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Romanticism

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. [1]

625 relations: A Hero of Our Time, A. C. Spearing, Académie française, Academy, Acts of Union 1707, Adam Mickiewicz, Adolf Anderssen, Aestheticism, Aesthetics, After Babel, Age of Enlightenment, Aide-de-camp, Albert Bierstadt, Albion (Blake), Albrecht Ritschl, Alchemy, Aleksander Fredro, Alessandro Manzoni, Alexander Afanasyev, Alexander Chavchavadze, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandre Dumas, Alexandre Herculano, Alfred de Musset, Alfred de Vigny, Alfred Einstein, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Allan Cunningham (author), Allan Ramsay (poet), Allegory, Almeida Garrett, Alphonse de Lamartine, Ancien Régime, Ancients (art group), André Grétry, Angra do Heroísmo, Anne Brontë, Anne K. Mellor, Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, António Augusto Soares de Passos, António Feliciano de Castilho, Antoine-Augustin Préault, Anton Delvig, Antonio Canova, Antonio García Gutiérrez, Arc de Triomphe, Aristotle, Ars Poetica (Horace), Arthur Oncken Lovejoy, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, ..., Artistic inspiration, Ashton Nichols, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Auld Lang Syne, Autobiography, Awe, Álvares de Azevedo, Baron Byron, Bertel Thorvaldsen, Bible, Blackwood's Magazine, Bourbon Restoration, Brontë family, Brothers Grimm, Brunhild, Burns stanza, Byronic hero, Cambridge University Press, Camilo Castelo Branco, Canção do exílio, Carl Dahlhaus, Carmen (novella), Casimiro de Abreu, Caspar David Friedrich, Castro Alves, Catalan nationalism, Catalonia, Charles Baudelaire, Charles Lamb, Charles Perrault, Charles Rosen, Charles Scribner's Sons, Charlotte Brontë, Château de Malmaison, Checkmate, Chess, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Children's literature, Chivalry, Christ of Europe, Christendom, Christian eschatology, Christopher Ricks, Chronicle, Church of Scotland, Classical antiquity, Classical mythology, Classical period (music), Classicism, Claude Joseph Vernet, Claude Lorrain, Clemens Brentano, Cleveland Museum of Art, Closet drama, Coalbrookdale by Night, Coleridge's theory of life, Conservatism, Corn Laws, Cornucopia, Counter-Enlightenment, Courtly love, Crusades, Culture of Poland, Cyprian Norwid, Daniel Auber, Dark romanticism, Darrin McMahon, David d'Angers, Düsseldorf school of painting, Decadent movement, Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Deutsche Mythologie, Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Don Juan (poem), Don Juan Tenorio, Donald Ault, Donald Jay Grout, Dziady (poem), E. T. A. Hoffmann, Edgar Allan Poe, Edinburgh Review, Edmund Kean, Emily Brontë, Emily Dickinson, Empiricism, English literature, Epic poetry, Esteban Echeverría, Eugène Delacroix, Eugene Onegin, Expressionist music, Fagundes Varela, Fascism, Fathers and Sons (novel), Fear, Felix Mendelssohn, First French Empire, Fjord, Fleury François Richard, Folk art, Folklore, Four Last Songs, François Lesure, François Rude, François-René de Chateaubriand, Francesco Hayez, Francisco Goya, Frankenstein, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Frédéric Chopin, Frederic Edwin Church, Frederick the Great, Freemasonry, French First Republic, French invasion of Russia, French Revolution, Friedrich Blume, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Friedrich Hölderlin, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Fritz Novotny, Fyodor Tyutchev, Gaetano Donizetti, Galicia (Spain), Gérard de Nerval, Genius, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Sand, George Steiner, Gerald Abraham, Germaine de Staël, German Forest, German Romanticism, Germanic mythology, Giacomo Leopardi, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Gil Vicente, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Giovanni Berchet, Giovanni Boldini, Giuseppe Verdi, Glossary of chess, Goethe's Faust, Goethean science, Gonçalves Dias, Gothic architecture, Gothic fiction, Gothic Revival architecture, Grand Tour, Great Emigration, Greek War of Independence, Grigol Orbeliani, Grimms' Fairy Tales, Guido Adler, Gustave Courbet, Gustave Flaubert, Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, György Lukács, Hans Christian Andersen, Hans Gude, Harmonium (poetry collection), Harold Bloom, Hector Berlioz, Heidelberg, Heinrich von Kleist, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Fuseli, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Herman Melville, Hermeticism, Hernani (drama), Hierarchy of genres, Historical fiction, Historiography, Historiography and nationalism, History of ideas, History of literature, History of Portugal (1777–1834), History painting, Hogmanay, Honoré de Balzac, Horace, Horace Walpole, Horror and terror, Hudson River School, Hugh Honour, Humboldtian science, Humphry Davy, I puritani, Ian Bent, Il trovatore, Immanuel Kant, Immortal Game, Impasto, Imperial Russian Army, Impromptu, Individualism, Industrial Revolution, Intellectual history, Iracema, Isaac Levitan, Isabella di Morra, Isaiah Berlin, Ivan Aivazovsky, Ivan Turgenev, Ivanhoe, J. M. W. Turner, Jacint Verdaguer, Jacob Grimm, Jacobite rising of 1745, Jacques Barzun, Jacques-Louis David, Jaime Cortesão, James Chandler, James Fenimore Cooper, James Hogg, James Macpherson, James Ward (artist), Jane Austen, Jane Eyre, January Uprising, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Jørgen Moe, Júlio Dinis, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Luc Nancy, Jeffrey N. Cox, Jena, Jena Romanticism, Jerome McGann, Jesus, Joanna Baillie, Johan Christian Dahl, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Clare, John Constable, John Galt (novelist), John Keats, John Martin (painter), John Tyrrell (musicologist), John William Polidori, José Cadalso, José de Alencar, José de Espronceda, José Zorrilla, Joseph Anton Koch, Joseph de Maistre, Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, Joseph Haydn, Joseph Jacobs, Joseph Warton, Joseph Wright of Derby, Juan Manuel de Rosas, Juliusz Słowacki, June 21, Junqueira Freire, Kalevala, Karl Bryullov, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, King Lear, Konstantin Batyushkov, Laing Art Gallery, Lake District, Lake Geneva, Lake Poets, Landscape painting, Laurence Sterne, Leatherstocking Tales, Leon Plantinga, Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna, Liberal Revolution of 1820, Liberalism, Liberty Leading the People, Lionel Kieseritzky, List of Cambridge Companions to Music, List of Hudson River School artists, List of Romantic poets, List of romantics, Literary realism, Logan Pearsall Smith, Lord Byron, Lorenzo Bartolini, Louis Janmot, Lucia di Lammermoor, Ludovico di Breme, Ludwig Achim von Arnim, Ludwig Tieck, Ludwig van Beethoven, Lyrical Ballads, M. H. Abrams, Mal du siècle, Mansfield Park, Manuel José Quintana, Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, Margaret Drabble, Maria Edgeworth, Mariano José de Larra, Marine art, Marmion (poem), Mary Robinson (poet), Mary Shelley, Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe, Medievalism, Melodrama, Messianism, Mikhail Lermontov, Milan, Moby-Dick, Modernity, Mount Vesuvius, Musical nationalism, Musicology, Mythology, Nahum Tate, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Nathaniel Hawthorne, National anthem, National Gallery (Norway), National language, National mysticism, National poet, Nationalism, Natural science, Naturphilosophie, Nazarene movement, Núria Perpinyà, Neo-romanticism, Neoclassicism, Neoclassicism (music), Neoromanticism (music), New England, New German School, Niccolò Paganini, Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, Nicolas Poussin, Nikolai Gogol, Nikolay Karamzin, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Noble savage, Northampton, Massachusetts, Northrop Frye, Norwegian romantic nationalism, Novalis, Novel, Novella, November Uprising, Occult, Oliver Cromwell, On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History, Opium and Romanticism, Oral literature, Orest Kiprensky, Orientalism, Originality, Oslo, Ossian, Oxford Professor of Poetry, Pan Tadeusz, Partitions of Poland, Paul de Man, Paul Delaroche, Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Periodization, Persuasion (novel), Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Peter Kitson, Peter Paul Rubens, Petrarch, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philip James de Loutherbourg, Philipp Otto Runge, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Philosophy of love, Pierre Révoil, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Portugal, Positivism, Post-romanticism, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Prosper Mérimée, Prussia, Psalms, Psychology, Queen (chess), Radicalism (historical), Ralph Waldo Emerson, Raphael, Rationalism, Rationalization (sociology), Realism (art movement), Realism (arts), Reductionism, Relativism, Renaixença, René (novella), René Wellek, Rexurdimento, Richard Parkes Bonington, Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner, Rip Van Winkle, Rob Roy (novel), Robert Burns, Robert Hughes (critic), Robert Schumann, Rococo, Romantic chess, Romantic epistemology, Romantic hero, Romantic medicine, Romantic music, Romantic nationalism, Romantic poetry, Romantic realism, Romanticism in Poland, Romanticism in science, Romanticism in Scotland, Romanticism in Spanish literature, Rook (chess), Rosalía de Castro, Rudolf Maison, Rupert Christiansen, Ruslan and Ludmila, Russian Museum, Sacrifice (chess), Saint, Saint Petersburg, Salon (Paris), Salvator Rosa, Samuel Palmer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Satire, Scots Wha Hae, Sculpture, Sensibility, Sentimental novel, Sentimentalism (literature), Serbian language, Simon Boccanegra, Sinecure, Slavic paganism, Sleeping Beauty, Smith College, Social realism, Sodom and Gomorrah, Sovereignty, Spirituality, Staffage, Stanley Sadie, Stanley Wells, Stendhal, Stratum (linguistics), Sturm und Drang, Sublime (philosophy), Supernatural, Susan J. Wolfson, Symphony No. 39 (Mozart), Szlachta, T. C. W. Blanning, Tate, Teixeira de Pascoaes, Théodore Géricault, Théophile Gautier, The Barque of Dante, The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, The Cambridge History of Political Thought, The Castle of Otranto, The Cenci, The Charging Chasseur, The Charterhouse of Parma, The Count of Monte Cristo, The Death of Sardanapalus, The Fighting Temeraire, The Franklin's Tale, The Genius of Christianity, The Giaour, The Guarani, The Hay Wain, The Heart of Midlothian, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, The Last Day of Pompeii, The Last of the Mohicans, The Lay of the Last Minstrel, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, The Massacre at Chios, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, The Nightmare, The Ninth Wave, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, The Oxford Companion to Music, The Prelude, The Prisoner of the Caucasus (poem), The Raft of the Medusa, The Red and the Black, The Renaissance Society of America, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, The Robbers, The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak, The Sandman (short story), The Scarlet Letter, The Sewanee Review, The Sorrows of Young Werther, The Third of May 1808, The Three Musketeers, The Vampyre, The Voyage of Life, The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Chatterton, Thomas Cole, Thomas Moore, Thomas Warton, Three Bards, Three Critics of the Enlightenment, To a Waterfowl, Tobias Barreto, Totalitarianism, Transcendentalism, Troubadour style, Ugo Foscolo, Ultra-Romanticism, Umberto Eco, Uncas, University of Oxford, Urban sprawl, Utilitarianism, Vasily Tropinin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Vegetarianism in the Romantic Era, Verismo (music), Victor Hugo, Vienna 1873 chess tournament, Vincenzo Bellini, Vitalism, Volkstum, Vuk Karadžić, Walt Whitman, Walter Friedländer, Walter Scott, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, Washington Irving, Waverley (novel), Waverley Novels, Welsh art, Western culture, Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Wilhelm Steinitz, William Blake, William Cullen Bryant, William Hartston, William Hazlitt, William Shakespeare, William Wordsworth, Winchester College, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wuthering Heights, Yevgeny Baratynsky, Yorkshire, Zeitgeist, Zygmunt Krasiński. 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A Hero of Our Time

A Hero of Our Time (Герой нашего времени, Geroy nashego vremeni) is a novel by Mikhail Lermontov, written in 1839, published in 1840, and revised in 1841.

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A. C. Spearing

Anthony Colin Spearing (born January 31, 1936) is William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of English at the University of Virginia, specialising in medieval literature.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Academy

An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Acts of Union 1707

The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.

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Adolf Anderssen

Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen (July 6, 1818 – March 13, 1879)"Anderssen, Adolf" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Aestheticism

Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.

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Aesthetics

Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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After Babel

After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (1975; second edition 1992; third edition 1998) is a linguistics book by literary critic George Steiner, in which Steiner deals with the "Babel problem" of multiple languages.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Aide-de-camp

An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

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Albert Bierstadt

Albert Bierstadt (January 7, 1830 – February 18, 1902) was an American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West.

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Albion (Blake)

In the complex mythology of William Blake, Albion is the primeval man whose fall and division results in the Four Zoas: Urizen, Tharmas, Luvah/Orc and Urthona/Los.

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Albrecht Ritschl

Albrecht Ritschl (25 March 182220 March 1889) was a German Protestant theologian.

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Aleksander Fredro

Aleksander Fredro (20 June 1793 – 15 July 1876) was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires.

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Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.

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Alexander Afanasyev

Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev (Afanasief, Afanasiev or Afanas'ev, Александр Николаевич Афанасьев) (—) was a Russian Slavist and ethnographer who published nearly 600 Russian fairy and folk tales, one of the largest collections of folklore in the world.

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Alexander Chavchavadze

Prince Alexander Chavchavadze (ალექსანდრე ჭავჭავაძე; Александр Чавчавадзе) (1786 – November 6, 1846) was a notable Georgian poet, public benefactor and military figure.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.

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Alexandre Herculano

Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo (March 28, 1810September 13, 1877) was a Portuguese novelist and historian.

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Alfred de Musset

Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay (11 December 1810 – 2 May 1857) was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.

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Alfred de Vigny

Alfred Victor, Comte de Vigny (27 March 1797 – 17 September 1863) was a French poet and early leader of French Romanticism.

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Alfred Einstein

Alfred Einstein (December 30, 1880February 13, 1952) was a German-American musicologist and music editor.

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Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.

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Allan Cunningham (author)

Allan Cunningham (7 December 178430 October 1842) was a Scottish poet and author.

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Allan Ramsay (poet)

Allan Ramsay (15 October 16867 January 1758) was a Scottish poet (or makar), playwright, publisher, librarian, and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh.

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Allegory

As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.

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Almeida Garrett

João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett, Viscount of Almeida Garrett (4 February 1799 – 9 December 1854) was a Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician.

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Alphonse de Lamartine

Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Knight of Pratz (21 October 179028 February 1869), was a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.

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Ancients (art group)

The Ancients (also known as the Shoreham Ancients) were a group of young English artists and others who were brought together around 1824 by their attraction to archaism in art and admiration for the work of William Blake (1757-1827), who was a generation or two older than the group.

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André Grétry

André Ernest Modeste Grétry (baptised 11 February 1741; died 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality.

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Angra do Heroísmo

Angra do Heroísmo, generally known as Angra, is a municipality and city on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores.

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Anne Brontë

Anne Brontë (commonly; 17 January 1820 – 28 May 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family.

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Anne K. Mellor

Anne Kostelanetz Mellor (born July 15, 1941) is a Distinguished Professor of English Literature and Women's Studies at UCLA; she specializes in Romantic literature, British cultural history, feminist theory, philosophy, art history and gender studies.

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Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson

Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy (or de Roucy), also known as Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson (29 January 17679 December 1824),Long, George.

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António Augusto Soares de Passos

António Augusto Soares de Passos (27 November 1826 – 8 February 1860), also referred to simply as Soares de Passos, was a Portuguese poet, creator of the "Ultra-Romanticism" in Portugal.

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António Feliciano de Castilho

António Feliciano de Castilho, 1st Viscount of Castilho (28 January 180018 June 1875) was a Portuguese writer.

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Antoine-Augustin Préault

Antoine-Augustin Préault (October 6, 1809 – January 11, 1879) was a French sculptor of the "Romantic" movement.

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Anton Delvig

Baron Anton Antonovich Delvig (ɐnˈton ɐnˈtonəvʲɪtɕ ˈdelʲvʲɪk;, Moscow –, St. Petersburg) was a Russian poet and journalist.

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Antonio Canova

Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures.

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Antonio García Gutiérrez

Antonio García Gutiérrez (4 October 1813 in Chiclana de la Frontera, Cádiz26 August 1884 in Madrid) was a Spanish Romantic dramatist.

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Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Ars Poetica (Horace)

Ars Poetica, or "The Art of Poetry," is a poem written by Horace c. 19 BC, in which he advises poets on the art of writing poetry and drama.

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Arthur Oncken Lovejoy

Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (October 10, 1873 – December 30, 1962) was an American philosopher and intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book The Great Chain of Being (1936), on the topic of that name, which is regarded as 'probably the single most influential work in the history of ideas in the United States during the last half century'.

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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.

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Artistic inspiration

Inspiration (from the Latin inspirare, meaning "to breathe into") is an unconscious burst of creativity in a literary, musical, or other artistic endeavour.

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Ashton Nichols

Ashton Nichols is the current Walter E. Beach ’56 Distinguished Chair in Sustainable Studies and Professor of English Language and Literature at Dickinson College.

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August Wilhelm Schlegel

August Wilhelm (after 1812: von) Schlegel (8 September 176712 May 1845), usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism.

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Auld Lang Syne

"Auld Lang Syne" (note "s" rather than "z") is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song (Roud # 6294).

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Autobiography

An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.

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Awe

Awe is an emotion comparable to wonder but less joyous.

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Álvares de Azevedo

Manuel Antônio Álvares de Azevedo (September 12, 1831 – April 25, 1852), affectionately called "Maneco" by his close friends, relatives and admirers, was a Brazilian Romantic poet, short story writer, playwright and essayist, considered to be one of the major exponents of Ultra-Romanticism and Gothic literature in Brazil.

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Baron Byron

Baron Byron, of Rochdale in the County Palatine of Lancaster, is a title in the Peerage of England.

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Bertel Thorvaldsen

Bertel Thorvaldsen (19 November 1770 – 24 March 1844) was a Danish sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life (1797–1838) in Italy.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Blackwood's Magazine

Blackwood's Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Brontë family

The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family, born in the village of Thornton and later associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Brothers Grimm

The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.

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Brunhild

Brunhild, also known as Brunhilda or Brynhild (Old Norse Brynhildr, Middle High German Brünhilt, Modern German Brünhild or Brünhilde) is a powerful female figure from Germanic heroic legend.

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Burns stanza

The Burns stanza is a verse form named after the Scottish poet Robert Burns, who used it in some fifty poems.

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Byronic hero

The Byronic hero is a variant of the Romantic hero as a type of character, named after the English Romantic poet Lord Byron.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camilo Castelo Branco

Camilo Castelo Branco,1st Viscount of Correia Botelho (16 March 1825 – 1 June 1890), was a prolific Portuguese writer of the 19th century, having produced over 260 books (mainly novels, plays and essays).

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Canção do exílio

"Canção do exílio" (Exile song) is a poem written by the Brazilian Romantic author Gonçalves Dias in 1843, when he was in Portugal studying Law at the University of Coimbra.

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Carl Dahlhaus

Carl Dahlhaus (June 10, 1928 – March 13, 1989), a musicologist from (West) Berlin, was one of the major contributors to the development of musicology as a scholarly discipline during the post-war era.

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Carmen (novella)

Carmen is a novella by Prosper Mérimée, written and first published in 1845.

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Casimiro de Abreu

Casimiro José Marques de Abreu (January 4, 1839 – October 18, 1860) was a Brazilian poet, novelist and playwright, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement.

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Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.

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Castro Alves

Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves (March 14, 1847 – July 6, 1871) was a Brazilian poet and playwright, famous for his abolitionist and republican poems.

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Catalan nationalism

Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation.

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Catalonia

Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Charles Lamb

Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 – 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, poet, and antiquarian, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the children's book Tales from Shakespeare, co-authored with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847).

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Charles Perrault

Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française.

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Charles Rosen

Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music.

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Charles Scribner's Sons

Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.

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Charlotte Brontë

Charlotte Brontë (commonly; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.

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Château de Malmaison

Château de Malmaison is a French château near the western bank of the Seine about west of the centre of Paris in Rueil-Malmaison.

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Checkmate

Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with) and there is no way to remove the threat.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a lengthy narrative poem in four parts written by Lord Byron.

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Children's literature

Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.

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Chivalry

Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.

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Christ of Europe

The idea of the Christ of Europe, a messianic doctrine based in the New Testament, first became widespread among Poland and other various European nations through the activities of the Reformed Churches in the 16th to the 18th centuries.

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Christendom

Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian eschatology

Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" (ἔσχατος) and "study" (-λογία), is the study of 'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world and the nature of the Kingdom of God.

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Christopher Ricks

Sir Christopher Bruce Ricks (born 18 September 1933) is a British (although he lives in the US) literary critic and scholar.

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Chronicle

A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical mythology

Classical Greco-Roman mythology, Greek and Roman mythology or Greco-Roman mythology is both the body of and the study of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans as they are used or transformed by cultural reception.

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Classical period (music)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

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Classicism

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Claude Joseph Vernet

Claude-Joseph Vernet (14 August 1714 – 3 December 1789) was a French painter.

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Claude Lorrain

Claude Lorrain (born Claude Gellée, called le Lorrain in French; traditionally just Claude in English; c. 1600 – 23 November 1682) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher of the Baroque era.

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Clemens Brentano

Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano (also Klemens; pseudonym: Clemens Maria Brentano;; 9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842) was a German poet and novelist, and a major figure of German Romanticism.

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Cleveland Museum of Art

The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) is an art museum in Cleveland, Ohio, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side.

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Closet drama

A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or sometimes out loud in a small group.

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Coalbrookdale by Night

Coalbrookdale by Night is an 1801 oil painting by Philip James de Loutherbourg.

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Coleridge's theory of life

Romanticism grew largely out of an attempt to understand not just inert nature, but also vital nature.

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Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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Cornucopia

In classical antiquity, the cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae), also called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers or nuts.

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Counter-Enlightenment

The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Courtly love

Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Culture of Poland

The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.

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Cyprian Norwid

Cyprian Kamil Norwid, a.k.a. Cyprian Konstanty Norwid (24 September 1821 – 23 May 1883), was a nationally esteemed Polish poet, dramatist, painter, and sculptor.

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Daniel Auber

Daniel François Esprit Auber (29 January 178212/13 May 1871) was a French composer.

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Dark romanticism

Dark Romanticism is a literary subgenre of Romanticism, reflecting popular fascination with the irrational, the demonic and the grotesque.

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Darrin McMahon

Darrin M. McMahon is a historian, author, public speaker, and currently a professor of History at Dartmouth College.

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David d'Angers

Pierre-Jean David (12 March 17884 January 1856) was a French sculptor and medallist.

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Düsseldorf school of painting

The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy (now the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf or Düsseldorf State Art Academy) in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow.

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Decadent movement

The Decadent Movement was a late 19th-century artistic and literary movement, centered in Western Europe, that followed an aesthetic ideology of excess and artificiality.

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Des Knaben Wunderhorn

Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder (German; "The boy's magic horn: old German songs") is a collection of German folk poems and songs edited by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano, and published in Heidelberg, Baden.

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Deutsche Mythologie

Deutsche Mythologie (Teutonic Mythology) is a treatise on Germanic mythology by Jacob Grimm.

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Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart

(MGG; Music in History and the Present) is the largest and most comprehensive German music encyclopedia, and among Western music reference sources, only The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is comparable to it in size and scope.

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Don Juan (poem)

Don Juan (see below) is a satiric poem, Gregg A. Hecimovich by Lord Byron, based on the legend of Don Juan, which Byron reverses, portraying Juan not as a womaniser but as someone easily seduced by women.

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Don Juan Tenorio

Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantasy Drama in Two Parts), is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla.

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Donald Ault

Donald D. Ault (born 1942) is professor emeritus at the University of Florida and is primarily known for his work on British Romantic poet William Blake and American comics artist Carl Barks.

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Donald Jay Grout

Donald Jay Grout (September 28, 1902 – March 9, 1987) was an American musicologist.

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Dziady (poem)

Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) is a poetic drama by the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz.

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E. T. A. Hoffmann

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.

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Edinburgh Review

The Edinburgh Review has been the title of four distinct intellectual and cultural magazines.

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Edmund Kean

Edmund Kean (4 November 178715 May 1833) was a celebrated British Shakespearean stage actor born in England, who performed, among other places, in London, Belfast, New York, Quebec, and Paris. He was somewhat notorious for his short stature, tumultuous personal life, and controversial divorce.

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Emily Brontë

Emily Jane Brontë (commonly; 30 July 1818 – 19 December 1848) was an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature.

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Emily Dickinson

Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet.

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Empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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English literature

This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Esteban Echeverría

José Esteban Antonio Echeverría (September 2, 1805 – January 19, 1851) was an Argentine poet, fiction writer, cultural promoter, and political activist who played a significant role in the development of Argentine literature, not only through his own writings but also through his organizational efforts.

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Eugène Delacroix

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

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Eugene Onegin

Eugene Onegin (pre-reform Russian: Евгеній Онѣгинъ; post-reform r) is a novel in verse written by Alexander Pushkin.

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Expressionist music

The term expressionism "was probably first applied to music in 1918, especially to Schoenberg", because like the painter Wassily Kandinsky (1866–1944) he avoided "traditional forms of beauty" to convey powerful feelings in his music.

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Fagundes Varela

Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela (August 17, 1841 – February 18, 1875) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Fathers and Sons (novel)

Fathers and Sons («Отцы и дети»; Ottsy i deti,; archaic spelling Отцы и дѣти), also translated more literally as Fathers and Children, is an 1862 novel by Ivan Turgenev.

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Fear

Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Fjord

Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.

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Fleury François Richard

Fleury François Richard (25 February 1777, Lyon – 14 March 1852, Écully), sometimes called Fleury-Richard, was a painter of the École de Lyon.

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Folk art

Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Four Last Songs

The Four Last Songs (Vier letzte Lieder), Op. posth., for soprano and orchestra are – with the exception of the song "Malven" (Mallows), composed later the same year – the final completed works of Richard Strauss.

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François Lesure

François Lesure (23 May 1923 in Paris – 21 June 2001) was a French librarian and musicologist.

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François Rude

François Rude (4 January 1784 – 3 November 1855) was a French sculptor.

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François-René de Chateaubriand

François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.

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Francesco Hayez

Francesco Hayez (10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.

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Francisco Goya

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.

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Frankenstein

Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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Frederic Edwin Church

Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 – April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut.

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Frederick the Great

Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.

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Freemasonry

Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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French First Republic

In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.

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French invasion of Russia

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Blume

Friedrich Blume (5 January 1893, in Schlüchtern, Hesse-Nassau – 22 November 1975, in Schlüchtern) was professor of Musicology in Kiel University from 1938–1958.

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Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (2 July 1724 – 14 March 1803) was a German poet.

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Friedrich Hölderlin

Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (20 March 1770 – 7 June 1843) was a German poet and philosopher.

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Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.

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Friedrich Schleiermacher

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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Fritz Novotny

Fritz Novotny (10 February 1903 in Vienna – 16 April 1983 in Vienna), was an Austrian art historian.

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Fyodor Tyutchev

Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Фёдор Иванович Тютчев, Pre-Reform orthography: Ѳедоръ Ивановичъ Тютчевъ; &ndash) was a Russian poet and statesman.

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Gaetano Donizetti

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Nerval (22 May 1808 – 26 January 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie.

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Genius

A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Sand

Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her nom de plume George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist.

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George Steiner

Francis George Steiner, FBA (born April 23, 1929) is a French-born American literary critic, essayist, philosopher, novelist, and educator.

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Gerald Abraham

Gerald Ernest Heal Abraham, CBE, FBA (9 March 1904 – 18 March 1988) was an English-Jewish musicologist; he was President of the Royal Musical Association, 1970–74.

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Germaine de Staël

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (née Necker; 22 April 176614 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.

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German Forest

The German Forest (Deutscher Wald) was a phrase used both as a metaphor as well as to describe in exaggerated terms an idyllic landscape in German poems, fairy tales and legends of the early 19th century Romantic period.

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German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.

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Germanic mythology

Germanic mythology consists of the body of myths native to the Germanic peoples.

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Giacomo Leopardi

Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.

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Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.

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Gil Vicente

Gil Vicente (c.1465 – c. 1536), called the Trobadour, was a Portuguese playwright and poet who acted in and directed his own plays.

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Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.

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Giovanni Berchet

Giovanni Berchet (23 December, 1783 – 23 December, 1851) was an Italian poet and patriot.

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Giovanni Boldini

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 – 11 July 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris for most of his career.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Glossary of chess

This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.

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Goethe's Faust

Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, usually known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two.

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Goethean science

Goethean science concerns the natural philosophy (German Naturphilosophie "philosophy of nature") of German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

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Gonçalves Dias

Antônio Gonçalves Dias (August 10, 1823November 3, 1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic fiction

Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Grand Tour

The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).

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Great Emigration

The Great Emigration (Wielka Emigracja) involved the emigration of thousands of Poles, particularly from the political and cultural elites, from 1831 to 1870, after the failure of the November Uprising and of other uprisings (1846, 1863).

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Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

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Grigol Orbeliani

Prince Grigol Orbeliani or Jambakur-Orbeliani (გრიგოლ ორბელიანი; ჯამბაკურ-ორბელიანი) (October 2, 1804 – March 21, 1883) was a Georgian Romanticist poet and general in Imperial Russian service.

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Grimms' Fairy Tales

The Grimms' Fairy Tales, originally known as the Children's and Household Tales (lead), is a collection of fairy tales by the Grimm brothers or "Brothers Grimm", Jacob and Wilhelm, first published on 20 December 1812.

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Guido Adler

Guido Adler (1 November 1855, Ivančice (Eibenschütz), Moravia – 15 February 1941, Vienna) was a Bohemian-Austrian musicologist and writer.

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Gustave Courbet

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.

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Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer

Gustavo Adolfo Claudio Domínguez Bastida, better known as Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (February 17, 1836, Seville – December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer (mostly short stories), also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented in drawing.

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György Lukács

György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.

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Hans Christian Andersen

Hans Christian Andersen (2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author.

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Hans Gude

Hans Fredrik Gude (13 March 1825 – 17 August 1903) was a Norwegian romanticist painter and is considered along with Johan Christian Dahl to be one of Norway's foremost landscape painters.

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Harmonium (poetry collection)

Harmonium is a book of poetry by American poet Wallace Stevens.

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Harold Bloom

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.

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Hector Berlioz

Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.

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Heidelberg

Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Heinrich von Kleist

Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (18 October 177721 November 1811) was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and journalist.

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Heinrich von Ofterdingen

Heinrich von Ofterdingen is a fabled, quasi-fictional Middle High German lyric poet and Minnesinger mentioned in the 13th century epic of the Sängerkrieg (minstrel contest) on the Wartburg.

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Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.

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Henry Fuseli

Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.

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Henryk Sienkiewicz

Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.

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Herman Melville

Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period.

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Hermeticism

Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").

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Hernani (drama)

Hernani (Full title: Hernani, ou l'Honneur Castillan) is a drama by the French romantic author Victor Hugo.

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Hierarchy of genres

A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different genres in an art form in terms of their prestige and cultural value.

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Historical fiction

Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.

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Historiography

Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

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Historiography and nationalism

Historiography is the study of how history is written.

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History of ideas

The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.

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History of literature

The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.

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History of Portugal (1777–1834)

The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.

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History painting

History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style.

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Hogmanay

Hogmanay is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner.

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Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

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Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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Horace Walpole

Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.

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Horror and terror

The distinction between horror and terror is a standard literary and psychological concept applied especially to Gothic and horror fiction.

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Hudson River School

The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism.

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Hugh Honour

Hugh Honour FRSL (26 September 1927 – 19 May 2016) was a British art historian, known for his writing partnership with John Fleming.

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Humboldtian science

Humboldtian science refers to a movement in science in the 19th century closely connected to the work and writings of German scientist, naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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I puritani

(The Puritans) is an opera in by Vincenzo Bellini.

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Ian Bent

Ian David Bent (born January 1, 1938) is a British-born music scholar.

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Il trovatore

(Italian for "The Troubadour") is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto largely written by Salvadore Cammarano, based on the play El trovador (1836) by Antonio García Gutiérrez.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Immortal Game

The Immortal Game was a chess game played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June 1851 in London, during a break of the first international tournament.

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Impasto

Impasto is a technique used in painting, where paint is laid on an area of the surface in very thick layers, usually thick enough that the brush or painting-knife strokes are visible.

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Imperial Russian Army

The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Impromptu

An impromptu (loosely meaning "offhand") is a free-form musical composition with the character of an ex tempore improvisation as if prompted by the spirit of the moment, usually for a solo instrument, such as piano.

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Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Intellectual history

Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.

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Iracema

Iracema (in Portuguese: Iracema - A Lenda do Ceará) is one of the three indigenous novels by José de Alencar.

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Isaac Levitan

Isaac Ilyich Levitan (Исаа́к Ильи́ч Левита́н; &ndash) was a classical Russian landscape painter who advanced the genre of the "mood landscape".

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Isabella di Morra

Isabella di Morra (ca. 1520–1545/1546) was an Italian poet of the Renaissance.

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Isaiah Berlin

Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.

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Ivan Aivazovsky

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.

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Ivan Turgenev

Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.

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Ivanhoe

Ivanhoe is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, first published in 1820 in three volumes and subtitled A Romance.

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J. M. W. Turner

Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.

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Jacint Verdaguer

Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.

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Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.

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Jacobite rising of 1745

The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Bliadhna Theàrlaich, "The Year of Charles") is the name commonly used for the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart.

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Jacques Barzun

Jacques Martin Barzun (November 30, 1907October 25, 2012) was a French-American historian known for his studies of the history of ideas and cultural history.

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Jacques-Louis David

Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.

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Jaime Cortesão

Jaime Zuzarte Cortesão (29 April 1884 - 14 August 1960) was a Portuguese doctor, politician, historian and an author.

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James Chandler

James Chandler (born January 17, 1948) is the director of the Franke Institute for the Humanities and holds the Barbara E. & Richard J. Franke Professorship in English Language and Literature at the University of Chicago.

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James Fenimore Cooper

James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.

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James Hogg

James Hogg (1770 – 21 November 1835) was a Scottish poet, novelist and essayist who wrote in both Scots and English.

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James Macpherson

James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.

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James Ward (artist)

James Ward (23 October 1769 – 17 November 1859) was a painter, particularly of animals, and an engraver.

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Jane Austen

Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.

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Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre (originally published as Jane Eyre: An Autobiography) is a novel by English writer Charlotte Brontë, published under the pen name "Currer Bell", on 16 October 1847, by Smith, Elder & Co. of London, England.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Józef Ignacy Kraszewski

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (28 July 1812 – 19 March 1887) was a Polish writer, publisher, historian, journalist, scholar, painter and author who produced more than 200 novels and 150 novellas, short stories, and art reviews.

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Jørgen Moe

Jørgen Engebretsen Moe (22 April 1813–27 March 1882) was a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet, and author.

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Júlio Dinis

Júlio Dinis, pseudonym of Joaquim Guilherme Gomes Coelho (14 November 1839 in Porto – 12 September 1871 in Porto) was a Portuguese doctor and writer.

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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Luc Nancy (born 26 July 1940) is a French philosopher.

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Jeffrey N. Cox

Jeffrey N. Cox (born June 3, 1954) is Professor of English Literature and Associate Vice Chancellor for Faculty Affairs at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Jena

Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.

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Jena Romanticism

Jena Romanticism (Jenaer Romantik; also the Jena Romantics or Early Romanticism (Frühromantik)) is the first phase of Romanticism in German literature represented by the work of a group centred in Jena from about 1798 to 1804.

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Jerome McGann

Jerome John McGann (born July 22, 1937) is an American academic and textual scholar whose work focuses on the history of literature and culture from the late eighteenth century to the present.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Joanna Baillie

Joanna Baillie (11 September 176223 February 1851) was a Scottish poet and dramatist, known for works including Plays on the Passions (three volumes, 1798-1812) and Fugitive Verses (1840).

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Johan Christian Dahl

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl (24 February 178814 October 1857), often known as or was a Norwegian artist who is considered the first great romantic painter in Norway, the founder of the "golden age" of Norwegian painting, and one of the greatest European artists of all time.

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Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Clare

John Clare (13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864) was an English poet, the son of a farm labourer, who became known for his celebrations of the English countryside and sorrows at its disruption.

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John Constable

John Constable, (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition.

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John Galt (novelist)

John Galt (2 May 1779 – 11 April 1839) was a Scottish novelist, entrepreneur, and political and social commentator.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Martin (painter)

John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854) was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.

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John Tyrrell (musicologist)

John Tyrrell (born 1942) is a British musicologist.

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John William Polidori

John William Polidori (7 September 1795 – 24 August 1821) was an English writer and physician.

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José Cadalso

José de Cadalso y Vázquez (Cádiz, 1741 – Gibraltar, 1782), Spanish, Colonel of the Royal Spanish Army, author, poet, playwright and essayist, one of the canonical producers of Spanish Enlightenment literature.

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José de Alencar

José Martiniano de Alencar (May 1, 1829 – December 12, 1877) was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist.

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José de Espronceda

José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 – 23 May 1842) was a Romantic Spanish poet, one of the most representative authors of the XIX century.

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José Zorrilla

José Zorrilla y Moral (21 February 181723 January 1893) was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.

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Joseph Anton Koch

Joseph Anton Koch (27 July 1768 – 12 January 1839) was an Austrian painter of Neoclassicism and later the German Romantic movement; he is perhaps the most significant neoclassical landscape painter.

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Joseph de Maistre

Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.

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Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (10 March 1788 – 26 November 1857) was a Prussian poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist.

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Joseph Haydn

(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.

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Joseph Jacobs

Joseph Jacobs (29 August 1854 – 30 January 1916) was an Australian folklorist, translator, literary critic, social scientist, historian and writer of English literature who became a notable collector and publisher of English folklore.

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Joseph Warton

Joseph Warton (April 1722 – 23 February 1800) was an English academic and literary critic.

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Joseph Wright of Derby

Joseph Wright (3 September 1734 – 29 August 1797), styled Joseph Wright of Derby, was an English landscape and portrait painter.

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Juan Manuel de Rosas

Juan Manuel de Rosas (30 March 1793 – 14 March 1877), nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and briefly the Argentine Confederation.

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Juliusz Słowacki

Juliusz Słowacki (23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet.

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June 21

This day usually marks the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, which is the day of the year with the most hours of daylight in the Northern Hemisphere and the fewest hours of daylight in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Junqueira Freire

Luís José Junqueira Freire (December 31, 1832 – June 24, 1855) was a Brazilian poet and Benedictine monk, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement and author of Inspirações do Claustro.

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Kalevala

The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.

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Karl Bryullov

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), original name Charles Bruleau, also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter.

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Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.

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King Lear

King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.

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Konstantin Batyushkov

Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov (a) was a Russian poet, essayist and translator of the Romantic era.

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Laing Art Gallery

The Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, is located on New Bridge Street.

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Lake District

The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.

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Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.

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Lake Poets

The Lake Poets were a group of English poets who all lived in the Lake District of England, United Kingdom, in the first half of the nineteenth century.

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Landscape painting

Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.

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Laurence Sterne

Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.

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Leatherstocking Tales

The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of five novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, set in the eighteenth century era of development in the primarily former Iroquois areas in central New York.

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Leon Plantinga

Leon B. Plantinga is an American musicologist specializing in music of the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

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Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna

D. Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna, 8th Countess of Assumar (31 October 1750 – 11 October 1839) was a Portuguese noblewoman, painter, and poet.

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Liberal Revolution of 1820

The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Liberty Leading the People

Liberty Leading the People (La Liberté guidant le peuple) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France.

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Lionel Kieseritzky

Lionel Adalbert Bagration Felix Kieseritzky (in Tartu – in Paris) was a Baltic German chess master, famous primarily for a game he lost against Adolf Anderssen, which because of its brilliance was named "The Immortal Game".

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List of Cambridge Companions to Music

The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.

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List of Hudson River School artists

The following is a list of painters in the Hudson River School, a mid-19th-century American art movement.

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List of Romantic poets

The six best-known English authors are, in order of birth and with an example of their work.

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List of romantics

List of romantics.

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Literary realism

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Logan Pearsall Smith

Logan Pearsall Smith (18 October 1865 – 2 March 1946) was an American-born British essayist and critic.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Lorenzo Bartolini

Lorenzo Bartolini (Prato, 7 January 1777 Florence, 20 January 1850) was an Italian sculptor who infused his neoclassicism with a strain of sentimental piety and naturalistic detail, while he drew inspiration from the sculpture of the Florentine Renaissance rather than the overpowering influence of Antonio Canova that circumscribed his Florentine contemporaries.

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Louis Janmot

Anne-François-Louis Janmot (21 May 1814 – 1 June 1892) was a French painter and poet.

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Lucia di Lammermoor

Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico (tragic opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti.

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Ludovico di Breme

Ludovico di Breme (Torino, 1780 – Torino, 15 August 1820), whose complete name was Ludovico Arborio Gattinara dei Marchesi di Breme, was an Italian writer and thinker, as well as a contributor to Milan's principal romantic journal, Il Conciliatore.

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Ludwig Achim von Arnim

Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim (26 January 1781 – 21 January 1831), better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet, novelist, and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.

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Ludwig Tieck

Johann Ludwig Tieck (31 May 1773 – 28 April 1853) was a German poet, fiction writer, translator, and critic.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Lyrical Ballads

Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature.

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M. H. Abrams

Meyer Howard "Mike" Abrams (July 23, 1912 – April 21, 2015), usually cited as M. H. Abrams, was an American literary critic, known for works on romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp.

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Mal du siècle

Mal du siècle ("sickness of the century") is a term used to refer to the ennui, disillusionment, and melancholy experienced by primarily young adults of Europe's early 19th century, when speaking in terms of the rising Romantic movement.

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Mansfield Park

Mansfield Park is the third published novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1814.

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Manuel José Quintana

Manuel José Quintana y Lorenzo (April 11, 1772 - March 11, 1857), was a Spanish poet and man of letters.

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Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage

Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage (15 September 1765 – 21 December 1805) was a Portuguese Neoclassic poet, writing at the beginning of his career under the pen name Elmano Sadino.

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Margaret Drabble

Dame Margaret Drabble, Lady Holroyd, DBE, FRSL (born 5 June 1939) is an English novelist, biographer, and critic.

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Maria Edgeworth

Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1768 – 22 May 1849) was a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature.

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Mariano José de Larra

Mariano José de Larra (24 March 1809 – 13 February 1837) was a Spanish romantic writer best known for his numerous essays and his infamous suicide.

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Marine art

Marine art or maritime art is any form of figurative art (that is, painting, drawing, printmaking and sculpture) that portrays or draws its main inspiration from the sea.

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Marmion (poem)

Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field was published in 1808; it is a historical romance in verse of 16th-century Britain, ending with the Battle of Flodden in 1513, by Sir Walter Scott.

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Mary Robinson (poet)

Mary Robinson (née Darby; 27 November 1757? – 26 December 1800) was an English actress, poet, dramatist, novelist, and celebrity figure.

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Mary Shelley

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).

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Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe

Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe is the memoir of François-René de Chateaubriand (1768–1848), collected and published posthumously in two volumes in 1849 and 1850, respectively.

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Medievalism

Medievalism is the system of belief and practice characteristic of the Middle Ages, or devotion to elements of that period, which has been expressed in areas such as architecture, literature, music, art, philosophy, scholarship, and various vehicles of popular culture.

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Melodrama

A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.

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Messianism

In Abrahamic religions, Messianism is the belief and doctrine that is centered on the advent of the messiah, who acts as the chosen savior and leader of humanity by God.

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Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Moby-Dick

Moby-Dick; or, The Whale is an 1851 novel by American writer Herman Melville.

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Modernity

Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

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Musical nationalism

Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.

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Musicology

Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nahum Tate

Nahum Tate (1652 – 30 July 1715) was an Irish poet, hymnist and lyricist, who became England's poet laureate in 1692.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne (né Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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National Gallery (Norway)

The National Gallery (Norwegian: Nasjonalgalleriet) is a gallery in Oslo, Norway.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National mysticism

National mysticism (German Nationalmystik) is a form of nationalism which raises the nation to the status of numen or divinity.

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National poet

A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Naturphilosophie

Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.

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Nazarene movement

The name Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art.

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Núria Perpinyà

Núria Perpinyà Filella (born 1961) is a Spanish novelist, a playwright and an essayist who works as a professor at the University of Lleida in Catalonia, Spain.

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Neo-romanticism

The term neo-romanticism is used to cover a variety of movements in philosophy, literature, music, painting, and architecture, as well as social movements, that exist after and incorporate elements from the era of Romanticism.

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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Neoclassicism (music)

Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.

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Neoromanticism (music)

Neoromanticism in music is a return (at any of several points in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries) to the emotional expression associated with nineteenth-century Romanticism.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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New German School

The New German School (Neudeutsche Schule) is a term introduced in 1859 by Franz Brendel, editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, to describe certain trends in German music.

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Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.

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Nicholas I of Russia

Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.

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Nicholas V. Riasanovsky

Nicholas Valentine Riasanovsky (December 21, 1923 – May 14, 2011) was a professor at the University of California, Berkeley and the author of numerous books on Russian history and European intellectual history.

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Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.

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Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.

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Nikolay Karamzin

Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (p) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic.

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Nikoloz Baratashvili

Prince Nikoloz "Tato" Baratashvili (ნიკოლოზ "ტატო" ბარათაშვილი; 4 December 1817 – 21 October 1845) was a Georgian poet.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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Northampton, Massachusetts

The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Northrop Frye

Herman Northrop Frye (July 14, 1912 – January 23, 1991) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century.

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Norwegian romantic nationalism

Norwegian romantic nationalism (Nasjonalromantikken) was a movement in Norway between 1840 and 1867 in art, literature, and popular culture that emphasized the aesthetics of Norwegian nature and the uniqueness of the Norwegian national identity.

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Novalis

Novalis was the pseudonym and pen name of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), a poet, author, mystic, and philosopher of Early German Romanticism.

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Novel

A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.

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Novella

A novella is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel, somewhere between 7,500 and 40,000 words.

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November Uprising

The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.

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Occult

The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History

On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History is a book by Thomas Carlyle, published by James Fraser, London, in 1841.

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Opium and Romanticism

Readers of Romantic poetry usually come into contact with literary criticisms about the influence of opium on its works.

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Oral literature

Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

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Orest Kiprensky

Orest Adamovich Kiprensky (Орест Адамович Кипренский -) was a leading Russian portraitist in the Age of Romanticism.

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Orientalism

Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).

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Originality

Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions, clones, forgeries, or derivative works.

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Oslo

Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Ossian

Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.

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Oxford Professor of Poetry

The Professor of Poetry is an academic appointment at the University of Oxford.

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Pan Tadeusz

Pan Tadeusz (full title in English: Sir Thaddeus, or the Last Lithuanian Foray: A Nobleman's Tale from the Years of 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse; Polish original: Pan Tadeusz, czyli ostatni zajazd na Litwie. Historia szlachecka z roku 1811 i 1812 we dwunastu księgach wierszem) is an epic poem by the Polish poet, writer and philosopher Adam Mickiewicz.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Paul de Man

Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983), born Paul Adolph Michel Deman, was a Belgian-born literary critic and literary theorist.

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Paul Delaroche

Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting history.

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Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa

Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa (December 13, 1839 – July 16, 1884) was a Brazilian poet, politician, orator and lawyer, adept of the "Condorist" movement.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Periodization

Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.

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Persuasion (novel)

Persuasion is the last novel fully completed by Jane Austen.

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Peter Christen Asbjørnsen

Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (15 January 18126 January 1885) was a Norwegian writer and scholar.

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Peter Kitson

Peter J. Kitson is a British academic and author.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.

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Petrarch

Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Philadelphia Museum of Art

The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum originally chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.

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Philip James de Loutherbourg

Philip James de Loutherbourg RA (31 October 174011 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of Philippe-Jacques, the German form of Philipp Jakob, or with the English-language epithet of the Younger, was a Franco-British painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon".

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Philipp Otto Runge

Philipp Otto Runge (23 July 1777 – 2 December 1810) was a Romantic German painter and draughtsman.

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Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (6 March 1940 – 28 January 2007) was a French philosopher.

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Philosophy of love

Philosophy of love is the field of social philosophy and ethics that attempts to explain the nature of love.

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Pierre Révoil

Pierre Henri Révoil (12 June 1776, in Lyon – 19 March 1842, in Paris) was a French painter in the troubadour style.

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Poetics (Aristotle)

Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Post-romanticism

Post-romanticism or Postromanticism refers to a range of cultural endeavors and attitudes emerging in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after the period of Romanticism.

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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

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Prosper Mérimée

Prosper Mérimée (28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was an important French writer in the school of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Psalms

The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Queen (chess)

The queen (♕,♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally.

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Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.

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Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.

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Raphael

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Rationalization (sociology)

In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.

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Realism (art movement)

Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution.

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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

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Reductionism

Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.

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Relativism

Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.

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Renaixença

The Renaixença, Catalan Renaissance, ((also written Renaixensa before spelling standardisation) was an early 19th-century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture, akin to the Galician Rexurdimento or the Occitan Félibrige movements. The movement dates to the 1830s and 1840s, but lasted into the 1880s, when it branched out into other cultural movements. Even though it primarily followed a romantic impulse, it incorporated stylistic and philosophical elements of other 19th century movements such as Naturalism or Symbolism. The name does not indicate a particular style, but rather the cultural circumstances in which it bloomed.

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René (novella)

René is a short novella by François-René de Chateaubriand, which first appeared in 1802.

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René Wellek

René Wellek (August 22, 1903 – November 11, 1995) was a Czech-American comparative literary critic.

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Rexurdimento

The Rexurdimento (Galician) was a period in the History of Galicia during the 19th century.

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Richard Parkes Bonington

Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1802 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France.

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Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Rip Van Winkle

"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving first published in 1819.

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Rob Roy (novel)

Rob Roy (1817) is a historical novel by Walter Scott.

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Robert Burns

Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.

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Robert Hughes (critic)

Robert Studley Forrest Hughes AO (28 July 19386 August 2012) was an Australian-born art critic, writer, and producer of television documentaries.

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Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Romantic chess

Romantic chess was the style of chess prevalent from the late 15th century until the 1880s.

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Romantic epistemology

Romantic epistemology emerged from the Romantic challenge to both the static, materialist views of the Enlightenment (Hobbes) and the contrary idealist stream (Hume) when it came to studying life.

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Romantic hero

The Romantic hero is a literary archetype referring to a character that rejects established norms and conventions, has been rejected by society, and has himself (or herself) as the center of his or her own existence.

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Romantic medicine

Romantic medicine is part of the broader movement known as Romanticism, most predominant in the period 1800–1840, and involved both the cultural (humanities) and natural sciences, not to mention efforts to better understand man within a spiritual context ('spiritual science').

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.

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Romantic poetry

Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.

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Romantic realism

Romantic realism is an aesthetic term that usually refers to art which combines elements of both romanticism and realism.

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Romanticism in Poland

Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822.

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Romanticism in science

Romanticism (or the Age of Reflection, 1800–40) was an intellectual movement that originated in Western Europe as a counter-movement to the late-18th-century Enlightenment.

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Romanticism in Scotland

Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries.

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Romanticism in Spanish literature

Romanticism arrived late and lasted only for a short but intense period, since in the second half of the 19th century it was supplanted by Realism, whose nature was antithetical to that of Romantic literature.

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Rook (chess)

A rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess.

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Rosalía de Castro

María Rosalía Rita de Castro (24 February 1837 – 15 July 1885), was a Galician romanticist writer and poet.

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Rudolf Maison

Rudolf Maison (July 29, 1854 – February 12, 1904) German sculptor born in Regensburg, Germany where he began his studies.

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Rupert Christiansen

Rupert Christiansen (born 1954) is an English writer, journalist and critic.

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Ruslan and Ludmila

Ruslan and Ludmila (pre-reform Russian: Русланъ и Людмила; post-reform Ruslan i Lyudmila) is a poem by Alexander Pushkin, published in 1820.

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Russian Museum

The State Russian Museum (Государственный Русский музей), formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III (Русский Музей Императора Александра III) is the largest depository of Russian fine art in Saint Petersburg.

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Sacrifice (chess)

In chess, a sacrifice is a move giving up a piece with the objective of gaining tactical or positional compensation in other forms.

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Saint

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Salon (Paris)

The Salon (Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

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Salvator Rosa

Salvator Rosa (June 20 or July 21, 1615 – March 15, 1673) was an Italian Baroque painter, poet, and printmaker, who was active in Naples, Rome, and Florence.

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Samuel Palmer

Samuel Palmer (27 January 1805 – 24 May 1881) was a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Scots Wha Hae

"Scots Wha Hae" (English: Scots, Who Have; Brosnachadh Bhruis) is a patriotic song of Scotland written using both words of the Scots language and English, which served for centuries as an unofficial national anthem of the country, but has lately been largely supplanted by "Scotland the Brave" and "Flower of Scotland".

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Sculpture

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Sensibility

Sensibility refers to an acute perception of or responsiveness toward something, such as the emotions of another.

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Sentimental novel

The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th-century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility.

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Sentimentalism (literature)

Sentimentalism is a practice of being sentimental, and thus tending toward basing actions and reactions upon emotions and feelings, in preference to reason.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Simon Boccanegra

Simon Boccanegra is an opera with a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Simón Bocanegra (1843) by Antonio García Gutiérrez, whose play El trovador had been the basis for Verdi's 1853 opera, Il trovatore.

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Sinecure

A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Slavic paganism

Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.

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Sleeping Beauty

Sleeping Beauty (La Belle au bois dormant), or Little Briar Rose (Dornröschen), also titled in English as The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods, is a classic fairy tale which involves a beautiful princess, a sleeping enchantment, and a handsome prince.

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Smith College

Smith College is a private, independent women's liberal arts college with coed graduate and certificate programs in Northampton, Massachusetts.

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Social realism

Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.

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Sodom and Gomorrah

Sodom and Gomorrah were cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis and throughout the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and in the deuterocanonical books, as well as in the Quran and the hadith.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spirituality

Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Staffage

In painting, staffage is the name for the human and animal figures depicted in a scene, especially a landscape, that are not the primary subject matter of the work.

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Stanley Sadie

Stanley John Sadie, CBE (30 October 1930 – 21 March 2005) was an influential and prolific British musicologist, music critic, and editor.

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Stanley Wells

Sir Stanley William Wells CBE (born 21 May 1930) is a Shakespearean scholar, writer, professor and editor who has been honorary president of the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, professor emeritus at the University of Birmingham, and author of a number of books about Shakespeare, including Shakespeare Sex and Love, and is general editor of the Oxford and Penguin Shakespeares.

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Stendhal

Marie-Henri Beyle (23 January 1783 – 23 March 1842), better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang (literally "storm and drive", "storm and urge", though conventionally translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and the early 1780s.

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Sublime (philosophy)

In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.

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Supernatural

The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Susan J. Wolfson

Susan J. Wolfson is Professor of English at Princeton University.

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Symphony No. 39 (Mozart)

The Symphony No.

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Szlachta

The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.

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T. C. W. Blanning

Timothy Blanning is a Professor of history and politics at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

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Tate

Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.

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Teixeira de Pascoaes

Joaquim Pereira Teixeira de Vasconcelos (2 November 1877, Amarante Municipality, Portugal - 14 December 1952, Gatão, Portugal), better known by his pen name Teixeira de Pascoaes, was a Portuguese poet.

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Théodore Géricault

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.

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Théophile Gautier

Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.

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The Barque of Dante

The Barque of Dante, sometimes known as Dante and Virgil in Hell (Dante et Virgile aux enfers), is the first major painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix, and one of the works signalling a shift in the character of narrative painting from Neo-Classicism towards the Romantic movement.

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The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons

The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons is the title of two oil on canvas paintings by J. M. W. Turner, depicting the fire that broke out at the Houses of Parliament on the evening of 16 October 1834.

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The Cambridge History of Political Thought

The Cambridge History of Political Thought is a series of history books published by Cambridge University Press covering the history of Western political thought from classical antiquity to the twentieth century.

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The Castle of Otranto

The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole.

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The Cenci

The Cenci, A Tragedy, in Five Acts (1819) is a verse drama in five acts by Percy Bysshe Shelley written in the summer of 1819, and inspired by a real Italian family, the House of Cenci (in particular, Beatrice Cenci, pronounced CHEN-chee).

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The Charging Chasseur

The Charging Chasseur, or An Officer of the Imperial Horse Guards Charging is an oil painting on canvas of about 1812 by the French painter Théodore Géricault, portraying a mounted Napoleonic cavalry officer who is ready to attack.

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The Charterhouse of Parma

The Charterhouse of Parma (La Chartreuse de Parme) is a novel by Stendhal published in 1839.

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The Count of Monte Cristo

The Count of Monte Cristo (Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844.

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The Death of Sardanapalus

The Death of Sardanapalus (La Mort de Sardanapale) is an oil painting on canvas by Eugène Delacroix, dated 1827.

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The Fighting Temeraire

The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, 1838 is an oil painting by the English artist Joseph Mallord William Turner.

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The Franklin's Tale

"The Franklin's Tale" (The Frankeleyns Tale) is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.

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The Genius of Christianity

The Genius of Christianity (French: Génie du christianisme) is a work by the French author François-René de Chateaubriand, written during his exile in England in the 1790s as a defense of the Catholic faith, then under attack during the French Revolution.

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The Giaour

The Giaour is a poem by Lord Byron first published in 1813 by T. Davison and the first in the series of his Oriental romances.

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The Guarani

The Guarani: Brazilian Novel (O Guarani: Romance Brasileiro) is a 1857 Brazilian novel written by José de Alencar.

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The Hay Wain

The Hay Wain is a painting by John Constable, finished in 1821, which depicts a rural scene on the River Stour between the English counties of Suffolk and Essex.

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The Heart of Midlothian

The Heart of Midlothian is the seventh of Sir Walter Scott's Waverley Novels.

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The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris, "Our Lady of Paris") is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831.

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The Last Day of Pompeii

The Last Day of Pompeii is a large history painting by Karl Bryullov produced in 1830–1833 on the subject of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

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The Last of the Mohicans

The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (1826) is a historical novel by James Fenimore Cooper.

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The Lay of the Last Minstrel

"The Lay of the Last Minstrel" (1805) is a long narrative poem by Walter Scott.

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The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is a horror story by American author Washington Irving, contained in his collection of 34 essays and short stories entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent..

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The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.

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The Massacre at Chios

The Massacre at Chios (Scène des massacres de Scio) is the second major oil painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.

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The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.

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The Nightmare

The Nightmare is a 1781 oil painting by Anglo-Swiss artist Henry Fuseli.

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The Ninth Wave

The Ninth Wave (Девятый вал, Dyevyatiy val) is an 1850 painting by the Russian Armenian marine painter Ivan Aivazovsky.

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The Norton Anthology of English Literature

The Norton Anthology of English Literature is an anthology of English literature published by the W. W. Norton & Company.

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The Oxford Companion to Music

The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press.

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The Prelude

The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth.

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The Prisoner of the Caucasus (poem)

The Prisoner of the Caucasus («Кавказский пленник»), also translated as Captive of the Caucasus, is a narrative poem written by Alexander Pushkin in 1820-21 and published in 1822.

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The Raft of the Medusa

The Raft of the Medusa (Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824).

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The Red and the Black

Le Rouge et le Noir (French for The Red and the Black), is a historical psychological novel in two volumes by Stendhal, published in 1830.

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The Renaissance Society of America

The Renaissance Society of America (RSA) is an academic association founded in 1954 supporting the study of the Renaissance period, 1300–1650.

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The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, written in 1797–98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads.

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The Robbers

The Robbers (Die Räuber) is the first drama by German playwright Friedrich Schiller.

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The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak

The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak is an 1863 landscape oil painting by the German-American painter Albert Bierstadt.

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The Sandman (short story)

"The Sandman" (Der Sandmann, 1816) is a short story written in German by.

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The Scarlet Letter

The Scarlet Letter: A Romance, an 1850 novel, is a work of historical fiction written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne.

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The Sewanee Review

The Sewanee Review is an American literary journal established in 1892.

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The Sorrows of Young Werther

The Sorrows of Young Werther (Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a loosely autobiographical epistolary novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774.

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The Third of May 1808

The Third of May 1808 (also known as El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid or Los fusilamientos de la montaña del Príncipe Pío, or Los fusilamientos del tres de mayoThe Museo del Prado entitles the work) is a painting completed in 1814 by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid.

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The Three Musketeers

The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.

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The Vampyre

"The Vampyre" is a short work of prose fiction written in 1819 by John William Polidori.

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The Voyage of Life

The Voyage of Life is a series of paintings created by Thomas Cole in 1842, representing an allegory of the four stages of human life: childhood, youth, manhood, and old age.

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The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides

The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides is a pencil, ink and watercolour on paper artwork by the English poet, painter and printmaker William Blake (1757–1827).

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Theosophy (Blavatskian)

Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thomas Chatterton

Thomas Chatterton (20 November 1752 – 24 August 1770) was an English poet whose precocious talents ended in suicide at age 17.

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Thomas Cole

Thomas Cole (February 1, 1801 – February 11, 1848) was an English-born American painter known for his landscape and history paintings.

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Thomas Moore

Thomas Moore (28 May 1779 – 25 February 1852) was an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of "The Minstrel Boy" and "The Last Rose of Summer".

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Thomas Warton

Thomas Warton (9 January 1728 – 21 May 1790) was an English literary historian, critic, and poet.

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Three Bards

The Three Bards are the national poets of Polish Romantic literature.

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Three Critics of the Enlightenment

Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder is a collection of essays in the history of philosophy by 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin.

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To a Waterfowl

"To a Waterfowl" is a poem by American poet William Cullen Bryant, first published in 1818.

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Tobias Barreto

Tobias Barreto de Meneses (June 7, 1839 – June 26, 1889) was a Brazilian poet, philosopher, jurist and literary critic.

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Totalitarianism

Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.

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Troubadour style

Taking its name from medieval troubadours, the Troubadour Style, style troubadour in French, was a somewhat derisive term for French historical painting of the early 19th century with idealised depictions of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

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Ugo Foscolo

Ugo Foscolo (6 February 1778 in Zakynthos10 September 1827 in Turnham Green), born Niccolò Foscolo, was an Italian writer, freemason, revolutionary and poet.

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Ultra-Romanticism

Ultra-Romanticism (in Portuguese, Ultrarromantismo) was a Portuguese literary movement that took place during the second half of the 19th century and later arrived in Brazil.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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Uncas

Uncas (15881683) was a sachem of the Mohegans who made the Mohegans the leading regional Indian tribe in lower Connecticut, through his alliance with the English colonists in New England against other Indian tribes.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

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Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Vasily Tropinin

Vasily Andreevich Tropinin (Василий Андреевич Тропинин; &ndash) was a Russian Romantic painter.

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Vasily Zhukovsky

Vasily Zhukovsky was the foremost Russian poet of the 1810s and a leading figure in Russian literature in the first half of the 19th century.

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Vegetarianism in the Romantic Era

Vegetarianism in the Romantic Era refers to the rise of vegetarianism associated with the Romanticism movement in Western Europe from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century.

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Verismo (music)

In opera, verismo ("realism", from vero, meaning "true") was a post-Romantic operatic tradition associated with Italian composers such as Pietro Mascagni, Ruggero Leoncavallo, Umberto Giordano, Francesco Cilea and Giacomo Puccini.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Vienna 1873 chess tournament

The Vienna 1873 chess tournament was a side event of the world exhibition of 1873 (the fifth since the first Great Exhibition in London in 1851).

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Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".

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Vitalism

Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

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Volkstum

The Volkstum (lit. folkdom or folklore, though the meaning is wider than the common usage of folklore) is the entire utterances of a Volk or ethnic minority over its lifetime, expressing a "Volkscharakter" this unit had in common.

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Vuk Karadžić

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.

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Walt Whitman

Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.

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Walter Friedländer

Walter Ferdinand Friedläender (March 10, 1873 – September 8, 1966) was a German art historian (who should not be confused with Max Jakob Friedländer).

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Walter Scott

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.

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Wanderer above the Sea of Fog

Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (Der Wanderer über dem Nebelmeer), also known as Wanderer above the Mist or Mountaineer in a Misty Landscape, is an oil painting by the German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich.

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Washington Irving

Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.

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Waverley (novel)

Waverley is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).

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Waverley Novels

The Waverley Novels are a long series of novels by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).

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Welsh art

Welsh art refers to the traditions in the visual arts associated with Wales and its people.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder

Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (13 July 1773 – 13 February 1798) was a German jurist and writer.

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Wilhelm Küchelbecker

Wilhelm Küchelbecker (p; in St. Petersburg – in Tobolsk) was a Russian Romantic poet and Decembrist.

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Wilhelm Steinitz

Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William Cullen Bryant

William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 – June 12, 1878) was an American romantic poet, journalist, and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post.

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William Hartston

William Roland Hartston (born 12 August 1947) is an English journalist who writes the Beachcomber column in the Daily Express and a chess player who played competitively from 1962 to 1987 with a highest Elo rating of 2485.

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William Hazlitt

William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer, drama and literary critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

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Winchester College

Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë's only novel, was published in 1847 under the pseudonym "Ellis Bell".

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Yevgeny Baratynsky

Yevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky (a; 11 July 1844) was lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet.

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Yorkshire

Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.

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Zeitgeist

The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".

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Zygmunt Krasiński

Count Zygmunt Krasiński (19 February 1812 – 23 February 1859), a Polish nobleman traditionally ranked with Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki as one of Poland's Three National Bards — the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage.

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Age of Romanticism, American Romantism, American romanticism, Everyday life in early 19th-century Spain, Folkloric idealism, How people lived in Spain during the Romanticism, How people lived in spain during the romanticism, Pre-romanticism, Preromanticism, Romantic (architecture), Romantic Age, Romantic Era, Romantic Movement, Romantic Period, Romantic age, Romantic art, Romantic era, Romantic literature, Romantic movement, Romantic painter, Romantic painting, Romantic period, Romantic school, Romantic style, Romantic visual arts, Romantic-period, Romanticism (art), Romanticism (literature), Romanticism in literature, Romanticist, Romanticists, Romantics, Romantism, Romantist, The Romantic Period, The Romantic age.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism

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