483 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Abolitionism, Agglutination, Albania, Albanians, Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, Amnesty International, Anatolia, Ancient Rome, Angloromani language, Anti-Romanyism, Apuseni Mountains, Arabic, As You Like It, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Athinganoi, August von Pettenkofen, Austria, Azis, Bahram V, Balkan Romani, Balkans, Balochistan, Baptist Union of Romania, Beirut (band), Belgrade, Bengali language, Biréli Lagrène, Black Cat, White Cat, Blacksmith, Bladesmith, Boban Marković, Bohemia, Bohemian Romani, Bolero, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Boyash, Brass band, Brazil, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Bride price, Brno, Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Cain and Abel, Caló language, Calque, Cante jondo, Carmen, ..., Carmen (novella), Carpathian Mountains, Carpathian Romani, Caste system in India, Catalan language, Catalonia, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Romania, Cümbüş, Ceferino Giménez Malla, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Central Europe, Central European University, Central Zone (Hindi), Charles II of Spain, Charles III of Spain, Charter 77, Child marriage, Christ Child, Christianity, Civil society, Clarinet, Corfu, Corriere della Sera, Council of Europe, Cremation, Crete, Croats, Cultural framework, Cultural turn, Czech language, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Danish language, Danube, Danubian Principalities, Darko Rundek, Death of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic, Decade of Roma Inclusion, Demographic history of Romania, Demonym, Denmark, Deportation of Roma migrants from France, Dialect, Django Reinhardt, Dobruja, Dom people, Domari language, Domba, Duke University, Dutch language, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Orthodox Church, Egypt, Egyptians Act 1530, Einsatzgruppen, Elizabeth (biblical figure), Emir Kusturica, Encyclopaedia of Islam, English language, Environmental inequality in Europe, Epidemic, Esmeralda (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame), Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnonym, Europe, Europe: A History, European Commission, European Journal of Human Genetics, European Roma Rights Centre, European Union, Exonym and endonym, Extended family, Extermination camp, Ștefan Răzvan, Fanfare Ciocărlia, Feudum Acinganorum, Fief, Finnish Kale, First Brazilian Republic, Flag of the Romani people, Flamenco, Flower seller, Fortune-telling, Foundation of Wallachia, Founder effect, Franc Miklošič, France, Franciscans, Franco-Dutch War, Franz Liszt, French language, Gadjo (non-Romani), Genocide, Georges Bizet, Georgian language, German language, German Law Journal, Germany, Giorgione, Goblet drum, Gogol Bordello, Goldsmith, Google Books, Goran Bregović, Government of India, Grammatical case, Great Gypsy Round-up, Greece, Greek language, György Cziffra, Gypsies Are Found Near Heaven, Gypsy jazz, Gypsy Lore Society, Habsburg Monarchy, Haplogroup E-M96, Haplogroup E-V68, Haplogroup G-M201, Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), Haplogroup I-M170, Haplogroup I-M253, Haplogroup I-M438, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup R (Y-DNA), Haplogroup R1a, Haplogroup R1b, Haryana, Headword, Heidelberg, Henry Liddell, Heraklion, Hergé, Hermitage Museum, Hindi, Hindu, Hinduism, Hindustani language, Holy Family, Homonym, Homophony, Human body, Human rights, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Hungarians in Slovakia, Hungary, Ian Hancock, Iberian Peninsula, Il Giornale, Independent State of Croatia, India, Indian people, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, Internally displaced person, International Romani Day, International Romani Union, Internment, Iran, Islam, Islam in Romania, Islam in the Republic of Macedonia, Italian language, Italy, Itinerant groups in Europe, Ivo Papazov, Jasenovac concentration camp, Jazz, Jimmy Rosenberg, Johannes Brahms, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Juscelino Kubitschek, Kalderash, Kale (Welsh Romanies), Kali, Kashmiri language, King of the Gypsies, Kingdom of England, Knowledge, Kosovo, Kosovo War, Kris (Romani court), La Croix, Language, Latcho Drom, Latin, Lăutari, Lemma (morphology), Letters patent, List of classical music composers by era, List of ethnic slurs, List of Romani people, List of Romani settlements, List of rulers of Moldavia, List of territorial entities where German is an official language, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Lom people, Louisiana (New France), Lovari, Lucerne, Ludolph of Saxony, Lyuli, Macedonia (Greece), Mahmud of Ghazni, Manele, Margravate of Meissen, Maria Theresa, Marwari language, Mary, mother of Jesus, MENA, Mendelian traits in humans, Menstruation, Middle English, Miguel de Cervantes, Milan, Minister of External Affairs (India), Minister of the Interior (France), Minority language, Mixed language, Moldavia, Moldova, Moldovan language, Monarchy of Spain, Mongol invasion of Europe, Mongols, Montenegro, Moravia, Multilingualism, Muslim, Muslim Roma, National Institute of Statistics (Romania), Nature (journal), Nawar (people), Nazi Germany, Nazism, Netherlands, News bureau, Nicolae Iorga, Nomadic tribes in India, Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin, North India, Northern Italy, Norway, Norwegian and Swedish Travellers, Norwegian language, Nuremberg Laws, Old Church Slavonic, Old High German, Online Etymology Dictionary, Orthodoxy, Oskar Schade, Othello, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman wars in Europe, Oxford English Dictionary, Pakistan, Palgrave Macmillan, Para-Romani, Paris Bordone, Paulus Schäfer, Pejorative, Pentecostal Union of Romania, Pentecostalism, Persian language, Pew Research Center, Phonology, Ploiești, Poland, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese Inquisition, Portuguese language, Prosper Mérimée, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Protestantism, Punjab, Punjabi language, R v Krymowski, Rajasthan, Rajasthani people, Ralph Lilley Turner, Reformed Church in Romania, Renaissance art, Republic of Macedonia, Rights of the Roma in the European Union, Rigveda, Robert Scott (philologist), Romani Americans, Romani contemporary art, Romani diaspora, Romani genocide, Romani language, Romani people, Romani people in France, Romani people in Greece, Romani people in Italy, Romani people in Portugal, Romani people in Romania, Romani people in Slovakia, Romani people in Spain, Romani people in the Czech Republic, Romani people in Turkey, Romani society and culture, Romania, Romanian Greek Catholic Church, Romanian language, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Romanians, Romanichal, Rome, Ruska Roma, Russia, Russian language, Saint Anne, Saint Petersburg, Saint Sarah, Sanskrit, Sasanian Empire, Scandoromani language, Second language, Sedentism, Serbia, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Serbs, Serfdom, Sex organ, Shahnameh, Shaktism, Shantel, Shina language, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Silversmith, Sindh, Sinti, Slavery in medieval Europe, Slavery in Romania, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovaks, Slovenia, Social behavior, Sodom, Shetland, Sofia, South Asia, Southern Europe, Southern France, Soviet Union, Spain, Spanish language, Spitalul de Urgență, Sri Lanka, Statistics Canada, Stochelo Rosenberg, Strasbourg, Sudetenland, Sweden, Swedish language, Symon Semeonis, Taktaharkány, Taraf de Haïdouks, Tarnów, Tatars, Tchavolo Schmitt, Texas, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Castafiore Emerald, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, The Tempest, The World Factbook, Time of the Gypsies, Timeline of Romani history, Tirana, Tiszavasvári, Tokaj, Tony Gatlif, Transylvania, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkish people, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Unfree labour, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United States, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, University of Texas at Austin, Untouchability, Urheimat, Ursari, USA Today, Ustashe, Variety (linguistics), Václav Havel, Velvet Revolution, Venetian language, Venice, Victor Hugo, Vincent van Gogh, Virginia, Virginity, Viviane Reding, Voivode, Vojvodina, Wallachia, Washington Luís, Welsh English, Welsh orthography, Western Asia, William Shakespeare, World Council of Churches, World Romani Congress, World War II, Zdob și Zdub, Zott, 2000 United States Census. 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A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare in 1595/96.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Angloromani or Anglo-Romani (literally "English Romani"; also known as Angloromany, Rummaness, or Pogadi Chib) is a language combining aspects of English and Romani, which is a language spoken by the Romani people, an ethnic group who trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent.
Anti-Romanyism (also Antigypsyism, Antiziganism, Romaphobia or anti-Romani sentiment) is the hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale and Romanichal).
The Apuseni Mountains (Munții Apuseni, Erdélyi-középhegység) is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Romanian Carpathians, also called Occidentali in Romanian.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
As You Like It is a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1599 and first published in the First Folio in 1623.
The Ashkali (also Aškalije, Haškalije, Hashkali) and Balkan Egyptians (Jevgs, Egjiptjant or Gjupci) are Albanian-speaking ethnic cultural minorities (recognized communities) which mainly inhabit Kosovo.
The Athinganoi or Athingani, Ἀθίγγανοι, plural of Athinganos (Ἀθίγγανος), were a 9th-century sect of Monarchians located in Phrygia, founded by Theodotus the banker.
August von Pettenkofen (10 May 182221 March 1889) was an Austrian painter.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Azis (Азис) (born Vasil Troyanov Boyanov; Васил Троянов Боянов) (born 7 March 1978) is a Bulgarian chalga recording artist, of mixed Bulgarian and Roma descent, and is gender non-binary.
Bahram V (𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭 Wahrām, New Persian: بهرام پنجم Bahrām), also known as Bahram Gor (بهرام گور, "onager ") was the fifteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, ruling from 420 to 438.
Balkan Romani is a specific dialect, spoken by groups within the Balkans, which include countries such as Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia, etc.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
The Baptist Union of Romania (Uniunea Baptistă din România) is an alliance of Baptist churches for cooperative ministry in Romania.
Beirut is an American band which was originally the solo musical project of Santa Fe native Zach Condon.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Biréli Lagrène (born 4 September 1966) is a French jazz guitarist.
Black Cat, White Cat (Црна мачка, бели мачор; Crna mačka, beli mačor) is a 1998 Serbian romantic comedy film directed by Emir Kusturica.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Bladesmithing is the art of making knives, swords, daggers and other blades using a forge, hammer, anvil, and other smithing tools.
Boban Marković (Serbian Cyrillic: Бобан Марковић) is a Serbian Romani trumpet player and brass ensemble leader from Vladičin Han.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bohemian Romani or Bohemian Romany is a dialect of Romani (a European Indo-Aryan language) formerly spoken by the Romani people of Bohemia, the western part of today's Czech Republic.
Bolero is a genre of slow-tempo Latin music and its associated dance.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Boyash (or Bayash; Romanian: Băieşi, Hungarian: Beás, Slovak: Bojáš, South Slavic: Bojaši) refers to a Romani ethnic group living in Romania, southern Hungary, northeastern Croatia, western Vojvodina, Slovakia, the Balkans, but also in the Americas.
A brass band is a musical ensemble generally consisting entirely of brass instruments, most often with a percussion section.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
Caló is a language spoken by the Spanish and Portuguese Romani.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cante jondo (Andalusian) is a vocal style in flamenco, an unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music.
Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.
Carmen is a novella by Prosper Mérimée, written and first published in 1845.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Romani, also known as Central Romani or Romungro Romani, is a group of dialects of the Romani language spoken from southern Poland to Hungary, and from eastern Austria to Ukraine.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church (Biserica Catolică din România, Romániai Római Katolikus Egyház, Katholische Kirche in Rumänien) in Romania is a Latin Rite Christian church, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The cümbüş is a Turkish stringed instrument of relatively modern origin.
Ceferino Giménez Malla (also known as El Pelé, "the Strong One", or "the Brave One"; August 26, 1861 – August 8, 1936) was a Spanish Romani, a Roman Catholic catechist and activist for Spanish Romani causes, considered the patron saint of Romani people in Roman Catholicism.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European University (CEU) is a graduate-level, private university accredited in Hungary and the U.S., located in Budapest.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charter 77 (Charta 77 in Czech and in Slovak) was an informal civic initiative in communist Czechoslovakia from 1976 to 1992, named after the document Charter 77 from January 1977.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
The Christ Child, also known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.
The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early 1970s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
Darko Rundek (January 30, 1956) is a Croatian rock singer, songwriter, poet, and actor.
Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic or Ebrehmovich were Italian Roma sisters aged 13 and 11 who drowned in the sea at the public beach at Torregaveta in the Metropolitan City of Naples on 19 July 2008.
The Decade of Roma Inclusion (Deshbersh le Romengo Anderyaripnasko in Romani) was an initiative of 12 European countries to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of the Romani people across the region.
This article presents the demographic history of Romania through census results.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In 2009, France deported 10,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Jean Reinhardt (or; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953) stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani French jazz guitarist, musician and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
The Dom (also called "Doma" and "Domi"; دومي / ALA-LC:, دومري /; هناجره), of the Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, are a Dravidian ethnic group.
Domari is an endangered Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.
The Domba or Dom (Sanskrit ḍoma, dialectally also Domaki, Dombo, Domra, Domaka, Dombar, Dombari and variants) are an ethnic group, or groups, scattered across India.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptians Act 1530 (22 Henry VIII, c. 10) was an Act passed by the Parliament of England in 1531 to expel the "outlandish people calling themselves Egyptians", meaning Gypsies.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Elizabeth, also spelled Elisabeth (Greek Ἐλισάβετ) or Elisheba (from the Hebrew אֱלִישֶׁבַע / אֱלִישָׁבַע "My God has sworn"; Standard Hebrew Elišévaʿ Elišávaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîšéḇaʿ ʾĔlîšāḇaʿ; Arabic أليصابات, Alyassabat), was the mother of John the Baptist and the wife of Zechariah, according to the Gospel of Luke.
Emir Kusturica (Емир Кустурица, born 24 November 1954) is a Serbian filmmaker, actor and musician.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmental racism in Europe has been documented in relation to racialized immigrant and migrant populations alongside Romani (Roma/Gypsy), Yenish, Irish Traveller, and communities (such as the Sami, Komi, and Nenets) from within continental borders.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Esmeralda, born Agnès, is a fictional character in Victor Hugo's 1831 novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (or Notre Dame de Paris).
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Europe: A History is a 1996 narrative history book by Norman Davies.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the European Society of Human Genetics.
The European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) is a Roma-led, international public interest law organisation engaging in a range of activities aimed at combating anti-Romani racism and human rights abuse of Romani.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Ștefan Răzvan (died December 1595) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia (between 24 April 1595 and August 1595) of Romani descent from the historical Romanian state of Wallachia.
Fanfare Ciocârlia is a twelve-piece Romani Balkan brass band from the northeastern Romanian village of Zece Prăjini.
The Feudum Acinganorum was a fiefdom established around 1360 in Corfu (at the time a colony of the Republic of Venice), which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romanies on the island were subservient.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The Finnish Kale (Kàlo; Kalé; Kaale, also Suomen romanit "Finnish Romani") are a group of the Romani people who live primarily in Finland and Sweden.
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha ("Old Republic") is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930.
The Romani flag (O styago le romengo in Romani) is the international flag of the Romani people.
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
A flower seller, normally a woman, traditionally sells flowers on the street.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
The foundation of Wallachia (Descălecatul Țării Românești), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Franc Miklošič (also known in German as Franz Xaver Ritter von Miklosich) (20 November 1813 – 7 March 1891) was a Slovene philologist.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In Romani culture, a gadjo (feminine: gadji) is a person who has no Romanipen.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German Law Journal is a peer-reviewed, online-only open access law journal reporting on the developments in German, European and international jurisprudence.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giorgione (born Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco; c. 1477/78–1510) was an Italian painter of the Venetian school in the High Renaissance from Venice, whose career was ended by his death at a little over 30.
The goblet drum (also chalice drum, tarabuka, tarabaki, darbuka, derbake, debuka, doumbek, dumbec, dumbeg, dumbelek, tablah, toumperleki or zerbaghali, دربوكة / ALA-LC: darbūkah) is a single head membranophone with a goblet shaped body used mostly in the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia, and Eastern Europe.
Gogol Bordello is an American punk band from the Lower East Side of Manhattan, formed in 1999 and known for theatrical stage shows and persistent touring.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Goran Bregović (Горан Бреговић,, born 22 March 1950) is a Bosnian musician.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
The Great Gypsy Round-up (Gran Redada de Gitanos), also known as the general imprisonment of the gypsies (prisión general de gitanos), was a raid authorized and organized by the Spanish Monarchy that led to the arrest of all gypsies (Romani) in the region, and their imprisonment in labor camps.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
György Cziffra (in Hungarian form Cziffra György,, also known as Georges Cziffra and George Cziffra; 5 November 192115 January 1994), was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer.
Gypsies Are Found Near Heaven (Табор уходит в небо, lit. "The gypsy camp goes to heaven"; also known as Queen of the Gypsies) is a 1975 Soviet romantic drama film by Emil Loteanu, loosely based on short stories ("Makar Chudra" and "Old Izergil") by Maxim Gorky.
Gypsy jazz (also known as gypsy swing or hot club jazz) is a style of jazz music generally accepted to have been started by the gypsy guitarist Jean "Django" Reinhardt in and around Paris in the 1930s.
The Gypsy Lore Society was founded in Great Britain in 1888 to unite persons interested in the history and lore of Gypsies and rovers and to establish closer contacts among scholars studying aspects of such cultures.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Haplogroup E-M96 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-V68, also known as E1b1b1a, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup found in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia and Europe.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup I-M253, also known as I1, is a Y chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 (and until 2007 as I1b), is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
A headword, head word, lemma, or sometimes catchword, is the word under which a set of related dictionary or encyclopaedia entries appears.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Henry George Liddell (6 February 1811 – 18 January 1898) was dean (1855–91) of Christ Church, Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–74), headmaster (1846–55) of Westminster School (where a house is now named after him), author of A History of Rome (1855), and co-author (with Robert Scott) of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", which is still widely used by students of Greek.
Heraklion (Ηράκλειο, Irákleio) is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete.
Georges Prosper Remi (22 May 1907 – 3 March 1983), known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian cartoonist.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph.
In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Slovakia.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ian Hancock (Romani: Yanko le Redžosko, born 29 August 1942) is a linguist, Romani scholar and political advocate.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
il Giornale is an Italian language daily newspaper published in Milan, Italy.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (English: National Institute for Oriental Languages and Civilizations) is a French research institution teaching languages that span Central Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Oceania.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Romani Day (April 8) is a day to celebrate Romani culture and raise awareness of the issues facing Romani people.
The International Romani Union (Romano Internacionalno Jekhetanipe) is an organization active for the rights of the Romani people.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Romania is followed by only 0.3 percent of population, but has 700 years of tradition in Northern Dobruja, a region on the Black Sea coast which was part of the Ottoman Empire for almost five centuries (ca. 1420-1878).
Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia represent one-third of the nation's total population, making Islam the second most widely professed religion in the country.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
There are a number of traditionally itinerant or travelling groups in Europe who are known as "travellers" or "gypsies".
Ivo Papazov (or Papasov; Иво Папазов; born 16 February 1952), nicknamed Ibryama (Ибряма), is a Bulgarian clarinetist.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Joseph "Jimmy" Rosenberg (born 10 April 1980, Helmond) is a Dutch Sinto-Romani guitarist known for his virtuoso playing of gypsy jazz.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976), known also by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961.
The Kalderash are a subgroup of the Romani people.
The Kale (also Kalá, Valshanange) are a group of Romani people in Wales.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
The title King of the Gypsies has been claimed or given over the centuries to many different people.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kris (kris) or Kris-Romani is a traditional court for conflict resolution in the culture of Vlax branch of the Romani people.
La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latcho Drom ("safe journey") is a 1993 French documentary film directed and written by Tony Gatlif.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional musicians.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
This is a list of classical music composers by era.
The following is a list of ethnic slurs (ethnophaulisms) that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity, or to refer to them in a derogatory (that is, critical or disrespectful), pejorative (disapproving or contemptuous), or otherwise insulting manner.
This is a list of notable Romani people and people of Romani origin.
This is an incomplete list of settlements with significant (pluraliity or majority) ethnic Roma population.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lom people, also known as Bosha by non-Loms (Բոշա; ბოშა; Боша; Azeri: Poşa) or Armenian Romani University of California, 1908 (армянские цыгане; հայ գնչուներ) or Caucasian Romani (кавказские цыгане), are an ethnic group in historic Armenia.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Lovari ("horse-dealer", from Hungarian "ló", horse) is a subgroup of the Romani people, who speak their own dialect, influenced by Hungarian and West Slavic dialects.
Lucerne (Luzern; Lucerne; Lucerna; Lucerna; Lucerne German: Lozärn) is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country.
Ludolph of Saxony (c. 1295 – 1378), also known as Ludolphus de Saxonia and Ludolph the Carthusian, was a German Roman Catholic theologian of the fourteenth century.
Lyuli (Люли) or Jughi is an ethnic group of Romani living in Central Asia, primarily Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Manele (from Romanian, fem. sg. manea; pl. manele, the plural form being more common) is a music style from Romania.
The Margravate of Meissen (Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
Mendelian traits in humans concerns how, in Mendelian inheritance, a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Minister of External Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India.
The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muslim Roma or Muslim Gypsies are Romani people who adopted Islam.
The National Institute of Statistics (Institutul Naţional de Statistică (INS)) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nawar is an Arabic term for several sedentary communities used primarily in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A news bureau is an office for gathering or distributing news.
Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.
The Nomadic Tribes and Denotified Tribes consist of about 60 million people in India, out of which about five million live in the state of Maharashtra.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian, Finnish & Swedish Travellers (romanifolket, tatere, sigøynere; resande, zigenare, tattare; romanisæl, romanoar, rom(m)ani, tavringer/ar, tattare) are a group or branch of the Romani people who have been resident in Norway, Finland, and Sweden for some 500 years, as distinct from other Romanies who arrived starting in the late 19th century.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Oskar Schade (March 25, 1826 – December 30, 1906) was a German philologist and Germanist born in Erfurt.
Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Para-Romani are various mixed languages of non-Indo-Aryan linguistic classification containing considerable admixture from the Romani language.
Paris Bordon (or Paris Paschalinus Bordone; 5 July 1500 – 19 January 1571) was an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor.
Paulus Schäfer (born 31 March 1978, Gerwen, Nuenen) is a guitarist, composer and arranger who is considered to be one of the most talented gypsy jazz or "jazz manouche" guitar players from the Netherlands.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
The Pentecostal Union of Romania (Uniunea Penticostală din România) is Romania's fourth-largest religious body and one of its eighteen officially recognised religious denominations.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prosper Mérimée (28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was an important French writer in the school of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
R v Krymowski, 2005 SCC 7, 1 SCR 101 was a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada on hate speech against the Roma people, also known as "Gypsies".
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
The Rajasthani people are the native inhabitants of Rajasthan ("the land of kings") region of India.
Sir Ralph Lilley Turner MC (5 October 1888 – 22 April 1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator.
The Reformed Church in Romania (Romániai Református Egyház; Biserica Reformată din România) is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The European Union is committed to upholding Human Rights and sees this as a core and essential part of its role.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Scott (26 January 1811 – 2 December 1887) was a British academic philologist and Church of England priest.
It is estimated that there are one million Romani people in the United States.
Romani contemporary art (often referred to as Roma contemporary art or Gipsy contemporary art) is art created by Romani people.
The Roma people have a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, who reached Anatolia and the Balkans about the early 12th century, from a migration out of northwestern India beginning about 600 years earlier.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romani people in France, generally known in spoken French as "gitans", "tsiganes" or "manouches", are an ethnic group which originated in Northern India.
The Romani people of Greece (Greek: Ρόμα) are called Arlije/Erlides (Greek: Ερλίδη), Tsiganoi (Greek: Τσιγγάνοι) or the more derogatory term Gyftoi (Greek: Γύφτοι), (Gypsies).
The presence of Romanis in Italy dates back to the year 1390.
The Romani people in Portugal are known by non-Romani ethnic Portuguese as ciganos, but are also alternatively known as calés, calós, and boémios.
Romani people (Roma in Romani; Țigani in Romanian) in Romania, Gypsy, constitute one of the country's largest minorities.
According to the last census from 2011, there were 105,738 persons counted as Romani people in Slovakia, or 2.0% of the population.
The Gypsies in Spain, generally known as gitanos, belong to the Iberian Kale group, with smaller populations in Portugal (known as ciganos) and in southern France.
Romani people (Romové, commonly known as Gypsies Cikáni) are an ethnic minority in the Czech Republic, currently Roma making up 2–3% of the population.
The Romani people in Turkey (Türkiye'deki Romanlar) are an ethnic minority.
The Romani people have held onto certain traditions and beliefs over time.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Greek Catholic Church or Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is a sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church, in full union with the Roman Catholic Church.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The Romanian Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists (Uniunea de Conferinţe a Bisericii Adventiste de Ziua a Şaptea din România) is Romania's seventh-largest religious body.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Romanichals, also Romnichals, Rumnichals or Rumneys, are a Romani sub-group in the United Kingdom and other parts of the English-speaking world.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Ruska Roma (Руска́ Рома́), also known as Russian Gypsies (Русские цыгане) or as Xaladitka Roma (i.e. "Roma-Soldiers"), are the largest subgroup of Romani people in Russia and Belarus.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saint Anne, of David's house and line, was the mother of Mary and grandmother of Jesus according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Sarah, also known as Sara-la-Kali ("Sara the Black", Sara e Kali), is the patron saint of the Romani people.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Shaktism (Sanskrit:, lit., "doctrine of energy, power, the Goddess") is a major tradition of Hinduism, wherein the metaphysical reality is considered feminine and the Devi (goddess) is supreme.
Stefan Hantel, better known by his stage name Shantel (born 2 March 1968), is a DJ and producer based in Frankfurt, Germany.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
A silversmith is a craftsman who crafts objects from silver.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing. Sinto; fem. sing. Sintesa) are a Romani people of Central Europe.
Slavery had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom.
Slavery (robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s, and also until 1783, in Transylvania and Bukovina (parts of the Habsburg Monarchy).
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
Sodom (known locally as Sudheim) is a settlement on Whalsay, Shetland.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spitalul de Urgenţă, literally "Emergency Hospital", is a Romanian pop band, integrating elements of traditional Romanian music into a sometimes hard-edged rock sound,, The St.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Stochelo Rosenberg (born 19 February 1968 in Helmond, Netherlands) is a Gypsy jazz guitarist who leads the Rosenberg Trio.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Symon Semeonis (also Simon FitzSimon or Simon FitzSimmons) was a 14th-century Irish Franciscan friar and author.
Taktaharkány is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary.
Taraf de Haïdouks ('Taraful haiducilor', "Taraf of Haiduks") are a Romani-Romanian taraf (a troupe of lăutari, traditional musicians) from Clejani, Romania and one of the most prominent such groups in post-Communist era Romania.
Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tchavolo Schmitt (born 1954 in Paris) is a gypsy jazz guitarist.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Castafiore Emerald (Les Bijoux de la Castafiore) is the twenty-first volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris, "Our Lady of Paris") is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831.
The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–1611, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Time of the Gypsies (Дом за вешање, Dom za vešanje, literally "Home for Hanging") is a 1988 Yugoslav film by Serbian director Emir Kusturica.
The Romani people have long been a part of the collective mythology of the West, where they were (and very often still are) depicted as outsiders, aliens, and a threat.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Tiszavasvári is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Tokaj, is a historical town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 54 kilometers from county capital Miskolc.
Tony Gatlif (born as Michel Dahmani on 10 September 1948 in Algiers) is a French film director of Romani ethnicity who also works as a screenwriter, composer, actor, and producer.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
In historical linguistics, the term homeland (also Urheimat;; from a German compound of ur- "original" and Heimat "home, homeland") denotes the area of origin of the speakers of a proto-language, the (reconstructed or known) parent language of a group of languages assumed to be genetically related.
The Ursari (generally read as "bear leaders" or "bear handlers"; from the Romanian urs, meaning "bear"; singular: ursar; Bulgarian: урсари, ursari) or Richinara are the traditionally nomadic occupational group of animal trainers among the Romani people.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
Viviane Adélaïde Reding (born 27 April 1951) is a Luxembourgish politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Luxembourg.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa (26 October 1869 – 4 August 1957) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 13th President of Brazil, the last of the First Brazilian Republic.
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
The World Romani Congress is a series of forums for discussion of issues relating to Roma people around the world.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zdob și Zdub is a Moldovan band, based in Chișinău.
Zott (singular Zottī) is the Arabic term for gypsies, Romani people and Dom people.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
Calé, Cigan, Cingene, Forced assimilation of Romani people, Gipsies, Gipsy (people), Gyp (slang), Gypsey, Gypsi, Gypsie, Gypsies, Gypsy, Gypsy (people), Gypsy and Egypt, Gypsy food, Gypsy origin, Gypsy people, Gypsys, Iberian Kale, Kalé, Macedonian Romani, Persecution of Gypsies, Persecution of Romani people, Persecution of Romany, Rom (people), Rom people, Roma (Romani subgroup), Roma (ethnonym), Roma (people), Roma Gipsies, Roma Gypsies, Roma People, Roma criminality, Roma gypsies, Roma gypsy, Roma in Central and Eastern Europe, Roma in Eastern Europe, Roma people, Roma people in Central and Eastern Europe, Roma people in the Balkans, Roma/Gypsy, Romani (people), Romani People, Romani community, Romani criminality, Romani folk, Romani in the Balkans, Romani people in Central and Eastern Europe, Romani people in Eastern Europe, Romani people in Montenegro, Romani people in Slovenia, Romani social issues, Romanies, Romanis, Romany folk, Romany gypsy, Romany people, Romastan, Rrom, Rroma, Rroma (people), Rroma people, Rromani people, Sinti and Roma, Szgany, The Gypsies, Tzigan, Tzyhany, Zigan, Çingene.