306 relations: A, Abstand and ausbau languages, Accusative case, Aesop, Affirmation and negation, Affricate consonant, Albanian language, Albula (river), Alemannic German, Almens, Alpine Rhine, Alpine transhumance, Alps, Alvaschein, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Andeer, Andiast, Approximant consonant, Ardez, Arno Camenisch, Aromanian language, Aspirated consonant, Augustine of Hippo, B, Back vowel, Bavarian language, Breil/Brigels, Brienz/Brinzauls, Butter churn, C, Cadi (Swiss region), Calque, Canton of Glarus, Canton of Grisons, Canton of St. Gallen, Capuns, Carlo Battisti, Carolingian Empire, Castrisch, Cazis, Celtic languages, Central vowel, Chamois, Charlemagne, Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Chur, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Conditional mood, ..., Consonant, Counter-Reformation, County of Tyrol, Croatian language, Cunter, D, Dalmatian language, Davos, Dental consonant, Dependent clause, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Dicziunari Rumantsch Grischun, Diglossia, Diphthong, Disentis Abbey, Dolomites, Domleschg (valley), Duvin, E, Engadin, English language, ETH Zurich, Eurovision Song Contest 1989, F, Falera, Fürstenau, Switzerland, Federal administration of Switzerland, Federal Statistical Office (Switzerland), Feldis/Veulden, Flond, Foppa, Francia, Franco-Provençal language, French language, Fribourg, Fricative consonant, Friulian language, Front vowel, Fuldera, G, Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Romance languages, Gelgia (river), German language, Glion, Glottal consonant, Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, Grazing rights, Guarda, Switzerland, H, Heinrich Schmid, Heinzenberg GR, Hinterrhein District, Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, I, I-mutation, Ilanz, Imboden District, Imperative mood, Independent clause, Indirect speech, Italian irredentism, Italian language, Italic languages, J, Jauer dialect (Romansh), Jean de La Fontaine, L, La Quotidiana, Laax, Labial consonant, Labiodental consonant, Ladin language, Lagopus, Language contact, Languages of Switzerland, Lantsch/Lenz, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lü, Switzerland, Letter case, Lia Rumantscha, Liricas Analas, Locative adverb, Lombard language, Lower Engadine, Lumnezia, Luven, M, Marmorera, Masein, Müstair, Medel (Lucmagn), Mid vowel, Middle High German, Mon, Switzerland, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), Mulegns, Municipalities of Switzerland, Musso War, N, Nasal consonant, New Testament, News agency, Northern Italy, O, Obstruent, Occitan language, Official language, Old French, Old High German, Old Occitan, Old Spanish language, Open vowel, Ostrogothic Kingdom, P, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Palato-alveolar consonant, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phrasal verb, Pigniu, Pinus cembra, Pitasch, Plessur District, Pontresina, Portuguese language, Pratval, Prättigau, Präz, Putèr, Q, Questione Ladina, R, Radiotelevisiun Svizra Rumantscha, Raetia, Rüthi, Realis mood, Rhaetian language, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Riein, Riom-Parsonz, Rodels, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan, Roman Catholic Diocese of Chur, Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romanian language, Romanization (cultural), Romansh exonyms, Romansh language, Romansh people, Rothenbrunnen, Rueun, S, S-chanf, Sagogn, Salouf, Samedan, Samnaun, Santa Maria Val Müstair, Savognin, Schams, Scharans, Scheid, Schluein, Schnaus, Schwa, Scree, Scuol, Sentence (linguistics), Serbian language, Sevgein, Sgraffito, Siat, Sils im Domleschg, Societad Retorumantscha, Southern Italy, Spanish language, Spiritual national defence, SRF 1, Standard German, Stierva, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject–auxiliary inversion, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Sur, Switzerland, Surcuolm, Surmiran dialect, Surselva District, Surses, Sursilvan dialects (Romansh), Swiss Armed Forces, Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, Swiss Federal Constitution, Swiss German, Swiss National Bank, Swiss National Park, Swiss referendums, 1938, Swiss referendums, 1996, Swiss Standard German, Swissinfo, Switzerland, Syllable, T, T–V distinction, Tello (bishop of Chur), The Fox and the Crow (Aesop), Three Leagues, Thusis, Tiefencastel, Tinizong-Rona, Toponymy, Trill consonant, Trin, Triphthong, Trun, Switzerland, Tschierv, Tschlin, Tujetsch, Turkish language, U, University of Fribourg, University of Zurich, Urmein, V, Val Bregaglia, Val Müstair, Val Medel, Valchava, Valendas, Vallader dialect (Romansh), Vaz/Obervaz, Velar consonant, Venetian language, Victorids, Vinschgau, Voicelessness, Vorarlberg, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, Walensee, Walser, Waltensburg/Vuorz, Western Romance languages, X, Z, Zernez. Expand index (256 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Aesop (Αἴσωπος,; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Albula (German; Alvra) is a river of Switzerland, a tributary of Hinterrhein (near Thusis).
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
Almens (Romansh: Almen) is a former municipality in the district of Hinterrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Alpine Rhine Valley (Alpenrheintal) is a glacial alpine valley, formed by the part of the Alpine Rhine (German) between the confluence of the Anterior Rhine and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and the Alpine Rhine's mouth at Lake Constance.
Alpine transhumance is transhumance as practiced in the Alps, that is, a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer (German Alpwirtschaft, Almwirtschaft from the term for "seasonal mountain pasture", Alp, Alm).
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alvaschein (Romansh: Alvaschagn) is a former municipality in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Andeer is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Andiast is a former municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Ardez is a former municipality in the district of Inn in the canton of Graubünden in eastern Switzerland.
Arno Camenisch (born 1 February 1978 in Tavanasa) is a Swiss writer who writes in German and Romansh.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
Breil/Brigels is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Brienz/Brinzauls (Romansh: Brinzauls) is a former municipality in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
A butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
The Cadi, in Switzerland, is a region within the canton of Graubünden.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
The canton of Glarus, also canton of Glaris (ˈɡlarʊs) is a canton in east central Switzerland.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of St.
Capuns is a traditional food from the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland, predominantly made in the western part of Grisons.
Carlo Battisti (10 October 1882 – 6 March 1977) was an Italian linguist and actor, famed for his starring role in Vittorio De Sica's Umberto D..
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Castrisch is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Cazis (Romansh: Tgazas) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz, CVP; Parti Démocrate-Chrétien, PDC; Partito Popolare Democratico, PPD; Partida cristiandemocratica Svizra, PCD) is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland.
Chur or Coire (or; Cuira or; Coira; Coire)Others: CVRIA, CVRIA RHAETORVM and CVRIA RAETORVM is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cunter (Romansh, in German: Conters im Oberhalbstein) is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The Dicziunari Rumantsch Grischun (abbreviation DRG) is the biggest dictionary of the Romansh language.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Disentis Abbey (Reichskloster Disentis) is a Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Graubünden in eastern Switzerland, around which the present town of Disentis (Mustér) grew up.
The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.
The Domleschg (Tumleastga) is a valley in Graubünden in Switzerland.
Duvin (Duvin), Duin) is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. On 1 January 2014 the former municipalities of Duvin, Castrisch, Ilanz, Ladir, Luven, Pitasch, Riein, Ruschein, Schnaus, Sevgein, Pigniu, Rueun and Siat merged into the new municipality of Ilanz/Glion. accessed 13 December 2014.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Engadin or Engadine (Engiadina, Engadin, Engadina, Engadine; lit.: Valley of the Inn people) is a long high Alpine valley region in the eastern Swiss Alps located in the canton of Graubünden in most southeastern Switzerland with about 25,000 inhabitants.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
The Eurovision Song Contest 1989 was the 34th annual Eurovision Song Contest.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Falera is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Fürstenau (Romansh: Farschno) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden and the smallest town to hold city rights with a market right received from Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1354.
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
The Federal Statistical Office (FSO) is a Federal agency of the Swiss Confederation.
Feldis/Veulden is a village in the municipality of Tomils in the district of Hinterrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Flond is a village in the municipality of Mundaun in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Foppa is a given name or surname, and may refer to.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fribourg (Fribôrg or Friboua) or Freiburg (German, or Freiburg im Üechtland, Swiss German pronunciation:; Friborgo or Friburgo; Friburg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fuldera is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gelgia (Romansh, Julia) is a river in the Grisons canton, eastern Switzerland.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
This article is about the municipality in Canton Vaud.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli (16 July 1829 – 21 January 1907) was an Italian linguist.
Grazing rights is the right of a user to allow their livestock to feed (graze) in a given area.
Guarda is a former municipality in Inn District in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Heinrich Schmid (6 April 1921 – 23 February 1999) was a Swiss linguist and "father" of the Rhaeto-Romance Dachsprachen ("umbrella languages") Rumantsch Grischun and Ladin Dolomitan.
Heinzenberg (Mantogna) is the western side of Hinterrhein valley in Swiss canton of Graubünden between the Viamala and the narrow valley in Rothenbrunnen.
Hinterrhein District is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).
Ilanz (Glion) is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Imboden District (Bezirk Imboden, District dal Plaun) is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
; An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jauer is a dialect of Romansh that is spoken in the Val Müstair.
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
La Quotidiana is the only Romansh daily newspaper.
Laax (Lags) is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.
Lagopus is a small genus of birds in the grouse subfamily commonly known as ptarmigans.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
The four national languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian and Romansh.
Lantsch/Lenz ('Lenz', Romansh: Lantsch) is a municipality in the Albula Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Lü is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Lia Rumantscha is an organization that promotes Romansh language usage and study.
Liricas Analas is a rap crew from the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
A locative adverb is a type of adverb that refers to a location or to a combination of a location and a relation to that location.
Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.
The Lower Engadine (Engiadina Bassa, Unterengadin) is part of the Engadine, traversed by the river En (Inn) and located at the most eastern part of Switzerland in the Canton Graubünden.
Lumnezia (Romansh, Lugnez) is a valley region and a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss of canton of Graubünden.
Luven (formerly known as Luvis) is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Marmorera (Marmels) is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Masein (Romansh: Masagn) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Müstair is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Medel is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Mon is a village and a former municipality in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Mulegns is a village and a former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Municipalities (Gemeinden, Einwohnergemeinden or politische Gemeinden; communes; comuni; vischnancas) are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland.
The Musso War (or War of Musso) was an armed conflict between the federation of the Three Leagues (Drei Bünde) in the Grisons, an associate state of the Old Swiss Confederacy, and the Duchy of Milan early in the 16th century.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
Pigniu (Panix) is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Pinus cembra, also known as Swiss pine, Swiss stone pine or Arolla pine or Austrian stone pine or just Stone pine, is a species of pine tree that grows in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains of central Europe, in Poland (Tatra Mountains), Switzerland, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Slovakia (Tatra Mountains), Ukraine and Romania.
Pitasch is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Plessur District (Bezirk Plessur, District da la Plessur) is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
Pontresina (Romansh: Puntraschigna) is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pratval is a former municipality in the district of Hinterrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Prättigau, in the canton of Graubünden (Grisons), Switzerland, is the geographical region consisting of the main valley of the river Landquart and the valleys of its side-rivers and creeks, which drains into the Alpine Rhine in the village of the same name, and is on its upper end home to the world-famous ski resorts of Klosters.
Präz (Romansh: Preaz) was a municipality in the district of Hinterrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Puter (also spelled Putèr) is a variety of Romansh spoken in the Engadin valley in Graubünden, which is in the southeastern part of Switzerland.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Questione Ladina is a scientific debate about how to categorise several Romance languages or dialects that are spoken in the Alps.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Radiotelevisiun Svizra Rumantscha (RTR, Radio-Television Romansh Swirzerland or Swiss Romansh Radio-Television), formerly known as Radio e Televisiun Rumantscha (Romansh Radio and Television), is a Swiss broadcasting company (part of SRG SSR) which offers programming to Romansh-speakers in Switzerland and around the world.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Rüthi is a municipality in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Rhaetian or Rhaetic (Raetic) was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
Rhododendron ferrugineum (sometimes called alpenrose, snow-rose, or rusty-leaved alpenrose) is an evergreen shrub that grows just above the tree line in the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and northern Apennines, on acid soils.
Riein is a village and a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Riom-Parsonz is a former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Rodels (Romansh: Roten) is a former municipality in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland, located in the district of Hinterrhein.
The Archdiocese of Milan (Arcidiocesi di Milano; Archidioecesis Mediolanensis) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza, Lecco and Varese.
The Diocese of Chur extends over the Swiss Cantons of Graubünden (Grisons), Schwyz, Glarus, Zurich, Nidwalden, Obwalden and Uri.
The Diocese of Mainz, historically known in English by its French name of Mayence is a Latin rite of the Catholic church in Germany.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
The following is a list of Romansh exonyms, that is to say names for towns and cities that do not speak Romansh that have been adapted to Romansh standard spelling rules, or are simply native names from ancient times.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
The Romansh people (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) are a people and ethnic group of Switzerland, native speakers of the Romansh language.
Rothenbrunnen (Giuvaulta in romansh) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Rueun is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
S-chanf (Scanfs; Scanevo) is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Sagogn is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Salouf (until 1943 officially called Salux) is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Samedan is a town and municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Grisons.
Samnaun (Samignun) is a high Alpine village and a valley at the eastern end of Switzerland and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Santa Maria Val Müstair (Soncha Maria) is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Savognin (in local Romansh dialect Suagnign; Savognino; Schweiningen, official name until 1890) is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Grisons in Switzerland.
The Schams north of Andeer. In the top left, the ruins of Cagliatscha Castle The Schams ((Val) Schons) is a section of the Hinterrhein valley in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Scharans (Romansh: Scharons) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Scheid is a village in the municipality of Tomils in the district of Hinterrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Schluein is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Schnaus is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
Scuol (Romansh: pronounced) is a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Grisons.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sevgein is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Sgraffito (plural: sgraffiti; sometimes spelled scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip or glaze, and then in either case scratching so as to reveal parts of the underlying layer.
Siat is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Sils im Domleschg (Romansh: Seglias) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Societad Retorumantscha (Sociedad Retorromanche, SRR) is the oldest language association devoted to the promotion of the Romansh language.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spiritual national defence (German: Geistige Landesverteidigung; French: Défense spirituelle) was a political-cultural movement in Switzerland which was active from circa 1932 into the 1960s.
SRF 1 is a Swiss television channel run under the public SRG SSR broadcasting group.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
Stierva is a former municipality in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Sur (Sour) is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Surcuolm is a village in the municipality of Mundaun in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Surmiran is a dialect of the Romansh language.
Surselva District (District da la Surselva) is a former administrative district in the canton of the Grisons, Switzerland.
Sursés (Romansh, Oberhalbstein) is a valley region (Talschaft) and municipality in the Albula Region of the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Sursilvan (or romontsch sursilvan) is a group of dialects of the Romansh language spoken in the Swiss district of Surselva.
The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.
The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR; Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft, Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision, Società svizzera di radiotelevisione, '''S'''ocietad '''S'''vizra da '''R'''adio e Televisiun.) is the Swiss public broadcasting association, founded in 1931.
The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera (Cost.), Constituziun federala da la Confederaziun svizra) of 18 April 1999 (SR 101) is the third and current federal constitution of Switzerland.
Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.
The Swiss National Bank (SNB) is the central bank of Switzerland, and is therefore responsible for the monetary policy of the nation of Switzerland and also for the issuing of Swiss franc banknotes.
The Swiss National Park (Schweizerischer Nationalpark; Parc National Suisse; Parco Nazionale Svizzero; Parc Naziunal Svizzer) is located in the Western Rhaetian Alps, in eastern Switzerland.
Six referendums were held in Switzerland during 1938.
Nine referendums were held in Switzerland during 1996.
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
SWI swissinfo.ch is a ten-language news and information platform produced by the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Tello (died 24 September probably 765) was the Bishop of Chur from 758/759 until his death.
The Fox and the Crow is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 124 in the Perry Index.
The Three Leagues was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Thusis (Tosana, Romansh: Tusàn) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Tiefencastel (Casti) is a village and a former municipality in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Tinizong-Rona is a former municipality in the district of Albula in the Sursés in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Trin is a municipality in the Imboden Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
Trun is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Tschierv is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Tschlin is a former municipality in the district of Inn in the canton of Graubünden in the extreme east of Switzerland.
Tujetsch is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The University of Fribourg (Université de Fribourg; Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland.
The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.
Urmein (Romansh: Urmagn) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Val Bregaglia (Val Bargaja, das Bergell, Val Bregaglia) is an alpine valley of Switzerland and Italy at the base of which runs the river Mera (Maira in Switzerland).
Val Müstair is a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Val Medel is a righthand side valley of the Surselva valley in Graubünden, Switzerland.
Valchava is a village in the Val Müstair (Müstair valley) of the canton of Graubünden (Grisons), Switzerland.
Valendas is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Vallader is a variety of the Romansh language spoken in the Lower Engadine valley (Engiadina Bassa) of southeast Switzerland, between Martina and Zernez.
Vaz/Obervaz is a municipality in the Albula Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
The Victorids (Romansh: Zaccons) were a powerful family in Rhaetia during the seventh and eighth centuries, dominating the region politically and controlling the diocese of Chur.
The Vinschgau (Val Venosta, Vinschgau, Vnuost, Val Venuesta, medieval: Finsgowe) or Vinschgau Valley is the upper part of the Adige or Etsch river valley, in the western part of the province of South Tyrol, Italy.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
The Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland.
The Walser are the speakers of the Walser German dialects, a variety of Highest Alemannic.
Waltensburg/Vuorz is a former municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Zernez is a village and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
ISO 639:rm, ISO 639:roh, Puter (dialect), Raeto-Romance language, Romanche language, Romanisch, Romansch language, Romansch phonology, Romansh (language), Romansh Language, Romansh dialect, Romansh-language, Rumantsch Grischun, Rumantsch language, Sutsilvan, Sutsilvan dialects (Romansh).