144 relations: Absorption of water, Aconitum, Aeration, Aerial root, Agar, Angelica, Angkor Wat, Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin, Avicennia, Bacteria, Bark (botany), Basal shoot, Beetroot, Betulaceae, Boscia albitrunca, Cambodia, Carrot, Cassava, Casuarinaceae, Central America, Cherry, Chrysanthemum, Cirsium arvense, Clover, Cluster root, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Concrete, Cork (material), Cork cambium, Cortex (botany), Cuscuta, Cutting (plant), Cylinder, Cypress knee, Cytokinin, Dianthus caryophyllus, Dicotyledon, Dimorphic root system, Drought rhizogenesis, Dune, Elaeagnaceae, Endodermis, Epiblem, Epidermis (botany), Epiphyte, Estrogen, Ethylene, Eucalyptus, Fabaceae, ..., Fibrous root system, Fungus, Gentiana, Germination, Gibberellin, Ginseng, Gravitropism, Hedera, Horseradish, Houseplant, Hyacinth (plant), Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Insecticide, Iron, Juniperus monosperma, Landslide, Lateral root, Lilium, Liquorice, List of root vegetables, Lonchocarpus, Los Angeles Times, Maize, Mangrove, Maple, Maya architecture, Meristem, Mistletoe, Monocotyledon, Moraceae, Mycorrhiza, Myricaceae, Nutrient, Orchidaceae, Organ (anatomy), Parsnip, Pericycle, Phloem, Phosphate, Phytochrome, Picea glauca, Plant, Plant perception (physiology), Plant physiology, Plant stem, Poinsettia, Poison, Potato, Prosopis juliflora, Proteaceae, Protein, Radicle, Radish, Reserpine, Rhizobia, Rhizome, Rhizosphere, Root cap, Root hair, Root nodule, Rotenone, Rutabaga, Sapindaceae, Sassafras, Shrub, Signal transduction, Silurian, Smilax ornata, Soil, Sonneratia, Stolon, Strangler fig, Strawberry, Sugar beet, Sweet potato, Syrup of ipecac, Tanada effect, Taproot, Taraxacum, Taxodium distichum, Temple, Transcription factor, Tree, Turnip, Vachellia erioloba, Vascular cambium, Vascular plant, Vascular tissue, Vegetative reproduction, Water, Willow, Woody plant, Xylem, Yam (vegetable). Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
The absorption of water by plants is essential for various metabolic activities.
Aconitum, commonly known as aconite, monkshood, wolf's bane, leopard's bane, mousebane, women's bane, devil's helmet, queen of poisons, or blue rocket, is a genus of over 250 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Ranunculaceae.
Aeration (also called aerification) is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.
Aerial roots are roots above the ground.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland and Greenland.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Basal shoots, root sprouts, adventitious shoots, water sprouts and suckers are various types of shoots which grow from a bud at the base of a tree or shrub or from adventitious buds in its roots.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
Betulaceae, the birch family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams, hazel-hornbeam, and hop-hornbeams numbering a total of 167 species.
Boscia albitrunca, commonly known as the shepherd tree or shepherd's tree (Witgat, Mohlôpi, Motlôpi, Muvhombwe, Umgqomogqomo, Umvithi), is a protected tree in South Africa.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Casuarinaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of four genera and 91 species of trees and shrubs native to the Australia, Southeast Asia, Malesia, Papuasia, and the Pacific Islands.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.
Cirsium arvense is a perennial species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native throughout Europe and northern Asia, and widely introduced elsewhere.
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.
Cluster roots, also known as proteoid roots, are plant roots that form clusters of closely spaced short lateral rootlets.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cork cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums) is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis.
A cortex is the outermost layer of a stem or root in a plant, or the surface layer or "skin" of the nonfruiting part of the body of some lichens.
Cuscuta (dodder) is a genus of about 100–170 species of yellow, orange, or red (rarely green) parasitic plants.
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
A cypress knee is a distinctive structure forming above the roots of a cypress tree of any of various species of the subfamily Taxodioideae.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
Dianthus caryophyllus, the carnation or clove pink, is a species of Dianthus.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
A dimorphic root system is a plant root system with two distinct root forms, which are adapted to perform different functions.
Drought rhizogenesis is an adaptive root response to drought stress.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The Elaeagnaceae are a plant family, the oleaster family, of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia.
The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.
In botany, Epiblem is a tissue that replaces the epidermis in most roots and in stems of submerged aquatic plants.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...
A fibrous root system is the opposite of a taproot system.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gentiana is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the gentian family (Gentianaceae), the tribe Gentianeae, and the monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
Hedera, commonly called ivy (plural ivies), is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.
Hyacinthus is a small genus of bulbous, fragrant flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Juniperus monosperma (one-seed juniper) is a species of juniper native to western North America, in the United States in Arizona, New Mexico, southern Colorado, western Oklahoma (Panhandle), and western Texas, and in Mexico in the extreme north of Chihuahua.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Lateral roots extend horizontally from the primary root (radicle) and serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil.
Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae).
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
A unique and intricate style, the tradition of Maya architecture spans several thousands of years.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Mistletoe is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
The Myricaceae are a small family of dicotyledonous shrubs and small trees in the order Fagales.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a root vegetable closely related to the carrot and parsley.
The pericycle is a cylinder of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells that lies just inside the endodermis and is the outer most part of the stele of plants.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.
Picea glauca, the white spruce, is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology, and phenotype accordingly.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a commercially important plant species of the diverse spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Prosopis juliflora (bayahonda blanca, Cuji, Aippia) is a shrub or small tree in the family Fabaceae, a kind of mesquite.
The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during the process of germination.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
The root cap is a section of tissue at the tip of a plant root.
A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root.
Root nodules occur on the roots of plants (primarily Fabaceae) that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.
The rutabaga (from Swedish dialectal word rotabagge), swede (from Swedish turnip, being introduced from Sweden), or neep (from its Latin name Brassica napobrassica) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip.
The Sapindaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales known as the soapberry family.
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Smilax ornata is a perennial, trailing vine with prickly stems that is native to Mexico and Central America.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Sonneratia is a genus of plants in the family Lythraceae.
In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.
Strangler fig is the common name for a number of tropical and subtropical plant species, including some banyans and unrelated vines, including among many other species.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Syrup of ipecac, commonly referred to as ipecac, is a drug that was once widely used as an expectorant (in low doses) and a rapid-acting emetic (in higher doses).
The Tanada effect refers to the adhesion of root tips to glass surfaces.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress, cypress, southern-cypress, white-cypress, tidewater red-cypress, Gulf-cypress, red-cypress, or swamp cypress) is a deciduous conifer in the family Cupressaceae that grows on saturated and seasonally inundated soils in the lowlands of the Southeastern and Gulf Coastal Plains of the United States.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
Vachellia erioloba (camel thorn, giraffe thorn) is a tree of southern Africa in the family Fabaceae.
The vascular cambium is the main growth layer in the stems and roots of many plants, specifically in dicots such as buttercups and oak trees, and gymnosperms such as pine trees.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.