80 relations: Aluminium oxide, Amethyst, Anno Domini, Anyolite, Asterism (gemology), Auguste Victor Louis Verneuil, Birthstone, Cabochon, Carat (mass), Cardinal gem, Chatoyancy, Christie's, Chromium, Coherence (physics), Coordinate-measuring machine, Corundum, Czochralski process, Diamond, Dopant, Elbaite, Elizabeth Taylor, Emerald, Fluorescence, Garnet, Garrard & Co, Gemology, Gemstone, Hardness, Hermann–Mauguin notation, Hexagonal crystal family, HRL Laboratories, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrothermal synthesis, Imitation, Incandescence, Inclusion (mineral), Jacques-Joseph Ebelmen, Kachin State, Latin, Lead glass, Liberty Bell Ruby, List of individual gemstones, List of minerals, Lustre (mineralogy), Maser, Mineral, Mogok, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Moissanite, Montana, ..., Myanmar, National Museum of Natural History, North Carolina, Northern Silk Road, Oxide minerals, Pailin Province, Peter Buck (restaurateur), Pink, Potassium alum, Prilep, Rhodolite, Ruby laser, Rutile, Samlout District, Sapphire, Shelby Gem Factory, South Carolina, Spinel, Stimulated emission, Stretch marks, Sunrise Ruby, Tanzania, Theodore Harold Maiman, Tourmaline, Trackway, Verneuil process, Washington, D.C., Winza, World War II, Wyoming. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Although anyolite is advertised as a variety of the mineral zoisite from Kenya and the Arusha Region of Tanzania, anyolite is actually a metamorphic rock composed of intergrown green zoisite, black/dark green pargasite (erroneously identified as tschermakite), and ruby.
Asterism (from ἀστήρ star), the property of a star stone (asteria), is the phenomenon of gemstones exhibiting a star-like concentration of reflected or refracted light when cut en cabochon (shaped and polished rather than faceted).
Auguste Victor Louis Verneuil (3 November 1856 – 27 April 1913) was a French chemist best known for inventing the first commercially viable process for the manufacture of synthetic gemstones.
A birthstone is a gemstone that represents a person's month of birth.
A cabochon, from the Middle French word caboche (meaning "head"), is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to faceted.
The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.
Cardinal gems are gemstones which have traditionally been considered precious above all others.
In gemology, chatoyancy, or chatoyance or cat's eye effect, is an optical reflectance effect seen in certain gemstones.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a device that measures the geometry of physical objects by sensing discrete points on the surface of the object with a probe.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
Elbaite, a sodium, lithium, aluminium boro-silicate, with the chemical composition Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4, is a mineral species belonging to the six-member ring cyclosilicate tourmaline group.
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-born American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Garrard & Co.
Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
HRL Laboratories (formerly Hughes Research Laboratories), was the research arm of Hughes Aircraft.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures; also termed "hydrothermal method".
Imitation (from Latin imitatio, "a copying, imitation") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior.
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
Jacques-Joseph Ebelmen (10 July 1814 – 31 March 1852) was a French chemist.
Kachin State (Kachin: Jingphaw Mungdaw; ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္) is the northernmost state of Myanmar.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
The Liberty Bell Ruby is the largest mined ruby in the world, found in east Africa in the 1950s.
A number of gemstones have gained fame, either because of their size and beauty or because of the people who owned or wore them.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mogok (မိုးကုတ်,; Shan) is a city in the Pyin Oo Lwin District of the Mandalay Region of Myanmar, located 200 km north of Mandalay and 148 km north-east of Shwebo.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Moissanite is naturally occurring silicon carbide and its various crystalline polymorphs.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Northern Silk Road is a prehistoric trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklamakan Desert to reach the ancient kingdoms of Parthia, Bactria and eventually Persia and Rome.
The oxide mineral class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O2−) is bonded to one or more metal ions.
Pailin (ប៉ៃលិន) is a province (khaet) in western Cambodia at the northern edge of the Cardamom Mountains near the border of Thailand.
Peter Buck (born December 19, 1930) is an American physicist, restaurateur, and philanthropist.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
Potassium alum, potash alum, or potassium aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound: the double sulfate of potassium and aluminium, with chemical formula KAl(SO4)2.
Prilep (Прилеп, is the fourth largest city in the Republic of Macedonia. It has a population of 66,246 and is known as "the city under Marko's Towers" because of its proximity to the towers of Prince Marko.
Rhodolite is a varietal name for rose-pink to red mineral pyrope, a species in the garnet group.
A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Samlout District (ស្រុកសំឡូត) is a district (srok) of Battambang Province, in north-western Cambodia.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
The Shelby Gem Factory, also known as ICT Incorporated, is a Michigan company that manufactures artificial gemstones through proprietary processes.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue.
The Sunrise Ruby is the world's most expensive ruby, most expensive coloured gemstone, and most expensive gemstone other than a diamond.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman (July 11, 1927 – May 5, 2007) was an American engineer and physicist who was widely, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser (Others attribute the invention to Gordon Gould).
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
A trackway is an ancient route of travel for people or animals.
The Verneuil process, also called flame fusion, was the first commercially successful method of manufacturing synthetic gemstones, developed in the late 1800s by the French chemist Auguste Verneuil.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Winza is a mining location in Mpwapwa District, Dodoma Region, Tanzania, Africa.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.