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Rosa Luxemburg

Index Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28. [1]

268 relations: Activism, Alexander Parvus, Alfred Döblin, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Ancient Rome, Anti-war movement, Arganda del Rey, Arkadi Maslow, Austria-Hungary, Autopsy, Balkans, Balliol College, Oxford, Barbara Sukowa, Barcelona, Bavarian Soviet Republic, Ben Elton, Berlin, Bernie Sanders, Bertolt Brecht, Bild, Black Reichswehr, Blogger (service), Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Bremen, Burger's Daughter, Burgfriedenspolitik, Capital (economics), Capital punishment, Capitalism, Charité, Clara Zetkin, Class conflict, Class consciousness, Classical liberalism, Classical Marxism, Commune (model of government), Communist International, Communist party, Communist Party of Germany, Congress Poland, Conscientious objector, Conscription, CT scan, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Welle, Dialectical materialism, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Die Rote Fahne, Die Zeit, ..., DNA, Doctor of Law, Downton Abbey, Dresden, East Germany, Economist, Eduard Bernstein, Emancipation, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ernest Mandel, Ethical socialism, Europe Central, Far-left politics, February Revolution, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community, Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Feminism, Forensic pathology, Four Walls Eight Windows, Frankfurt, Franz Mehring, Freikorps, French Section of the Workers' International, Friedrich Ebert, Friedrichsfelde, General strike, Genetic testing, Georgi Plekhanov, German Emperor, German Empire, German language, German reunification, German Revolution of 1918–19, Germany, Getafe, Gijón, Gladiator, Government, Grassroots, Grigory Zinoviev, Gustav Noske, Gustav Stresemann, Gymnasium (school), Hamburg, Hans von Seeckt, Harry Graf Kessler, Harry Turtledove, Hermann Souchon, Historical materialism, History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Horst von Pflugk-Harttung, House of Hohenzollern, Hristo Smirnenski, Hugo Haase, Imperialism, Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, International Marxist Tendency, Internet meme, Irene Gammel, Isaac Deutscher, Jacobin, Jane Fonda, Jean Jaurès, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Jews, Jonathan Rabb, Joseph Stalin, Julian Marchlewski, Karl Kautsky, Karl Liebknecht, Karl Marx, Kate Evans, Kiel, Kiel mutiny, Kostja Zetkin, Kurt Vogel (German officer), Kurt Weill, Labour economics, Landwehr Canal, Langston Hughes, Left-wing politics, Leipzig, Leninism, Leo Jogiches, Leon Trotsky, Leszek Kołakowski, Liberal feminism, Liberalism, London, Lucius Junius Brutus, Luxembourg, Madrid, Margarethe von Trotta, Martyr, Marxism, Marxist philosophy, Marxists Internet Archive, Math rock, Matura, Methods of production, Middle Ages, Militarism, Minority group, Mumiy Troll, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Nadine Gordimer, Nationalism, Nazi Germany, Neo-Kantianism, New Left, October Revolution, Ossip K. Flechtheim, Osteoarthritis, Paris, Paul Levi, Pavel Axelrod, Permanent revolution, Philosopher, Philosophy, Poland, Polish language, Polish People's Republic, Polish Socialist Party, Political economy, Political prisoner, Power (social and political), Poznań, Proletarian internationalism, Proletarian revolution, Proletariat, Proletariat (party), Prussia, Quebec, Quebec City, Radiocarbon dating, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Red Terror, Reformism, Reichstag (German Empire), Resolution (law), Revolution, Revolutionary, Revolutionary socialism, Revolutionary spontaneity, Rhineland, Rock music, Roman Republic, Rosa Luxemburg (film), Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz (Berlin U-Bahn), Ruhr, Russia, Russian Constituent Assembly, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Revolution, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Ruth Fischer, Saint Petersburg, Sanja Iveković, Saxe-Gotha, Saxony, Second International, Secondary school, Self-determination, Simon Louvish, Social Darwinism, Social democracy, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Reform or Revolution?, Socialism, Southern Victory, Soviet (council), Soviet Union, Spartacist uprising, Spartacus, Spartacus League, Stanley Aronowitz, Stock exchange, Strasserism, Sturmabteilung, Stuttgart, Suffrage, Summary execution, Switzerland, The Accumulation of Capital, The Communist Manifesto, The Daily Telegraph, The Globe and Mail, The Left (Germany), Thesis, Thrace, Tiergarten (park), Tiergarten, Berlin, United States presidential election, 2016, University of Zurich, Vladimir Lenin, Volksbühne, Waldemar Pabst, Warsaw, Weimar National Assembly, Weimar Republic, White émigré, Wilhelm Cuno, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William T. Vollmann, Wola, Workers' council, Working class, World War I, World War II, Wrocław, Zamość, Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1986 Cannes Film Festival. Expand index (218 more) »


Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.

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Alexander Parvus

Alexander Lvovich Parvus born Israel Lazarevich Gelfand (1867-1924), was a Marxist theoretician, revolutionary, and a controversial activist in the Social Democratic Party of Germany.

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Alfred Döblin

Bruno Alfred Döblin (10 August 1878 – 26 June 1957) was a German novelist, essayist, and doctor, best known for his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929).

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Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky, – 26 December 1933) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Bolshevik Soviet People's Commissar ("Narkompros"), responsible for Ministry and Education, as well as active playwright, critic, essayist, and journalist throughout his career.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.

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Arganda del Rey

Arganda del Rey is a municipality in the autonomous community of Madrid in central Spain.

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Arkadi Maslow

Arkadi Maslow (Аркадій Маслов; Аркадий Маслов), born Isaak Yefimowich Chemerinsky (Ісаак Юхимович Чемеринський; Исаак Ефимович Чемеринский) (March 9, 1891 in Jelisawetgrad, Ukraine – November 20, 1941 in Havana, Cuba) was a communist politician.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Balliol College, Oxford

Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.

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Barbara Sukowa

Barbara Sukowa (born 2 February 1950) is a German theatre and film actress.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Bavarian Soviet Republic

The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik)Hollander, Neil (2013) Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland.

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Ben Elton

Benjamin Charles Elton (born 3 May 1959) is a British-Australian comedian, author, playwright, actor and director.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bernie Sanders

Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.

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Bertolt Brecht

Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.

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The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.

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Black Reichswehr

Black Reichswehr (Schwarze Reichswehr) was the name for the illegal paramilitary formations promoted by the German Reichswehr army during the time of the Weimar Republic; it was raised despite restrictions imposed by the Versailles Treaty.

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Blogger (service)

Blogger is a blog-publishing service that allows multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries.

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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Burger's Daughter

Burger's Daughter is a political and historical novel by the South African Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Nadine Gordimer, first published in the United Kingdom in June 1979 by Jonathan Cape.

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Burgfriedenspolitik—literally "castle peace politics" but more accurately a political policy of "party truce" — is a German term used for the political truce the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the other political parties agreed to during World War I. The trade unions refrained from striking, the SPD voted for war credits in the Reichstag and the parties agreed not to criticize the government and its war.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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The Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin is Europe's largest University clinic, affiliated with both Humboldt University and Freie Universität Berlin.

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Clara Zetkin

Clara Zetkin (née Eissner; 5 July 1857 – 20 June 1933) was a German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights.

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Class consciousness

In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Classical Marxism

Classical Marxism refers to the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.

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Commune (model of government)

The commune is a model of government that is generally advocated by communists, revolutionary socialists, and anarchists.

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Communist International

The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.

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Communist party

A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.

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Communist Party of Germany

The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Conscientious objector

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.

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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Dictatorship of the proletariat

In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.

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Die Rote Fahne

Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag) was a German newspaper created on 9 November 1918 by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in Berlin, most famously as organ of the Spartacus League.

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Die Zeit

Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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Downton Abbey

Downton Abbey is a historical period drama television series set in England in the early 20th century, created by Julian Fellowes and co-produced by Carnival Films and Masterpiece.

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Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.

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Eduard Bernstein

Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.

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Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Ernest Mandel

Ernest Ezra Mandel (also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter; 5 April 1923 – 20 July 1995), was a Marxist economist and a Trotskyist activist and theorist.

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Ethical socialism

Ethical socialism is a political philosophy that appeals to socialism on ethical and moral grounds as opposed to economic, egoistic, and consumeristic grounds.

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Europe Central

Europe Central (2005) is a novel by William T. Vollmann that won the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction.

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Far-left politics

Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

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Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community

The Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community (Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat; Heimat also translates to "homeland"), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution

The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz or BfV) is the Federal Republic of Germany's domestic security agency.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.

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Four Walls Eight Windows

Four Walls Eight Windows was an independent book publisher in New York City.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Franz Mehring

Franz Erdmann Mehring (27 February 1846 – 28 January 1919), was a German Communist and a Revolutionary Socialist Politician who was a senior member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany during the German Revolution in 1918–19.

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Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.

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French Section of the Workers' International

The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).

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Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.

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Friedrichsfelde is a German locality (Ortsteil) within the borough (Bezirk) of Lichtenberg, Berlin.

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General strike

A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.

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Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

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Georgi Plekhanov

Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.

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German Emperor

The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German reunification

The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.

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German Revolution of 1918–19

The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Getafe is a city in the south of the Madrid metropolitan area, Spain, and one of the most populated and industrialised cities in the area.

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Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.

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A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.

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Grigory Zinoviev

Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.

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Gustav Noske

Gustav Noske (9 July 1868 – 30 November 1946) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

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Gustav Stresemann

(10 May 1878 – 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hans von Seeckt

Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.

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Harry Graf Kessler

Harry Clemens Ulrich Graf Kessler (23 May 1868 – 30 November 1937) was an Anglo-German count, diplomat, writer, and patron of modern art.

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Harry Turtledove

Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American novelist, best known for his work in the genres of alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction.

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Hermann Souchon

Hermann Wilhelm Souchon (1894–1982) was a German Navy officer who, according to the testimonies of two accomplices, executed Rosa Luxemburg on 15 January 1919 in Berlin.

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Historical materialism

Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.

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History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany

The foundation of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) can be traced back to the 1860s, and for much of the 20th and 21st centuries it has represented the centre-left in German politics.

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Horst von Pflugk-Harttung

Horst Gustav Friedrich Pflugk-Harttung (1889–1967) (alternate spelling Pflug-Hartnung) was a German intelligence officer and spy for Nazi Germany.

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House of Hohenzollern

The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

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Hristo Smirnenski

Hristo Smirnenski (Христо Смирненски), born Hristo Izmirliev, (September 17, 1898, OS - June 18, 1923) was a Bulgarian poet and prose writer who joined the Communist party and whose works championed socialist ideals in a light-hearted and humane style.

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Hugo Haase

Hugo Haase (29 September 1863 – 7 November 1919) was a German socialist politician, jurist and pacifist.

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Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic.

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International Marxist Tendency

The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is an international Trotskyist tendency founded by Ted Grant and his followers following their break with the Committee for a Workers International in the early 1990s.

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Internet meme

An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.

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Irene Gammel

Irene Gammel is a Canadian literary historian, biographer, and curator.

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Isaac Deutscher

Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.

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The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.

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Jane Fonda

Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model and fitness guru.

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Jean Jaurès

Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.

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Jean-Paul Riopelle

Jean-Paul Riopelle, (7 October 1923 – 12 March 2002) was a painter and sculptor from Quebec, Canada.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jonathan Rabb

Jonathan Rabb (born April 28, 1964) is an American novelist, essayist, actor and writer.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Julian Marchlewski

Julian Baltazar Marchlewski (17 May 1866 – 22 March 1925) was a Polish communist.

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Karl Kautsky

Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.

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Karl Liebknecht

Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kate Evans

Kate Evans (born 2 October 1972) is a British cartoonist, non-fiction author and graphic novelist.

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Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).

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Kiel mutiny

The Kiel mutiny was a major revolt by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 3 November 1918.

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Kostja Zetkin

Konstantin "Kostja" Zetkin (14 April 1885 - September 1980) was a German physician, social economist and political activist.

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Kurt Vogel (German officer)

Kurt Vogel (11 October 1889; † 1967) was a German officer in World War I, a member of the Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division and was involved in the murder of Rosa Luxemburg.

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Kurt Weill

Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900April 3, 1950) was a German composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Landwehr Canal

The Landwehr Canal, or Landwehrkanal in German, is a long canal parallel to the Spree river in Berlin, Germany, built between 1845 and 1850 according to plans by Peter Joseph Lenné.

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Langston Hughes

James Mercer Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.

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Leo Jogiches

Leon "Leo" Jogiches (German: Leo Jogiches; Russian: Лев "Лео" Йогихес; 1867 – 1919), also commonly known by the party name Jan Tyszka, was a Marxist revolutionary of Polish-Jewish descent active in Poland, Lithuania and Germany.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.

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Leszek Kołakowski

Leszek Kołakowski (23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.

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Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lucius Junius Brutus

Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Margarethe von Trotta

Margarethe von Trotta (born 21 February 1942) is a German film director who has been referred to as a "leading force" of the New German Cinema movement.

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A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxist philosophy

Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.

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Marxists Internet Archive

Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).

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Math rock

Math rock is a style of indie rock that emerged in the late 1980s in the United States, influenced by post-hardcore, progressive rock bands such as King Crimson, and 20th century minimal music composers such as Steve Reich.

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Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

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Methods of production

Production methods fall into three main categories: job (one-off production), batch (multiple items, one step at a time for all items), and flow (multiple items, all steps in process at once for separate items).

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Mumiy Troll

Mumiy Troll (Му́мий Тро́лль) is a Russian rock group, founded in 1983 in Vladivostok by vocalist and songwriter Ilya Lagutenko (Илья Лагутенко).

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Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

The Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (French for "National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec") is a museum in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada gathering approximately 25,000 works essentially produced in Quebec, or by Quebec artists, some of which date from the 18th century.

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Nadine Gordimer

Nadine Gordimer (20 November 1923 – 13 July 2014) was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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New Left

The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Ossip K. Flechtheim

Ossip Kurt Flechtheim (March 5, 1909 – March 4, 1998) was a German jurist, political scientist, author, futurist, and a humanist.

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paul Levi

Paul Levi (March 11, 1883 – February 9, 1930) was a German Communist and Social Democratic political leader.

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Pavel Axelrod

Pavel Borisovich Axelrod (Па́вел Бори́сович Аксельро́д; 25 August 1850 – 16 April 1928) was a Russian Menshevik.

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Permanent revolution

Permanent revolution is a term within Marxist theory, coined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels by at least 1850 but which has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Polish Socialist Party

The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was a left-wing Polish political party.

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Political prisoner

A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.

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Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.

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Proletarian revolution

A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.

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The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).

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Proletariat (party)

Proletariat is the name used to refer to three Polish political parties.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rainer Werner Fassbinder

Rainer Werner Fassbinder (31 May 1945 – 10 June 1982) was a West German filmmaker, actor, playwright and theatre director, who was a catalyst of the New German Cinema movement.

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Red Terror

The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.

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Reichstag (German Empire)

The Reichstag (Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918.

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Resolution (law)

In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.

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In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).

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A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.

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Revolutionary socialism

Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.

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Revolutionary spontaneity

Revolutionary spontaneity (also known as spontaneism) is a tendency to believe that social revolution can and should occur spontaneously from below, without the aid or guidance of a vanguard party, and that it cannot and should not be brought about by the actions of individuals or parties who might attempt to foment such a revolution.

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The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Rosa Luxemburg (film)

Rosa Luxemburg (Die Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg) is a 1986 West German drama film directed by Margarethe von Trotta.

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Rosa Luxemburg Foundation

The Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung) named in recognition of Rosa Luxemburg, occasionally referred to as Rosa-Lux, is a transnational alternative policy group and educational institution, centered in Germany and affiliated to the democratic socialist Left Party.

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The Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz (English: Rosa Luxemburg Square) is a square in Berlin-Mitte, Germany.

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Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz (Berlin U-Bahn)

Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U2.

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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Constituent Assembly

The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.

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Ruth Fischer

Ruth Fischer (11 December 1895 – 13 March 1961) was an Austrian and German Communist and a co-founder of the Austrian Communist Party in 1918.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Sanja Iveković

Sanja Iveković (born 1949 in Zagreb) is a Croatian photographer, sculptor and installation artist.

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Saxe-Gotha (Sachsen-Gotha) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in the former Landgraviate of Thuringia.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Second International

The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.

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Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Simon Louvish

Simon Louvish (born 6 April 1947, Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scots-born Israeli author, writer and filmmaker.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania

The Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy, SDKPiL), originally the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland (SDKP), was a Marxist political party founded in 1893.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

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Social Reform or Revolution?

Social Reform or Revolution? (Sozialreform oder Revolution?) is an 1899 pamphlet by Polish-German Marxist theorist Rosa Luxemburg.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Southern Victory

The Southern Victory series or Timeline-191 are fan names given to a series of eleven alternate history novels by author Harry Turtledove, beginning with How Few Remain (1997) and published over a decade.

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Soviet (council)

Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spartacist uprising

The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.

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Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.

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Spartacus League

The Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic.

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Stanley Aronowitz

Stanley Aronowitz (born January 6, 1933) is a professor of sociology, cultural studies, and urban education at the CUNY Graduate Center.

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Stock exchange

A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.

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Strasserism (Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth.

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The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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Summary execution

A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The Accumulation of Capital

The Accumulation of Capital (full title: The Accumulation of Capital: A Contribution to an Economic Explanation of Imperialism, Die Akkumulation des Kapitals: Ein Beitrag zur ökonomischen Erklärung des Imperialismus) is the principal book-length work of Rosa Luxemburg, first published in 1913, and the only work Luxemburg published on economics during her lifetime.

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The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The Left (Germany)

The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Tiergarten (park)

The Tiergarten (formal German name: Großer Tiergarten) is Berlin’s most popular inner-city park, located completely in the district of the same name.

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Tiergarten, Berlin

Tiergarten (German for Animal Garden, historically for Deer Garden) is a locality within the borough of Mitte, in central Berlin (Germany).

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United States presidential election, 2016

The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

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University of Zurich

The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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The Volksbühne ("People's Theatre") is a theater in Berlin, Germany.

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Waldemar Pabst

Waldemar Pabst (24 December 1880 in Berlin – 29 May 1970 in Düsseldorf) was a German soldier and political activist, involved in far right and anti-communist activity in both his homeland and Austria.

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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Weimar National Assembly

The Weimar National Assembly (Weimarer Nationalversammlung) was the constitutional convention and de facto parliament of Germany from 6 February 1919 to 6 June 1920.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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White émigré

A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.

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Wilhelm Cuno

Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno (2 July 1876 – 3 January 1933) was a German businessman and politician who was the Chancellor of Germany from 1922 to 1923, for a total of 264 days.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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William T. Vollmann

William Tanner Vollmann (born July 28, 1959) is an American novelist, journalist, war correspondent, short story writer, and essayist.

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Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916.

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Workers' council

A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.

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Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.

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Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde

The Friedrichsfelde Central Cemetery (Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde), also known as the Memorial to the Socialists (Gedenkstätte der Sozialisten), is a cemetery in the borough of Lichtenberg in Berlin.

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1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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1986 Cannes Film Festival

The 39th Cannes Film Festival was held from 8 to 19 May 1986.

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Redirects here:

Eliasz Luxemburg, Line Löwenstein, Luxembourgism, Luxemburg, Rosa, Luxemburgism, Luxemburgist, Luxemburgists, R. Kruszyńska, R. Luxemburg, Rosa Luxemborg, Rosa Luxembourg, Rosa Luxembourgh, Rosa Luxemburgh, Rosa Luxemburgo, Roza Luksemburg, Rozalia Luxenburg, Róża Luksemburg.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosa_Luxemburg

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