93 relations: Abydos (Hellespont), Adana, Ahlat, Aleppo, Alexiad, Alexios I Komnenos, Alp Arslan, Alusian of Bulgaria, Amorium, Anatolia, Andronikos Doukas (co-emperor), Andronikos Doukas (cousin of Michael VII), Anna Dalassene, Anna Komnene, Antioch, Armenia, Armeniac Theme, İskenderun, Bari, Basil Argyros, Basil of Caesarea, Battle of Caesarea, Battle of Manzikert, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Senate, Caesar (title), Cappadocia, Cilicia, Cilician Gates, Constantine Diogenes, Constantine Diogenes (son of Romanos IV), Constantine X Doukas, Constantinople, Divriği, Doukas, Dux, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Edessa, Elaiussa Sebaste, Emirate, Erciş, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Euphrates, Franks, Greek diacritics, Heraclea Cybistra, Hippodrome of Constantinople, Italy, ..., John Doukas (Caesar), John Skylitzes, John VIII of Constantinople, Kahramanmaraş, Kayseri, Kınalıada, Konstantios Doukas, Konya, Lake Van, Leo Diogenes, List of Byzantine emperors, Lykandos, Malatya, Malazgirt, Manbij, Mercenary, Mesopotamia, Michael Psellos, Michael VII Doukas, Mopsuestia, Nikephoros Diogenes, Niksar, Nomisma, Normans, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Padyandus, Palu, Elazığ, Philaretos Brachamios, Political mutilation in Byzantine culture, Pontus (region), Robert Crispin, Robert Guiscard, Roger I of Sicily, Romanization of Greek, Romanos III Argyros, Romanos Ivory, Saracen, Sea of Marmara, Seljuq dynasty, Slavonia, Syria, Taurus Mountains, Varangian Guard. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
Abydos (Ἄβυδος) or Abydus, was an ancient city in Mysia in northwestern Asia Minor, near the modern city of Çanakkale (Turkey).
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
Ahlat (Խլաթ, Khlat; اخلاط; ხლათი, Khlati; Xelat; Χαλάτα, Chalata), is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
The Alexiad (translit) is a medieval historical and biographical text written around the year 1148, by the Byzantine historian and princess Anna Komnene, daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.
Alusian (Алусиан, Ἀλουσιάνος) was a Bulgarian and Byzantine noble who ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria for a short time in 1041.
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andronikos Doukas (Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας), Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, was the third son of Byzantine emperor Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067) and younger brother of Byzantine emperor Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078).
Andronikos Doukas, Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, (Ανδρόνικος Δούκας; died 14 October 1077) was a protovestiarios and protoproedros of the Byzantine Empire.
Anna Dalassene (Ἄννα Δαλασσηνή; ca. 1025/30 – 1 November 1100/02) was an important Byzantine noblewoman who played a significant role in the rise to power of the Komnenoi in the eleventh century.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armeniac Theme (Άρμενιακόν, Armeniakon), more properly the Theme of the Armeniacs (Greek: θέμα Άρμενιάκων, thema Armeniakōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in northeastern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
Basil Argyros (Βασίλειος Ἀργυρός, c. 970 – after 1023) was a Byzantine nobleman of the Argyros family and a brother of the emperor Romanos III.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
The Battle of Caesarea occurred in 1067 when the Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan attacked Caesarea.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate (Σύγκλητος, Synklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed, the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River.
Constantine Diogenes (Κωνσταντῖνος Διογένης; died 1032) was a prominent Byzantine general of the early 11th century, active in the Balkans.
Constantine Diogenes (Κωνσταντίνος Διογένης; died 1073) was one of the sons of Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (reigned 1068–1071).
Constantine X Doukas or Dukas, Latinized as Ducas (Κωνσταντῖνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas, 1006 – 22 May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 24 November 1059 to 22 May 1067.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Divriği, historically known as Tephrike (Τεφρική Tephrike, Տեւրիկ Tewrik) and formerly sometimes called Divrik, is a small town and a district of Sivas Province of Turkey.
Doukas, Latinized as Ducas (Δούκας; feminine: Doukaina/Ducaena, Δούκαινα; plural: Doukai/Ducae, Δοῦκαι), from the Latin tile dux ("leader", "general", Hellenized as δοὺξ), is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Elaiussa Sebaste or Elaeousa Sebaste (Ελαιούσα Σεβαστή) was an ancient Roman town located from Mersin in the direction of Silifke in Cilicia on the southern coast of Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey).
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.
Erciş (Ականց, Agants; historically Արճեշ, Arjesh, Erdîş) is a town and district located in the Van Province, Turkey on Lake Van.
Eudokia Makrembolitissa (or Eudocia Macrembolitissa) (Εὐδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα) (c.1021 – 1096) was a Byzantine Empress by marriage to Emperor Constantine X Doukas.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Heraclea Cybistra (Hράκλεια Κύβιστρα; near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey), under the name Cybistra, had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills.
The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Hippódromos tēs Kōnstantinoupóleōs) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Doukas (or Ducas) (Ιωάννης Δούκας, Iōannēs Doukas) (died c. 1088) was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia, and the younger brother of Emperor Constantine X Doukas.
John Skylitzes, Latinized as Ioannes Scylitzes (Ἰωάννης Σκυλίτζης, also Σκυλλίτζης/Σκυλίτσης, Iōannēs Skylitzēs/Skyllitzēs/Skylitsēs; early 1040s – after 1101), was a Greek historian of the late 11th century.
John VIII Xiphilinos (Ἰωάννης Ηʹ Ξιφιλῖνος; c. 1010 – 2 August 1075), a native of Trebizond, was a Byzantine intellectual and Patriarch of Constantinople from 1064–1075.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
Kayseri is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Kınalıada (Գնալը կղզի; Πρώτη, Proti 'first') is an island in the Sea of Marmara; it is the closest of the Prince Islands to Istanbul, Turkey, lying about to the south.
Konstantios Doukas (Κωνστάντιος Δούκας, 1060–1082), Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was a junior Byzantine Emperor from 1060–1078, and a senior Byzantine Emperor for a short time in 1078.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Leo Diogenes (Λέων Διογένης, Leōn Diogenes) was the son of Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes and Eudokia Makrembolitissa.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
Lykandos or Lycandus (Λυκανδός) was the name of a Byzantine fortress and military-civilian province (or thema), known as the Theme of Lykandos, in the 10th–11th centuries.
Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.
Malazgirt (also Malâzgird; Մանազկերտ Manazkert; Ματζιέρτη Matzierte; historically Manzikert, Μαντζικέρτ) is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23,697 (year 2000).
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Michael Psellos or Psellus (translit; Michaël Psellus) was a Byzantine Greek monk, savant, writer, philosopher, politician and historian.
Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.
Mopsuestia (Μοψουεστία Mopsou(h)estia; Byzantine: Mamista, Manistra; Arabic: al-Maṣṣīṣah; Armenian: Msis, Mises, Mam(u)estia; Frankish: Mamistra) is an ancient city in Cilicia Campestris on the Pyramus River (now Ceyhan River) located approximately east of ancient Antiochia in Cilicia (present-day Adana, southern Turkey).
Nikephoros Diogenes (Νικηφόρος Διογένης), Latinized as Nicephorus Diogenes, was a junior Byzantine emperor from 1070–1071.
Niksar /'niksar/ (Νεοκαισάρεια, Neokaisáreia) is a city in Tokat Province, Turkey.
Nomisma (νόμισμα) was the ancient Greek word for "money" and is derived from nomos (νόμος) "anything assigned, a usage, custom, law, ordinance".
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Padyandus or Podyandos (also Paduandus, Podandos or Podandus (Πόδανδος), and appearing corrupted in ancient sources as Opodanda, Opodandum, and Rhegepodandos) was an ancient town in Cataonia, the southernmost part of Cappadocia, in what is today Turkey.
Palu (Բալու/Palou; formerly Romanopolis in Greek) is a town and district of Elazığ Province of Turkey.
Philaretos Brachamios (Φιλάρετος Βραχάμιος; Armenian: Փիլարտոս Վարաժնունի, Pilartos Varajnuni; Philaretus Brachamius) was a distinguished Byzantine general and warlord of Armenian heritage, and for a time was a usurper against emperor Michael VII.
Mutilation in the Byzantine Empire was a common method of punishment for criminals of the era but it also had a role in the empire's political life.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Robert Crispin (Crépin, died 1071), called Frankopoulos, was a Norman mercenary and the leader of a corps of his countrymen stationed at Edessa under the command of the Byzantine general Isaac Komnenos, in the 1060s.
Robert Guiscard (– 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.
Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
Romanos III Argyros, or Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός, Rōmanos III Argyros; 968 – 11 April 1034), was Byzantine emperor from 15 November 1028 until his death.
The Romanos Ivory is a carved ivory relief panel from the Byzantine empire measuring 24.6 cm (at the highest) by 15.5 cm and 1.2 cm thick.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.