242 relations: Abiogenesis, Academy Awards, Acetamide, Acetone, Agilkia Island, Aidan Gillen, Aisling Franciosi, Akatsuki (spacecraft), Alastair Reynolds, Allotropes of oxygen, Amino acid, Ampere hour, Ancient Egypt, Animation, Anime, Anthropomorphism, Ariane 5, Arianespace, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Associated Press, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astrium, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astronomy (magazine), Atomic force microscopy, Aviation Week & Space Technology, BBC, BBC News, British Film Institute, Caesium iodide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonaceous chondrite, Catalina Sky Survey, Charge-coupled device, Chirality (chemistry), Christopher Columbus, Cleanroom, Cluster II (spacecraft), Coma (cometary), Comet, Comet nucleus, Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, Committee on Space Research, CONSERT, Continuum (Ligeti), Coordinated Universal Time, Daily Mirror, ..., Darmstadt, Dawn (spacecraft), Decree, Deep Impact (spacecraft), Delta-v, Denis Denisenko, Deuterium, Dinitrogen tetroxide, DNA, Earth, Edward Rubenstein, ELA-3, Electron, Enantiomer, Eos (magazine), Essential amino acid, Ethylamine, European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Operations Centre, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Fact (UK magazine), Fantasy, Ferdinand Magellan, Film festival, French Guiana, Game of Thrones, Gerhard Schwehm, German Aerospace Center, Giotto (spacecraft), Gizmodo, Glycine, Gravity (2013 film), Gravity assist, Guiana Space Centre, György Ligeti, Halley Armada, Halley's Comet, Harpoon, Hashtag, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, Heavy water, Herschel Space Observatory, Hertz, Hibernation (computing), Hot Bird 7, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrogen, Hyperbolic trajectory, Iceland, In situ, Indium, Infrared spectroscopy, Ingeniøren, INTEGRAL, International Telecommunication Union, Isotopic signature, JAXA, Jupiter, Klim Churyumov, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of European Space Agency programs and missions, List of missions to comets, List of missions to Mars, Livestream, London, Long Now Foundation, Los Angeles Times, Madrid, Mariner Mark II, Mars, Mars Express, Mashable, Methyl isocyanate, Methylamine, Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System, Microorganism, Microwave, Minor Planet Center, Molecule, Monomethylhydrazine, NASA, NASASpaceFlight.com, National Space Science Data Center, Nature (journal), Near-Earth object, New Horizons, Newsweek Media Group, Newton (unit), Nickel–cadmium battery, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nucleic acid, Optical spectrometer, Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, Orbit, Organic compound, Oxygen, Perihelion and aphelion, Philae (spacecraft), Philae obelisk, Photocathode, Photoionization, Photon, Phys.org, Planetary and Space Science, Planetary flyby, Platige Image, Potassium bromide, Propionaldehyde, Provisional designation in astronomy, Purch Group, Radar, Reaction control system, Reaction wheel, Reddit, Reflectron, Reuters, RNA, Role-playing, Rosetta (Vangelis album), Rosetta Project, Rosetta Stone, S band, Satellite bus, Science (journal), Science fiction, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Sector mass spectrometer, Short film, Sinkhole, Sky & Telescope, Sleeping Beauty, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar System, Solar wind, Southwest Research Institute, Space probe, Space.com, Spacecraft Event Time, SpaceNews, Spectrometer, Spectroscopy, Stanford University, Stardust (spacecraft), Stele, Sterilization (microbiology), Sulfide, Sun, Sunlight, Supernova, Svetlana Gerasimenko, Syfy, TechRepublic, TED (conference), Telephoto lens, Tempel 1, Terma A/S, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, The Planetary Society, The Space Review, The Wire, Time of flight, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Titanium alloy, Tomasz Bagiński, Tomography, Twitter, U.S. News & World Report, Ultraviolet, Unified atomic mass unit, Universe Today, Vangelis, Venus Express, Vice (magazine), Villanueva de la Cañada, Visible spectrum, Visual effects, Visual gag, Web series, Wide-angle lens, X band, XMM-Newton, 21 Lutetia, 2867 Šteins, 354P/LINEAR, 46P/Wirtanen, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Agilkia Island (also called Agilika) is an island in the reservoir of the Old Aswan Dam along the Nile River in southern Egypt; it is the present site of the relocated Ancient Egyptian temple complex of Philae.
Aidan Gillen (born Aidan Murphy; 24 April 1968) is an Irish actor.
Aisling Franciosi (born 6 June 1993) is an Irish-Italian actress.
, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.
Alastair Preston Reynolds (born 13 March 1966) is a British science fiction author.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Animation is a dynamic medium in which images or objects are manipulated to appear as moving images.
Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
Arianespace SA is a multinational company founded in 1980 as the world's first commercial launch service provider.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is the flagship magazine of the Aviation Week Network.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
Caesium iodide or cesium iodide (chemical formula CsI) is the ionic compound of caesium and iodine.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
Catalina Sky Survey (CSS; obs. code: 703) is an astronomical survey to discover comets and asteroids.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.
Cluster II is a space mission of the European Space Agency, with NASA participation, to study the Earth's magnetosphere over the course of nearly two solar cycles.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.
The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) was a cancelled plan for a NASA led exploratory mission designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the mid-to-late 1980s and early 1990s, that planned to send a spacecraft to encounter an asteroid, and then to rendezvous with a comet and fly alongside it for nearly three years.
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was established by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958.
CONSERT (COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) is a scientific experiment on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, launched in 2004, which will provide information about the deep interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko upon the probe's rendezvous with the comet in 2014.
Continuum for harpsichord is a musical composition by György Ligeti composed in 1968, and dedicated to the contemporary harpsichordist, Antoinette Vischer.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
Denis Denisenko (born 16 January 1971) is a Russian astronomer of the late 20th – early 21st century, discoverer of 7 supernovae, more than 50 variable stars, and asteroid, and a comet.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Edward Rubenstein, M.D., M.A.C.P. is an American doctor of internal medicine, with major contributions in the fields of medical education, research (physics, biophysics and biochemistry) and the arts.
ELA-3, short for Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 3 (French for Ariane Launch Area 3), is a launch pad and associated facilities at the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guiana.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, is a weekly magazine of Earth science published by John Wiley & Sons for the American Geophysical Union (AGU).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Ethylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2NH2.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) is the ESA's centre for space science (astronomy, solar system exploration and fundamental physics).
The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) serves as the main mission control centre for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is located in Darmstadt, Germany.
The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is the European Space Agency's main technology development and test centre for spacecraft and space technology.
Fact (stylised as FACT) is a music publication that launched in the UK in 2003.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.
Gerhard Schwehm (b. 13 March 1949, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany) is Head of Solar System Science Operations Division for the European Space Agency (ESA).
The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency.
Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Gravity is a 2013 science fiction thriller film directed, co-written, co-edited, and produced by Alfonso Cuarón.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.
György Sándor Ligeti (Ligeti György Sándor,; 28 May 1923 – 12 June 2006) was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music.
The Halley Armada is the name of five space probes sent to examine Halley's Comet during its 1986 sojourn through the inner Solar System, connected with apparition "1P/1982 U1".
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.
A hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content; it allows easy, informal markup of folk taxonomy without need of any formal taxonomy or markup language.
Hayabusa2 is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hibernation (or suspend to disk) in computing is powering down a computer while retaining its state.
Hot Bird 7 was a French communications satellite which was lost in a launch failure in 2002.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Ingeniøren (full name: Nyhedsmagasinet Ingeniøren, literally The News Magazine "The Engineer") is a Danish weekly newspaper specialising in engineering topics.
INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a currently operational space telescope for observing gamma rays.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Klim Ivanovich Churyumov (Клим Іва́нович Чурю́мов, Клим Ива́нович Чурю́мов) (19 February 1937 – 14 October 2016) was a Soviet and Ukrainian astronomer.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
The European Space Agency (ESA) operates a number of missions, both operational and scientific, including collaborations with other national space administrations such as the Japanese JAXA, the French CNES, the American NASA, and the Chinese CNSA.
As of 2013, the United States, Soviet Union, Japan and the European Space Agency have conducted missions to comets.
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Livestream or Original Livestream as remaining on their website is a video live streaming platform that allows customers to broadcast live video content using a camera and a computer through the Internet, and viewers to play the content via the web, iOS, Android, Roku, and the Apple TV.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Long Now Foundation, established in 1996, is an American public, non-profit organization based in San Francisco that seeks to become the seed of a very long-term cultural institution.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mariner Mark II was NASA's planned family of unmanned spacecraft for the exploration of the outer Solar System that were to be developed and operated by JPL between 1990 through the year 2010.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Mashable is a digital media website founded by Pete Cashmore in 2005.
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO.
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) is one of several instruments on the European Space Agency's ''Rosetta'' mission which studied in-situ the environment around the active comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as it flew into the inner Solar System.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine chemical with the chemical formula CH3(NH)NH2.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
NASASpaceFlight.com is a website that is devoted to manned and unmanned spaceflight news.
The National Space Science Data Center serves as the permanent archive for NASA space science mission data.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Newsweek Media Group is an American global digital news organization with over 90 million monthly readers.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.
OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the main scientific imaging system on the orbiter of the ESA spacecraft Rosetta.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.
The Philae obelisk is one of twin obelisks discovered in 1815 at Philae in Upper Egypt.
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.
Photoionization is the physical process in which an ion is formed from the interaction of a photon with an atom or molecule.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
Planetary and Space Science, published 15 times per year, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1959.
A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.
Platige Image S.A. – a Polish company founded in 1997.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery.
Purch Group, Inc. formerly known as TechMediaNetworks, Inc.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.
Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.
A reflectron (mass reflectron) is a type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) that comprises a pulsed ion source, field-free region, ion mirror, and ion detector and uses a static or time dependent electric field in the ion mirror to reverse the direction of travel of the ions entering it.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Role-playing is the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role.
Rosetta is a studio album, and this is the first album in 15 years by the Greek composer and musician Vangelis, released on 23 September 2016 by Decca Records.
The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD; it is run by the Long Now Foundation.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a technique used to analyze the composition of solid surfaces and thin films by sputtering the surface of the specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collecting and analyzing ejected secondary ions.
A sector instrument is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that uses a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two (separately in space) as a mass analyzer.
A short film is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
Sleeping Beauty (La Belle au bois dormant), or Little Briar Rose (Dornröschen), also titled in English as The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods, is a classic fairy tale which involves a beautiful princess, a sleeping enchantment, and a handsome prince.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, is one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development (R&D) organizations in the United States.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Spacecraft Event Time (SCET) is the spacecraft-local time for events that happen at the spacecraft.
SpaceNews is a print and digital publication that covers business and political news in the space and satellite industry.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko (Светла́на Ива́новна Герасиме́нко; Світлана Іванівна Герасименко) is a Soviet and Tajikistani astronomer of Ukrainian origin and discoverer of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
Syfy (formerly Sci-Fi Channel and Sci Fi) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the NBCUniversal Cable Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
TechRepublic is an online trade publication and social community for IT professionals, with advice on best practices and tools for the day-to-day needs of IT decision-makers.
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
In photography and cinematography, a telephoto lens is a specific type of a long-focus lens in which the physical length of the lens is shorter than the focal length.
Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.
Terma A/S is a Danish defense and aerospace manufacturer for both civilian and military applications, and is owned by the Danish company Thrige Holding A/S.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.
The Space Review is a free online publication, published weekly with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development.
The Wire is an American crime drama television series set and produced in Baltimore, Maryland.
Time of flight (TOF) is a property of an object, particle or acoustic, electromagnetic or other wave.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
Tomasz "Tomek" Bagiński (born January 10, 1976 in Białystok) a Polish illustrator, animator and director.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.
Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou (born 29 March 1943), best known professionally as Vangelis (Βαγγέλης), is a Greek composer of electronic, progressive, ambient, jazz, and orchestral music.
Venus Express (VEX) was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA).
Vice is a Canadian-American print magazine focused on arts, culture, and news topics.
Villanueva de la Cañada is a municipality in the west of the Comunidad de Madrid (España), north-west of the city of Madrid.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Visual Effects (abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in film making.
In comedy, a visual gag or sight gag is anything which conveys its humour visually, often without words being used at all.
A web series is a series of scripted or non-scripted videos, generally in episodic form, released on the Internet and part of the web television medium, which first emerged in the late 1990s and become more prominent in the early 2000s (decade).
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane.
The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket.
Lutetia is a large asteroid in the asteroid belt of an unusual spectral type.
2867 Šteins is a small main-belt asteroid that was discovered in 1969 by Nikolai Chernykh.
354P/LINEAR (formerly P/2010 A2 (LINEAR)) is a small Solar System body that displayed characteristics of both an asteroid and a comet, and thus, was initially given a cometary designation.
46P/Wirtanen is a small short-period comet with a current orbital period of 5.4 years.
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.