213 relations: Adriatic Veneti, Alamannia, Alcuin, Alemanni, Alphabet, Alu (runic), Ancient Rome, Anders Celsius, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglo-Saxons, Ansuz (rune), Anund Uppsale, Archaic Greek alphabets, Ariosophy, Armanen runes, Austria, Auxilia, Baltic languages, Bavaria, Bergen, Bind rune, Birka, Björketorp Runestone, Blót, Bolzano, Boydell & Brewer, Bracteate, Brill Publishers, Bryggen inscriptions, Carolingian Empire, Chernyakhov culture, Christianization, Churl, Cirth, Codex Runicus, Codex Vindobonensis 795, Dagaz, Dalarna, Dalecarlian runes, Denmark, Diphthong, Divination, Drinking horn, Duenos inscription, Dwarf (Middle-earth), Earl, East Germanic languages, Eihwaz, Einang stone, Elder Futhark, ..., Elfdalian, Encyclopædia Britannica, England, Epigraphy, Esotericism in Germany and Austria, Estonia, Fantasy, Fantasy literature, Fehu, Finnish language, Franks Casket, Frisia, Funen, Gamla Uppsala, Germania (book), Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germanic philology, Golden Horns of Gallehus, Gothic alphabet, Gothic language, Gothic runic inscriptions, Gothicism, Goths, Gotland, Granmar, Greek alphabet, Guido von List, Gummarp Runestone, Harii, Hávamál, Heathenry (new religious movement), Heimdall (video game), Heimdallr, Heinrich Himmler, History of the Latin script, Irminones, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jēran, Johannes Bureus, Jutland, Kabbalah, Karl Maria Wiligut, Kaunan, Kettil Runske, Khuzdul, Koine Greek, Kylver Stone, Labialized velar consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Letter (alphabet), Linguistic reconstruction, List of manuscripts in the Cotton library, Lithuanian language, Lulu.com, Magic (supernatural), Marcomanni, Medieval runes, Meldorf, Meldorf fibula, Mercenary, Middle English, Migration Period, Modern Paganism, Nazi symbolism, Negau helmet, New Age, Nigel Pennick, Noleby Runestone, Norse mythology, North Germanic languages, Northern Europe, Northwest Germanic, Norway, Numbers in Norse mythology, Odin, Ogham, Olaus Magnus, Olaus Rudbeck, Old English, Old English rune poem, Old Irish, Old Italic script, Old Norse, Oxford World's Classics, PDF, Pentimal system, Peorð, Philology, Phoenician alphabet, Poetic Edda, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Norse language, Rabanus Maurus, Raido, Rígsþula, Rök Runestone, Rhineland, Rimbert, Ring of Pietroassa, Roman Empire, Romantic nationalism, Rundata, Rune Poems, Runestone, Runic calendar, Runic inscriptions, Runic insignia of the Schutzstaffel, Runic magic, Runiform, Runology, Ruthwell Cross, Södermanland, Scandinavia, Scanian Law, Schutzstaffel, Seax of Beagnoth, Sigurd, Sigurd Agrell, Sigurd stones, Snorri Sturluson, Sowilō, Sparlösa Runestone, SS-Ehrenring, Staveless runes, Stentoften Runestone, Stephan Grundy, Stephen Flowers, Sweden, Tacitus, The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, Thomas Karlsson, Thrall, Thurisaz, Tiwaz (rune), Unicode, Unicode block, United States, Universal Character Set characters, Ur (rune), Uthark theory, Vangiones, Völkisch movement, Vellum, Video game, Viking Age, Viking revival, Vimose inscriptions, Vita Ansgari, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Welsh language, West Germanic languages, West Germanic tribes, Wilhelm Grimm, Wynn, Ynglinga saga, Yngvi, Yogh, Younger Futhark. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 CE.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The sequence alu is found in numerous Elder Futhark runic inscriptions of Germanic Iron Age Scandinavia (and more rarely in early Anglo-Saxon England) between the 3rd and the 8th century.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anders Celsius (27 November 170125 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Ansuz is the conventional name given to the a-rune of the Elder Futhark,.
Anund Uppsale or Anoundus, 'Anund of Uppsala', (Old Norse: Önundr Uppsali), a son of Erik Björnsson of the House of Munsö, ruled Sweden together with his brother Björn at Haugi, according to Hervarar saga.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels respectively, in Austria between 1890 and 1930.
The Armanen runes (or Armanen Futharkh) are a series of 18 runes, closely based on the historical Younger Futhark, introduced by Austrian mysticist and Germanic revivalist Guido von List in his Das Geheimnis der Runen (English: "The Secret of the Runes"), published as a periodical article in 1906, and as a standalone publication in 1908.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
A bind rune (bandrún) is a ligature of two or more runes.
Birka (Birca in medieval sources), on the island of Björkö (literally: "Birch Island") in present-day Sweden, was an important Viking Age trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia and Finland as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient.
The Björketorp Runestone (DR 360 U) in Blekinge, Sweden, is part of a grave field which includes menhirs, both solitary and forming stone circles.
Blót is the term for "sacrifice" in Norse paganism.
Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age (including the Vendel era in Sweden).
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bryggen inscriptions are a find of some 670 medieval runic inscriptions on wood (mostly pine) and bone found from 1955 and forth at Bryggen (and its surroundings) in Bergen, Norway.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Chernyakhov culture, or Sântana de Mureș culture, is an archaeological culture that flourished between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD in a wide area of Eastern Europe, specifically in what is now Ukraine, Romania, Moldova and parts of Belarus.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
A churl (etymologically the same name as Charles / Carl and Old High German karal), in its earliest Old English (Anglo-Saxon) meaning, was simply "a man", and more particularly a "husband", but the word soon came to mean "a non-servile peasant", still spelled ċeorl(e), and denoting the lowest rank of freemen.
The Cirth (plural of certh, in Sindarin meaning runes) are a semi-artificial script, with letters shaped on those of actual runic alphabets, invented by J. R. R. Tolkien for the constructed languages he devised and used in his works.
The Codex Runicus is a codex of 202 pages written in medieval runes around the year 1300 which includes the oldest preserved Nordic provincial law, Scanian Law (Skånske lov) pertaining to the Danish land Scania (Skåneland).
The Codex Vindobonensis 795 (Vienna Austrian National Library Codex) is a 9th-century manuscript.
The d rune (ᛞ) is called dæg "day" in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem.
Dalarna (English exonym: Dalecarlia), is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden.
The Dalecarlian runes, or dalrunes, was a late version of the runic script that was in use in the Swedish province of Dalarna until the 20th century.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
A drinking horn is the horn of a bovid used as a drinking vessel.
The Duenos inscription is one of the earliest known Old Latin texts, variously dated from the 7th to the 5th century BC.
In the fantasy of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Dwarves are a race inhabiting Middle-earth, the central continent of Earth in an imagined mythological past.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
Eiwaz or Eihaz (reconstructed *īhaz / *ēhaz or *īwaz / *ēwaz) was a Proto-Germanic word for "yew", and the reconstructed name of the rune.
The Einang stone (Einangsteinen) is a runestone located east of the Einang Sound near Fagernes, in Oppland, Norway, notable for the age of its runic inscription.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
Elfdalian or Övdalian (Övdalsk or Övdalską in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or Älvdalsmål in Swedish) is a North Germanic language spoken by up to 3,000 people who live or have grown up in the parish of Älvdalen (Övdaln), which is located in the southeastern part of Älvdalen Municipality in northern Dalarna, Sweden.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
This article gives an overview of esoteric movements in Germany and Austria between 1880 and 1945, presenting Theosophy, Anthroposophy and Ariosophy, among others, against the influences of earlier European esotericism.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world.
The Fe rune (Old Norse fé; Old English feoh) represents the f-sound in the Younger Futhark and Futhorc alphabets.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
Funen (Fyn), with an area of, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy.
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala) is a parish and a village outside Uppsala in Sweden.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanic philology is the philological study of the Germanic languages, particularly from a comparative or historical perspective.
The Golden Horns of Gallehus were two horns made of sheet gold, discovered in Gallehus, north of Møgeltønder in Southern Jutland, Denmark.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Very few Elder Futhark inscriptions in the Gothic language have been found in the territory historically settled by the Goths (Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov culture).
Gothicism or Gothism (Göticism; Gothicismus) was a cultural movement in Sweden, centered on the belief in the glory of the Swedish Geats, who were identified with the Goths.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Granmar was a king of Södermanland, in Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Guido Karl Anton List, better known as Guido von List (5 October 1848 – 17 May 1919), was an Austrian occultist, journalist, playwright, and novelist.
The Gummarp Runestone, designated as DR 358, was a runestone from the Vendel era and which was located in the former village of Gummarp in the province of Blekinge, Sweden.
The Harii (West Germanic "warriors"Simek (2007:132).) were, according to 1st century CE Roman historian Tacitus, a Germanic people.
Hávamál ("sayings of the high one") is presented as a single poem in the Codex Regius, a collection of Old Norse poems from the Viking age.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Heimdall is an action role-playing game developed by a team called The 8th Day and published by Core Design for MS-DOS, Amiga and Atari ST in 1991.
In Norse mythology, Heimdallr is a god who possesses the resounding horn Gjallarhorn, owns the golden-maned horse Gulltoppr, has gold teeth, and is the son of Nine Mothers (who may represent personified waves).
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
The Latin script is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world.
The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones (Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Jera (also Jeran, Jeraz) is the conventional name of the j-rune of the Elder Futhark, from a reconstructed Common Germanic stem jēra-C.f. Page (2005:15).
Johannes Thomae Bureus Agrivillensis (Johan Bure) (1568–1652) was a Swedish antiquarian, polymath and mystic.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karl Maria Wiligut (alias Weisthor, Jarl Widar, Lobesam; 10 December 1866 – 3 January 1946) was an Austrian Occultist and SS-Brigadeführer.
The k-rune (Younger Futhark, Anglo-Saxon futhorc) is called Kaun in both the Norwegian and Icelandic rune poems, meaning "ulcer".
Kettil Runske was, according to Olaus Magnus' Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (1555), the man who brought runes to humankind, by stealing three rune staffs from Odin from which he learnt the runes.
Khuzdul is a constructed language devised by J. R. R. Tolkien.
The Kylver stone, listed in the Rundata catalog as runic inscription G 88, is a Swedish runestone which dates from about 400 CE notable for its listing of each of the runes in the elder futhark.
A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
This is an incomplete list of some of the manuscripts from the Cotton library that today form the Cotton collection of the British Library.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lulu Press, Inc., doing business as Lulu.com, is an online print-on-demand, self-publishing, and distribution platform.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.
The medieval runes, or the futhork, was a Scandinavian 27 letter runic alphabet that evolved from the Younger Futhark after the introduction of dotted runes at the end of the Viking Age and it was fully formed in the early 13th century.
Meldorf is a town in western Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, that straddles the river Miele in the district of Dithmarschen.
The Meldorf fibula is a Germanic spring-case-type fibula found in Meldorf, Schleswig-Holstein in 1979.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
The 20th century German Nazi Party made extensive use of graphic symbolism, especially the swastika, which was used as its principal symbol and in the form of the swastika flag became the state flag of Nazi Germany.
Negau helmet refers to one of 26 bronze helmets (23 of which are preserved) dating to c. 450 BC–350 BC, found in 1812 in a cache in Ženjak, near Negau, Duchy of Styria (now Negova, Slovenia).
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
Nigel Campbell Pennick (born 1946 in Guildford, Surrey, England) is an author publishing on occultism, magic, natural magic, divination, subterranea, rural folk customs, traditional performance and Celtic art as well as runosophy.
The Noleby Runestone, which is also known as the Fyrunga Runestone or Vg 63 for its Rundata catalog listing, is a runestone in Proto-Norse which is engraved with the Elder Futhark.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northwest Germanic is a proposed grouping of the Germanic languages, representing the current consensus among Germanic historical linguists.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The numbers three and nine are significant numbers in Norse mythology and paganism.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.
Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (12 December 1630 – 17 September 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old English rune poem, dated to the 8th or 9th century, has stanzas on 29 Anglo-Saxon runes.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Oxford World's Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The pentimal system (pentadiska siffror) is a notation for presenting numbers, usually by inscribing in wood or stone.
is the rune denoting the sound p (voiceless bilabial stop) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet, in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem named peorð.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (780 – 4 February 856), also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine monk and theologian who became archbishop of Mainz in Germany.
*Raidō "ride, journey" is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the r- rune of the Elder Futhark.
Rígsþula or Rígsmál ("Lay of Ríg") is an Eddic poem, preserved in the manuscript (AM 242 fol, the Codex Wormianus), in which a Norse god named Ríg or Rígr, described as "old and wise, mighty and strong", fathers the classes of mankind.
The Rök Runestone (Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Saint Rimbert (or Rembert) (Flanders, 830 – 11 June 888 in Bremen) was archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg from 865 until his death.
The Ring of Pietroassa (or Buzău torc) is a gold torc-like necklace found in a ring barrow in Pietroassa (now Pietroasele), Buzău County, southern Romania (formerly Wallachia), in 1837.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
The Scandinavian Runic-text Data Base (Samnordisk runtextdatabas) is a project involving the creation and maintenance of a database of runic inscriptions.
The Rune Poems are poems that list the letters of runic alphabets while providing an explanatory poetic stanza for each letter.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
A Runic calendar (also Rune staff or Runic Almanac) is a perpetual calendar, variants of which have been used in Northern Europe until the 19th century.
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.
The runic insignia of the Schutzstaffel (known in German as the SS-Runen) were used from the 1920s to 1945 on Schutzstaffel flags, uniforms and other items as symbols of various aspects of Nazi ideology and Germanic mysticism.
There is some evidence that, in addition to being a writing system, runes historically served purposes of magic.
Runiform may refer to a script or inscription "similar to runes".
Runology is the study of the Runic alphabets, Runic inscriptions and their history.
The Ruthwell Cross is a stone Anglo-Saxon cross probably dating from the 8th century, when the village of Ruthwell, now in Scotland, was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scanian law (Skånske Lov, Skånelagen) is the oldest Danish provincial law and one of the first Nordic provincial laws to be written down.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Seax of Beagnoth (also known as the Thames scramasax) is a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon seax (single-edged knife).
Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr) or Siegfried (Middle High German: Sîvrit) is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was later murdered.
Per Sigurd Agrell (16 January 1881 in Värmland – 19 April 1937 in Lund) was a Swedish poet, translator, runologist and professor of Slavic languages at Lund University.
The Sigurd stones form a group of seven or eight runestones and one picture stone that depict imagery from the legend of Sigurd the dragon slayer.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
*Sowilō or *sæwelō is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune, meaning "sun".
The Sparlösa Runestone, listed as Vg 119 in the Rundata catalog, is located in Västergötland and is the second most famous Swedish runestone after the Rök Runestone.
The SS-Ehrenring ("SS Honour Ring"), unofficially called Totenkopfring ("Death's Head Ring"), was an award of Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel (SS).
Staveless runes were the climax of the simplification process in the evolution of runic alphabets that had started when the Elder Futhark was superseded by the Younger Futhark.
The Stentoften Runestone, listed in the Rundata catalog as DR 357, is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto-Norse that was discovered in Stentoften, Blekinge, Sweden.
Stephan Scott Grundy (born 1967 in New York City, New York, United States), commonly known as Stephan Grundy, and also known by the pen-name Kveldulf Gundarsson, is an American author, scholar, goði and proponent of Asatru. Grundy grew up in Dallas in the U.S. state of Texas. He now lives in Shinrone, County Offaly, Ireland. He has over two dozen published books and a number of published papers. He is best known for his modern adaptations of legendary sagas and also a non-fiction writer on Germanic mythology, Germanic paganism, and Germanic neopaganism.
Stephen Edred Flowers (born May 5, 1953), commonly known as Stephen E. Flowers, and also by the pen-names Edred Thorsson, and Darban-i-Den, is a former American professor, scholar, runologist, runosophist, goðiChisholm, James Allen;, from Thorsson, Edred; Green Rûna - The Runemaster's Notebook: Shorter Works of Edred Thorsson Volume I (1978-1985)", 1993, second improved and expanded edition 1996.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien.
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.
Thomas Karlsson (born 1972) is a Swedish occultist and esoteric author, with a PhD in the History of Religions from the Stockholm University.
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
The rune is called Thurs (Old Norse Þurs "giant", from a reconstructed Common Germanic Þurisaz) in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems.
The t-rune is named after Týr, and was identified with this god.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In Unicode, a block is defined as one contiguous range of code points.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark u rune is *Ūruz meaning "wild ox"Page, R.I. (2005).
In the occult study of the esoteric meaning of runes, the Uthark theory originated in the 1930s with the work of philologist Sigurd Agrell (1881–1937), a professor at Lund University, Sweden.
The Vangiones appear first in history as an ancient Germanic tribe of unknown provenance.
The völkisch movement (völkische Bewegung, "folkish movement") was the German interpretation of a populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era.
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Viking revival was a movement of interest and appreciation for Viking history and culture in the 18th and 19th centuries, often with romanticized heroic overtones.
Finds from Vimose, on the island of Funen, Denmark, include some of the oldest datable Elder Futhark runic inscriptions in early Proto-Norse from the 2nd to 3rd century in the Scandinavian Iron Age.
Vita Ansgari is the biography of Ansgar, written by Rimbert, his successor as archbishop in Hamburg-Bremen.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The West Germanic tribes were Germanic peoples who spoke the branch of Germanic languages known as West Germanic languages.
Wilhelm Carl Grimm (also Karl; 24 February 1786 – 16 December 1859) was a German author and anthropologist, and the younger brother of Jacob Grimm, of the library duo the Brothers Grimm.
Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225.
Yngvi, Old High German Inguin and Old English Ingƿine are names that relate to a theonym which appears to have been the older name for the god Freyr.
The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Futharc, Futhark, Futhark alphabet, Futhark language, Fuþark, Germanic alphabet, Germanic rune, Germanic runes, Germanic script, Gothic Rune, ISO 15924:Runr, Marcomannic runes, Rune, Rune language, Rune writing, Runekjevle, Runes and their meanings, Runic, Runic (script), Runic alphabet, Runic alphabets, Runic language, Runic letters, Runic script, Runr, Runr (script), Scandinavian alphabet, Teutonic alphabet, Urzu, ᚱᚢᚾᛟ.