83 relations: Acute accent, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alternation (linguistics), Apophony, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Bacău, Back vowel, Bilabial clicks, Bilabial consonant, Bilabial trill, Central vowel, Classical Latin, Click consonant, Close back rounded vowel, Close central unrounded vowel, Close front rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Close vowel, Consonant, Dental clicks, Dental consonant, Diphthong, Eastern Romance languages, English language, Fijian language, Finnish language, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, German language, Glottal consonant, Grammaticalization, Grave accent, Hawaiian language, Indo-European languages, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Isochrony, Italian language, Japanese language, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Latin, Mid back rounded vowel, Mid central vowel, Mid front rounded vowel, Mid front unrounded vowel, Mid vowel, ..., Minimal pair, Moldavian dialect, Monophthong, Nasal consonant, Old English, Open central unrounded vowel, Open vowel, Phoneme, Phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Question, Romance languages, Romanian language, Russian language, Secondary stress, Semivowel, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Syllable, Telugu language, Trill consonant, Turkish language, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless bilabial fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel reduction, Yes–no question, Yoruba language. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Bacău (Barchau, Bákó) is the main city in Bacău County, Romania.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The labial or bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants that sound something like a smack of the lips.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Dental (or more precisely denti-alveolar) clicks are a family of click consonants found, as constituents of words, only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Eastern Europe (specifically in the Balkans) from the local variant of Vulgar Latin.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound that is used in some spoken languages.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
The Moldavian dialect (subdialectul / graiul moldovean / moldovenesc) is one of several dialects of the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian).
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Secondary stress (or obsolete: secondary accent) is the weaker of two degrees of stress in the pronunciation of a word; the stronger degree of stress being called primary.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.