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Index Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. [1]

190 relations: Aalto Theatre, Adolf Hitler, Allied plans for German industry after World War II, Allies of World War II, Amsterdam, Autobahn, Bad Honnef, Battle of the Ruhr, Belgium, Bergisches Land, Berlin, Blast furnace, Bochum, Bottrop, Breckerfeld, Brownfield land, Brussels, Bundesautobahn 1, Bundesautobahn 2, Bundesautobahn 3, Bundesautobahn 40, Bundesautobahn 42, Bundesautobahn 43, Bundesautobahn 44, Bundesautobahn 45, Bundesautobahn 52, Bundesautobahn 57, Bundesautobahn 59, Bundesstraße, Carboniferous, Central European Time, Coal, Coal mining, Coke (fuel), Cold War, Council of the European Union, County of Mark, Czechoslovakia, Dawes Plan, Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Airport, Düsseldorf Airport station, Düsseldorf Airport Terminal station, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Oper am Rhein, Dortmund, Dortmund Airport, Dortmund Hauptbahnhof, Dortmund U-Tower, Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, ..., Dortmunder Philharmoniker, Duchy of Berg, Duchy of Cleves, Duisburg, East Prussia, Economic sanctions, Electorate of Cologne, Emscher, Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis, Essen, Essen Cathedral Treasury, Euro, European Capital of Culture, European Coal and Steel Community, European Route of Industrial Heritage, European Union, Factory, Folkwang University of the Arts, France, Free imperial city, Freikorps, Friedrich Harkort, Fulda Gap, Gasometer Oberhausen, Gelsenkirchen, German Football Museum, German Inland Waterways Museum, German language, German Mining Museum, Germany, Grillo-Theater, Gross regional product, H-Bahn, Hagen, Hagen Open-air Museum, Hamm, Hanseatic League, Hellweg, Herne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Holzwickede station, Hong Kong Observatory, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Industrial Heritage Trail, Industrial Revolution, International Authority for the Ruhr, International Labour Organization, Ireland, Kingdom of Prussia, Klavier-Festival Ruhr, Krefeld, Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord, League of Nations, Lehmbruck Museum, Lippe (river), Loess, London, Masurians, Maxim Litvinov, Mülheim, Metropolitan regions in Germany, Monnet Plan, Moscow, Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte, Museum Folkwang, Museum Küppersmühle, Natural history museum, New York City, North Rhine-Westphalia, Oberhausen, Occupation of the Ruhr, Oceanic climate, Oil campaign of World War II, Operation Chastise, Operation Hurricane (1944), Opernhaus Dortmund, Ostflucht, Paris, Poland, Poles, Polish language, Pomerania, Prince-Bishopric of Münster, Province of Posen, RAF battle honours, Randstad, Recklinghausen, Red Army, Remilitarization of the Rhineland, Rhenish Massif, Rhine, Rhine-Ruhr, Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn, Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Rhineland, Romania, Ruhr (river), Ruhr Pocket, Ruhr University Bochum, Ruhrpolen, Saar Protectorate, São Paulo, Schauspielhaus Bochum, Silesia, Silesians, Sociolect, South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences, Soviet Union, States of Germany, Steel crisis, Strategic bombing during World War II, Technical University of Dortmund, Theater Dortmund, Tram, Treaty of Versailles, United Kingdom, United Nations, University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Hagen, Unna, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Upper Silesian metropolitan area, Urban area, Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, Vienna, Wehrmacht, Wesel, Western Europe, Westphalia, Wirtschaftswunder, Witten, Witten/Herdecke University, World Meteorological Organization, World War I reparations, Wupper, Wuppertal, Xanten, Yugoslavia, Zürich, Zollern II/IV Colliery, Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex. Expand index (140 more) »

Aalto Theatre

The Aalto Theatre, officially the Aalto-Musiktheater Essen, is a performing arts venue in Essen, Germany.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Allied plans for German industry after World War II

The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany's industrial capacity.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.

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Bad Honnef

Bad Honnef is a spa town in Germany near Bonn in the Rhein-Sieg district, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Battle of the Ruhr

The Battle of the Ruhr of 1943 was a 5-month campaign of strategic bombing during the Second World War against the Nazi Germany Ruhr Area, which had coke plants, steelworks, and 10 synthetic oil plants.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bergisches Land

The Bergisches Land (Berg Country) is a low mountain range region within the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, east of Rhine river, south of the Ruhr.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.

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Bottrop is a city in west central Germany, on the Rhine-Herne Canal, in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Breckerfeld is a town in the district of Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, (Germany).

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Brownfield land

Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Bundesautobahn 1

is an autobahn in Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 2

is an autobahn in Germany that connects the Ruhr area in the west to Berlin in the east.

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Bundesautobahn 3

is an autobahn in Germany that links the border with the Netherlands near Wesel in the northwest to then go to the A2/A516 in Oberhausen an ultimately to the south at the Austrian border near Passau, where it continues in Austria as the A8.

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Bundesautobahn 40

, (named A 430 until the early 1990s) is one of the most used Autobahns in Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 42

is an autobahn in western Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 43

is an autobahn in western Germany, connecting Münster via Recklinghausen to Wuppertal.

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Bundesautobahn 44

is a German Autobahn.

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Bundesautobahn 45

is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Dortmund in the west with Aschaffenburg in the southwest.

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Bundesautobahn 52

is an autobahn in western Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 57

is a German Autobahn that begins at the Dutch-German border near Goch and ends in Köln.

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Bundesautobahn 59

is an autobahn in Germany that starts in Dinslaken and runs with three breaks along Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Cologne to Bonn.

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Bundesstraße (German for "federal highway"), abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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County of Mark

The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark, Comté de La Marck colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Dawes Plan

The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an initial plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, which had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.

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Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.

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Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport (Flughafen Düsseldorf,; until March 2013 Düsseldorf International Airport) is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Düsseldorf Airport station

Düsseldorf Airport (Bahnhof Düsseldorf Flughafen) is a railway station in Düsseldorf, Germany on the Cologne–Duisburg line that connects Düsseldorf Airport to Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte and long-distance trains, most of them ICE trains.

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Düsseldorf Airport Terminal station

Düsseldorf Airport Terminal (Düsseldorf Flughafen Terminal) is an underground station on the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn at the end of the Düsseldorf-Unterrath–Düsseldorf Airport Terminal railway, situated underneath Terminal C of Düsseldorf Airport, Düsseldorf in western Germany.

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Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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Deutsche Oper am Rhein

The Deutsche Oper am Rhein (German Opera on the Rhine) is an opera company based in Düsseldorf and Duisburg.

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Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dortmund Airport

Dortmund Airport, is a minor international airport located east of Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Dortmund Hauptbahnhof

Dortmund Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dortmund U-Tower

The U-Tower or Dortmunder U is a former brewery building in the city of Dortmund, Germany.

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Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts

Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Fachhochschule Dortmund) is a Fachhochschule in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with 12,300 students, and 669 staff, 232 of which are professors.

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Dortmunder Philharmoniker

The Dortmunder Philharmoniker (Dortmund Philharmonic) are a German symphony orchestra based in Dortmund.

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Duchy of Berg

Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany.

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Duchy of Cleves

The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve; Hertogdom Kleef) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau (de).

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Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Electorate of Cologne

The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.

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The Emscher is a river, a tributary of the Rhine, that flows through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany.

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The Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis is a district in the center of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Essen Cathedral Treasury

The Essen Cathedral Treasury (German: Essener Domschatz) is one of the most significant collections of religious artworks in Germany.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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European Capital of Culture

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

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European Coal and Steel Community

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.

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European Route of Industrial Heritage

The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) is a network (theme route) of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Folkwang University of the Arts

The Folkwang University of the Arts is a leading university for music, theater, dance, design, and academic studies, located in 4 German cities of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.

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Friedrich Harkort

Friedrich Harkort (February 22, 1793 - March 6, 1880), known as the "Father of the Ruhr," was an early prominent German industrialist and pioneer of industrial development in the Ruhr region.

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Fulda Gap

The Fulda Gap (Fulda-Lücke) is an area between the Hesse-Thuringian border (the former Inner German border) and Frankfurt am Main that contains two corridors of lowlands through which tanks might have driven in a surprise attack effort by the Soviets and their Warsaw Pact allies to gain crossing(s) of the Rhine River.

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Gasometer Oberhausen

The Gasometer Oberhausen is a former gas holder in Oberhausen, Germany, which has been converted into an exhibition space.

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Gelsenkirchen is a city in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany.

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German Football Museum

The German Football Museum (Deutsches Fußballmuseum) aka DFB-Museum is the national museum for German football in Dortmund, Germany.

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German Inland Waterways Museum

The German Inland Waterways Museum (Museum der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt) is located in Ruhrort, Duisburg at the nucleus of Duisburg-Ruhrorter ports which today make up the largest European inland harbour complex.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German Mining Museum

The German Mining Museum in Bochum (Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum) or DBM is one of the most visited museums in Germany with around 365,700 visitors (2012)per year.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Grillo-Theater is a theatre in Essen, Germany.

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Gross regional product

Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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The H-Bahn ("Hängebahn", or "hanging railway") in Dortmund and Düsseldorf is a suspended, driverless passenger suspension railway system.

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Hagen is the 41st-largest city in Germany.

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Hagen Open-air Museum

The Hagen Westphalian Open-Air Museum (LWL-Freilichtmuseum Hagen – Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Handwerk und Technik; English: "LWL Open-air Museum Hagen – Westphalian State Museum for Craft and Technics") is a museum at Hagen in the southeastern Ruhr area, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hamm (Latin: Hammona) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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In the Middle Ages, Hellweg was the official and common name given to main travelling routes in Germany.

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Herne, North Rhine-Westphalia

Herne is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Holzwickede station

Holzwickede station is a through station in the town of Holzwickede in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Hong Kong Observatory

The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong.

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Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.

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Industrial Heritage Trail

The Industrial Heritage Trail (Route der Industriekultur) links tourist attractions related to the industrial heritage in the Ruhr area in Germany.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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International Authority for the Ruhr

The International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR) was an international body established in 1949 by the Allied powers to control the coal and steel industry of the Ruhr Area in West Germany.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Klavier-Festival Ruhr

The Klavier-Festival Ruhr (also Klavierfestival Ruhr) is an annual festival of piano music, which takes place in the area of the Ruhr in Germany.

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Krefeld, also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord

Landschaftspark is a public park located in Duisburg-Meiderich, Germany.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Lehmbruck Museum

The Stiftung Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum - Center for International Sculpture is a museum in Duisburg, Germany.

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Lippe (river)

The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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The Masurians or Mazurs (Mazurzy, Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) are a small 5,000-15,000 strong Lechitic sub-ethnic group traditionally present in what is now the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.

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Maxim Litvinov

Maxim Maximovich Litvinov,; born Meir Henoch Wallach-Finkelstein (17 July 1876 – 31 December 1951) was an ethnic Jewish Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet Bolshevik Politician.

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Mülheim an der Ruhr, also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

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Metropolitan regions in Germany

The metropolitan regions in Germany are eleven densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Monnet Plan

The Monnet plan was proposed by French civil servant Jean Monnet after the end of World War II.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte

The Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte or MKK (Museum of Art and Cultural History) is a municipal museum in Dortmund, Germany.

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Museum Folkwang

Museum Folkwang is a major collection of 19th- and 20th-century art in Essen, Germany.

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Museum Küppersmühle

Museum Küppersmühle (MKM) is a Centre for Modern and Contemporary Art based Duisburg's Inner Harbour.

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Natural history museum

A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history collections that include current and historical records of animals, plants, fungi, ecosystems, geology, paleontology, climatology, and more.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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North Rhine-Westphalia

North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.

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Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

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Occupation of the Ruhr

The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Oil campaign of World War II

The Allied oil campaign of World War II was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products.

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Operation Chastise

Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, later called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis.

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Operation Hurricane (1944)

Operation Hurricane was a 24-hour bombing operation to "demonstrate to the enemy in Germany generally the overwhelming superiority of the Allied Air Forces in this theatre" (in the directive to Harris ACO RAF Bomber Command)Bishop p. 334.

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Opernhaus Dortmund

Opernhaus Dortmund is the opera house of Dortmund, Germany opened in 1966 and operated by the Theater Dortmund organisation.

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The Ostflucht (flight from the East) was the migration of Germans, in the later 19th century and early 20th century, from areas which were then eastern parts of Germany to more industrialized regions in central and western Germany.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.

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Prince-Bishopric of Münster

The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.

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Province of Posen

The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.

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RAF battle honours

Battle Honours are awarded by the Sovereign to Royal Air Force squadrons to commemorate the squadron's role in a particular operation.

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The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas.

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Recklinghausen is the northernmost city in the Ruhr-Area and the capital of the Recklinghausen district.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.

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Rhenish Massif

The Rhenish Massif, Rhine Massif or Rhenish Uplands (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge: 'Rhenish Slate Mountains') is a geologic massif in western Germany, eastern Belgium, Luxembourg and northeastern France.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 10 million inhabitants.

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Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn

The Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn (Rhein-Ruhr Stadtbahn) is an umbrella system of all of the Stadtbahn (light rail) lines included in the integrated public transport network of Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) which covers the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area in western Germany.

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Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences

Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Rhein-Waal) or HSRW, is a public university with an international orientation.

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The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Ruhr (river)

__notoc__ The Ruhr is a river in western Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.

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Ruhr Pocket

The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in April 1945, on the Western Front near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany.

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Ruhr University Bochum

The Ruhr-University Bochum (German: Ruhr-Universität Bochum, RUB), located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962 as the first new public university in Germany after World War II.

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Ruhrpolen (“Ruhr Poles”) is a German umbrella term for Poles (including Silesians, Masurians, Kashubians), who migrated to the rapidly industrializing areas of the Ruhr Valley.

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Saar Protectorate

The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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Schauspielhaus Bochum

The Schauspielhaus Bochum is one of the largest and most notable drama theatres in Germany.

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Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.

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Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.

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In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.

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South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences

The South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences is a high-ranked research institution located in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).

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Steel crisis

The steel crisis was a recession in the global steel market during the 1973–75 recession, following the post–World War II economic expansion and the 1973 oil crisis.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.

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Technical University of Dortmund

TU Dortmund University (Technische Universität Dortmund) is a university in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with over 30,000 students, and over 6,000 staff, offering around 80 Bachelor's and master's degree programs.

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Theater Dortmund

Theater Dortmund is a theatrical organization that produces operas, musicals, ballets, plays, and concerts in Dortmund, Germany.

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A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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University of Duisburg-Essen

The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.

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University of Hagen

The University of Hagen (FernUniversität in Hagen, informally often referred to as FU Hagen) is a public research university that is primarily focused on distance teaching.

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Unna is a city of around 59,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the seat of the Unna district.

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Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe, GZW, Hornoslezská uhelná pánev) is a coal basin in Silesia in Poland and Czech Republic.

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Upper Silesian metropolitan area

The Upper Silesian metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in southern Poland and northeast Czech Republic, centered on the cities of Katowice and Ostrava in Silesia.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr

The Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, abbreviated VRR, is the public transport association covering the area of the Rhine-Ruhr conurbation in Germany.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).

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Witten is a university city in the Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis (district) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Witten/Herdecke University

Witten/Herdecke University (UW/H) is a private, state-recognized non-profit university in Witten, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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World War I reparations

World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.

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The Wupper is a right tributary of the Rhine in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr.

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Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

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Zollern II/IV Colliery

The Zeche Zollern II/IV (translated: Zollern II/IV Colliery) is located in the northwestern suburb of Bövinghausen of Dortmund, Germany.

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Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex

The Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex (German Zeche Zollverein) is a large former industrial site in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Redirects here:

G4V, Ruhr Area, Ruhr District, Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Ruhr Region, Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr valley, Ruhr, Germany, Ruhr-gebiet, Ruhrgebiet, Ruhrpott, The ruhr.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhr

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