143 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Age of the universe, Alkali metal, Alloy, Amalgam (chemistry), Annalen der Physik, Armature (electrical engineering), Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic clock, Atomic number, Becquerel, Bernic Lake, Beta decay, Biological half-life, Blood–brain barrier, Bose–Einstein condensate, Caesium, Caesium chloride, Calcium, Carl Wieman, Carnallite, Chemical element, Chloroplatinic acid, Colloid, Copper, DNA, Ductility, Elba, Electric battery, Electric current, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electron configurations of the elements (data page), Electronegativity, Emission spectrum, Eric Allin Cornell, Eukaryote, Feshbach resonance, Fireworks, Flame test, Fluid compartments, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Fractional crystallization (geology), Getter, Global Positioning System, Gold, Gram, Gustav Kirchhoff, ..., Half-life, Helium-3, Hexachloroplatinate, Hydrogen, Hyperfine structure, Igneous differentiation, Incompatible element, Ion, Ion channel, Ion thruster, Ionic crystal, Ionic radius, Ionization energy, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of krypton, Isotopes of strontium, Journal of Chemical Education, Laser, Laser cooling, Laser diode, Latin, Lepidolite, Leucite, Lithium, Magma, Magnetic field, Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetometer, Manitoba, Mercury (element), Metal, Mineral, Mineral oil, Monoisotopic element, Myocardial perfusion imaging, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nuclear medicine, Optical spectrometer, Organism, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Pegmatite, Periodic table (electron configurations), Periodic Videos, Peroxide, Photodetector, Photographic film, Plagioclase, Pollucite, Positron emission tomography, Potassium, Potassium chloride, Primordial nuclide, Pyrophoricity, Radioactive decay, Radiometric dating, Redox, Relative atomic mass, Robert Bunsen, Room temperature, Rubicline, Rubidium bromide, Rubidium carbonate, Rubidium chloride, Rubidium fluoride, Rubidium hydroxide, Rubidium iodide, Rubidium oxide, Rubidium silver iodide, Rubidium standard, Rubidium-82, Rubidium–strontium dating, Seawater, SERF, Sodium, Space vehicle, Spin polarization, Standard atomic weight, Superoxide, Tanco Mine, Telecommunication, Thermoelectric generator, Tonne, United States dollar, Vacuum tube, Wavelength, Wolfgang Ketterle, Xenon, Zinc, Zinnwaldite. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
In electrical engineering, an armature is the power-producing component of an electric machine.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Bernic Lake is a lake in the eastern part of the province of Manitoba, Canada.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.
Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid is an inorganic compound with the formula 2(H2O)x.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
This page shows the electron configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms in their ground states.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
In the field of physics, a Feshbach resonance, named after Herman Feshbach, is a feature of many-body systems in which a bound state is achieved if the coupling(s) between at least one internal degree of freedom and the reaction coordinates, which lead to dissociation, vanish.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.
The human body and even its individual body fluids may be conceptually divided into various fluid compartments, which, although not literally anatomic compartments, do represent a real division in terms of how portions of the body's water, solutes, and suspended elements are segregated.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.
A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Hexachloroplatinate is an anion with the chemical formula 2−.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In atomic physics, hyperfine structure refers to small shifts and splittings in the energy levels of atoms, molecules and ions, due to interaction between the state of the nucleus and the state of the electron clouds.
In geology, igneous differentiation, or magmatic differentiation, is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement, or eruption.
In petrology and geochemistry, an incompatible element is one that is unsuitable in size and/or charge to the cation sites of the minerals of which it is included.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
An ionic crystal is a crystal consisting of ions bound together by their electrostatic attraction.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (36Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101.
The alkaline earth metal strontium (38Sr) has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes: 84Sr (0.56%), 86Sr (9.86%), 87Sr (7.0%) and 88Sr (82.58%).
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with formula K(Li,Al,Rb)2(Al,Si)4O10(F,OH)2.
Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).
Myocardial perfusion scan (also referred to as MPI or MPS) is a nuclear medicine procedure that illustrates the function of the heart muscle (myocardium).
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
* Configurations of elements 109 and above are not available.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
Pollucite is a zeolite mineral with the formula (Cs,Na)2Al2Si4O12·2H2O with iron, calcium, rubidium and potassium as common substituting elements.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Rubicline, also referred to as Rb-microcline, is the rubidium analogue of microcline, an important tectosilicate mineral.
Rubidium bromide is the bromide of rubidium.
Rubidium carbonate, Rb2CO3, is a convenient compound of rubidium; it is stable, not particularly reactive, and readily soluble in water, and is the form in which rubidium is usually sold.
Rubidium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula RbCl.
Rubidium fluoride (RbF) is the fluoride salt of rubidium.
Rubidium hydroxide (+1) (RbOH) is a strong basic chemical and alkali that is formed by one rubidium ion and one hydroxide ion.
Rubidium iodide is a salt with a melting point of 642 °C.
Rubidium oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Rb2O.
Rubidium silver iodide is a ternary inorganic compound with the formula RbAg4I5.
A rubidium standard or rubidium atomic clock is a frequency standard in which a specified hyperfine transition of electrons in rubidium-87 atoms is used to control the output frequency.
Rubidium-82 (82Rb) is a radioactive isotope of rubidium.
The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium (87Rb) and strontium (87Sr, 86Sr).
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A spin exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer is a type of magnetometer developed at Princeton University in the early 2000s.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A space vehicle or spaceship is a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport unmanned satellites or humans between the Earth's surface and outer space.
Spin polarization is the degree to which the spin, i.e., the intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles, is aligned with a given direction.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Tanco Mine is an underground caesium and tantalum mine, owned and operated by Cabot Corporation on the north west shore of Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A thermoelectric generator (TEG), also called a Seebeck generator, is a solid state device that converts heat flux (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect).
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wolfgang Ketterle (born 21 October 1957) is a German physicist and professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinnwaldite, KLiFeAl(AlSi3)O10(OH,F)2, potassium lithium iron aluminium silicate hydroxide fluoride is a silicate mineral in the mica group.