.
Peaky Blinders is a British television crime drama set in 1920s Birmingham, England in the aftermath of World War I. The series, which was created by Steven Knight and produced by Caryn Mandabach Productions, Screen Yorkshire and Tiger Aspect Productions, follows the exploits of the Shelby crime family.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian wine, also called Mey (fa) and Badeh (fa), is a cultural symbol and tradition in Iran (Persia), and has a significant presence in Persian mythology, Persian poetry and Persian miniatures.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица,, lit. " below Gorica ") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Sir Ralph Lilley Turner MC (5 October 1888 – 22 April 1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator.
In linguistics, a relativizer (abbreviated) is a type of conjunction that introduces a relative clause.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Roman language may refer to.
Roma or Romang is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by about 1,700 people (in 1991) in Jersusu village on Romang island in Maluku, Indonesia.
The Romani language has for most of its history been an entirely oral language, with no written form in common use.
There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the Romani language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, the United States and Sweden.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romani people (Roma in Romani; Țigani in Romanian) in Romania, Gypsy, constitute one of the country's largest minorities.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romano-Greek (also referred to as Hellenoromani; Ελληνο-ρομανική) is a nearly extinct mixed language (referred to as Para-Romani in Romani linguistics), spoken by the Romani people in Greece that arose from language contact between Romani speaking people and the Greek language.
The Romano-Serbian language is a mixed language (referred to as a Para-Romani variety in Romani linguistics) resulting from language contact between Serbian and Romani in Serbia and former Yugoslav countries and distinct from the Vlax Romani dialects spoken in Serbia.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti; Sathmar; סאטמאר or סאַטמער) is a city with a population of 102,400 (2011) and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish Cant (often simply Cant) is a cant spoken in Scotland by Lowland Scottish Travellers/Gypsies.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Sinte Romani (also known as Sintenghero Tschib(en), Sintitikes or Romanes) is the variety of Romani spoken by the Sinti people in Germany, France, Austria, some parts of northern Italy and other adjacent regions.
Slavery (robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s, and also until 1783, in Transylvania and Bukovina (parts of the Habsburg Monarchy).
Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
In linguistics, verb valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
Victor A. Friedman (born October 18, 1949) is an American linguist.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language.
In linguistics, a VO language is a language in which the verb typically comes before the object, about 53% of documented languages.
Welsh Romani (or Welsh Romany; sometimes also known as Kååle) is a variety of the Romani language which was spoken fluently in Wales until at least 1950.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zargari (or Romano) is a dialect of Balkan Romany, spoken in Zargar region (Abyek district) of the Qazvin Province of in Iran by the ethnic Zargari.
Gipsy language, ISO 639:rom, List of Romani languages, Roma language, Romani languages, Romani sib, Romani šib, Romany language, Romika, Rromanes, Rromani language, Rromany language, Sintenghero Tschib.