316 relations: Ağrı Province, Alash Autonomy, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Alexander Fadeyev (writer), Alexander Kerensky, Alexander Kolchak, Alexander Serafimovich, Alexey Kaledin, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Amur Oblast, An Optimistic Tragedy, Anarchism, Anatoly Pepelyayev, And Quiet Flows the Don, And Quiet Flows the Don (film), Andrei Platonov, Anton Denikin, Ardahan Province, Arkhangelsk, Armavir, Russia, Armed Forces of South Russia, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Arsenal (1929 film), Austro-Hungarian Army, Ayano-Maysky District, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, B. H. Liddell Hart, Baltische Landeswehr, Barrier troops, Basmachi movement, Battle of Cēsis (1919), Battle of the Donbass and Don (1919), Battle of Tsaritsyn, Belarus, Belarusian People's Republic, Belgorod, Benyamin Kayurov, Black Sea, Bolsheviks, Boris Pasternak, Brest, Belarus, British Empire, Buffer state, Bugulma, Buguruslan, Byzantium Endures, Capitalism, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Central Asia, Central Council of Ukraine, ..., Central Powers, Chapaev (film), Cheka, Chelyabinsk, Chistopol, Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, Conservatism, Constantinople, Constitutional Democratic Party, Corto Maltese, Cossacks, Coup d'état, Crimea, Criticism of democracy, Czechoslovak Legion, David Lean, Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, Decossackization, Democracy, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Derek Robinson (novelist), Distinguished Service Order, Dmitry Furmanov, Dnipro, Doctor Zhivago (film), Doctor Zhivago (novel), Don Army, Don Cossacks, Don Republic, Don River (Russia), Donbass, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918), Eastern Front (World War I), Eight-hour day, Emirate of Bukhara, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enemy of the people, Erzurum Province, Estonia, Estonian War of Independence, Evan Mawdsley, Ewen Cameron Bruce, External debt, Fall of Giants, Finland, Finnish Civil War, First Republic of Armenia, Franklin J. Schaffner, Frederick Marshman Bailey, Freikorps in the Baltic, French Third Republic, Galicia (Eastern Europe), German Empire, German Revolution of 1918–19, Glazov, Great Siberian Ice March, Green armies, Grigory Chukhray, Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–27), How the Steel Was Tempered, Iğdır Province, Ilya Trauberg, Imperial Russian Army, Infantry, Iran, Irkutsk, Isaac Babel, Islamic Army of the Caucasus, Istanbul, Izhevsk, Jukums Vācietis, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kars Province, Kazan, Ken Follett, Khanate of Khiva, Kharkiv, Kiev, Kiev Arsenal January Uprising, Kingdom of Lithuania (1918), Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918), Knight Without Armour, Kokand, Kornilov affair, Krasnodar, Kronstadt rebellion, Kuban, Kuban Offensive, Kuban People's Republic, Kursk, Lake Baikal, Latvia, Latvian Riflemen, Lavr Kornilov, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, Left SR uprising, Leon Trotsky, Liberalism, Library of Congress, Lionel Dunsterville, Lithuania, Magaza Masanchi, Malleson mission, Mensheviks, Michael Moorcock, Mikhail Alekseyev, Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov, Mikhail Bulgakov, Mikhail Romm, Mikhail Sholokhov, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Minister of Defence (Soviet Union), Monarchism, Mongolia, Mongolia (1911–24), Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus, Murmansk, Nationalism, Nestor Makhno, Nicholas and Alexandra, Nicholas II of Russia, Nikita Mikhalkov, Nikolai Avksentiev, Nikolai Ostrovsky, Nikolai Yudenich, Novocherkassk, Novorossiysk, October Revolution, Odessa, Omsk, Operation Faustschlag, Orlando Figes, Oryol, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman Empire, Peasant, Perm, Peter Kenez, Petropavl, Pogrom, Poland, Polish–Soviet War, Political Centre (Russia), Poti, Pravda, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, Prodrazvyorstka, Provisional All-Russian Government, Provisional Priamurye Government, Provisional Siberian Government (Vladivostok), Pyotr Krasnov, Pyotr Wrangel, Reactionary, Rear admiral, Red Army, Red Cavalry, Red Guards (Russia), Red Terror, Reds (film), Republicanism, Republics of the Soviet Union, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Revolutionary Mass Festivals, Riga, Rostov-on-Don, Routledge, Russia, Russian Army (1917), Russian Constituent Assembly, Russian Empire, Russian famine of 1921–22, Russian Far East, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Revolution, Russian ruble, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Samara, Samara Oblast, Sarapul, Saratov, Satellite state, Second Polish Republic, Semyon Budyonny, Sergei Gerasimov (film director), Sergey Kamenev, Shchors (film), Siberia, Siberian Army, Siege of Perekop (1920), Socialism, Sovereign state, Soviet (council), Soviet Union, Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19, Soviet–Japanese Basic Convention, Stavropol, Storm over Asia, Street children, Summary execution, Sunstroke (2014 film), Tashkent, The Admiral (2008 film), The Don Flows Home to the Sea, The Elusive Avengers, The Flight (film), The Forty-First (1956 film), The Red and the White, The White Guard, Timeline of Russian history, Tobol River, Trans-Siberian Railway, Transbaikal, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian), Triple Entente, Tsarist autocracy, Turkey, Tuva, Typhus, Ufa, Ukraine, Ukrainian People's Republic, Ukrainian State, Ulyanovsk, Union of Bessarabia with Romania, United Baltic Duchy, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, Ural (region), Ural Mountains, Vasily Boldyrev, Vasily Chapayev, Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, Vladimir Kappel, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Zenzinov, Vladivostok, Volga region, Volgograd, Volunteer Army, Voronezh, Vsevolod Vishnevsky, War communism, Warren Beatty, West Russian Volunteer Army, White émigré, White movement, White Terror (Russia), Wilfrid Malleson, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm von Mirbach, William Henry Chamberlin, Winston Churchill, World revolution, World War I, Yakov Blumkin, Yakut revolt, Yekaterinburg, Yelabuga, 1st Cavalry Army, 5th Rifle Division (Poland). 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The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.
Alash Autonomy (Алаш аутономиясы Alash aýtonomııasy; Алашская автономия Alashskaya avtonomiya) was a Kazakh state that existed between December 13, 1917, and August 26, 1920, on, approximately, the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels.
Alexander Alexandrovich Fadeyev (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Фаде́ев; – 13 May 1956) was a Soviet writer, one of the co-founders of the Union of Soviet Writers and its chairman from 1946 to 1954.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; Russian: Александръ Ѳедоровичъ Керенскій; 4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Alexander Serafimovich (born Alexander Serafimovich Popov; Алекса́ндр Серафимо́вич Попо́в; O.S. January 7 (N.S. January 19), 1863 – January 19, 1949) was a Russian/Soviet writer and a member of the Moscow literary group Sreda.
Aleksei Maximovich Kaledin (Алексе́й Макси́мович Каледи́н; 24 October 1861 – 11 February 1918) was a Don Cossack Cavalry General who led the Don Cossack White movement in the opening stages of the Russian Civil War.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Amur Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East.
Optimistic Tragedy (Оптимистическая трагедия) is a play written by Vsevolod Vishnevskiy in the Soviet Union in 1933 with a dedication to the 15th anniversary of the Red Army.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (Анатолий Николаевич Пепеляев; 15 August 1891, in Tomsk – 14 January 1938) was a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War.
And Quiet Flows the Don or Quietly Flows the Don (Тихий Дон, literally "Quiet Don") is an epic novel in four volumes by Russian writer Mikhail Alexandrovich Sholokhov.
And Quiet Flows the Don (Тихий Дон, translit. Tikhiy Don) is a three-part epic 1958 Soviet film directed by Sergei Gerasimov based on the novel of the same title by Mikhail Sholokhov.
Andrei Platonov (Андре́й Плато́нов,; – January 5, 1951) was the pen name of Andrei Platonovich Klimentov (Андре́й Плато́нович Климе́нтов), a Soviet Russian writer, playwright, and poet, whose works anticipate existentialism.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Ardahan Province (Ardahan ili), is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
Armavir (Армави́р) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River.
The Armed Forces of South Russia or AFSR were formed on 8 January 1919, it incorporated many of the smaller formations of the White Army in South of Russia (called "White South" in Soviet historiography), including the Volunteer Army (which was renamed the Caucasian Volunteer Army).
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
Arsenal (Арсенал, also alternative title January Uprising in Kiev in 1918) is a Soviet war film by Ukrainian director Alexander Dovzhenko.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Ayano-Maysky District (Ая́но-Ма́йский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #143-pr and municipalLaw #194 district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
The Baltic Landwehr or Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Territorial Army") was the name of the unified armed forces of the Couronian and Livonian nobility from 7 December 1918 to 3 July 1919.
Barrier troops, blocking units, or anti-retreat forces are troops that are placed behind the front lines during a battle in order to shoot any soldiers attempting to retreat or escape from the battle.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The Battle of Cēsis (Cēsu kaujas; Võnnu lahing Battle of Võnnu; Schlacht von Wenden, Battle of Wenden), fought near Cēsis (or Võnnu, Wenden) in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.
The Battle of the Donbass and Don (1919) was a military campaign of the Russian Civil War that lasted from January to May 1919, in which White forces repulsed attacks of the Red Army on the Don Host Oblast and occupied the Donbass region after heavy fighting.
The Battle of Tsaritsyn was a military confrontation between Bolshevik forces and the White Army during the Russian Civil War.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.
Belgorod (p) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River north of the border with Ukraine.
Benyamin Nikolayevich Kayurov (Вениами́н Никола́евич Каю́ров; 1876–1936) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (|p|æ|s|t|ər|ˌ|n|æ|k) (29 January 1890 - 30 May 1960) was a Soviet Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
Bugulma (Бугульма; Бөгелмә) is a town in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Buguruslan (Бугурусла́н) is a town in Orenburg Oblast, Russia.
Byzantium Endures (1981) is a novel by Michael Moorcock.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Council of Ukraine (Українська Центральна Рада, Ukrains’ka Tsentral’na rada) (also called the Tsentralna Rada or the Central Rada) was the All-Ukrainian council that united the political, public, cultural and professional organizations of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet war film, directed by the Vasilyev brothers for Lenfilm.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.
Chistopol (Чи́стополь; Çistay; Чистай) is a town in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuybyshev Reservoir, on the Kama River.
Chita (p) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, east of Irkutsk.
The Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly was an anti-Bolshevik government that existed in Samara, Russia, during the Russian Civil War.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия, Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire, encompassing constitutional monarchists and right-wing republicans.
Corto Maltese is a series of adventure comics, named after the character Corto Maltese, an adventurous sailor.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Criticism of democracy is grounded in democracy's contested definition—its purpose, process, and outcomes.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, responsible for large-scale epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Doctor Zhivago (1965) and A Passage to India (1984).
The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia (Деклара́ция прав наро́дов Росси́и) was a document promulgated by the Bolshevik government of Russia on November 15 (November 2 by Old Style), 1917 (signed by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin).
Decossackization (Russian: Расказачивание, Raskazachivaniye) was the Bolshevik policy of systematic repressions against Cossacks of the Russian Empire, especially of the Don and the Kuban, between 1917 and 1933 aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks as a separate ethnic, political, and economic entity.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.
Derek Robinson (born 12 April 1932) is a British author best known for his military aviation novels full of black humour.
The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.
Dmitriy Andreyevich Furmanov (Дми́трий Андре́евич Фу́рманов; – March 15, 1926) was a Russian writer.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
Doctor Zhivago is a 1965 British-Italian epic romantic drama film directed by David Lean.
Doctor Zhivagois a novel by Boris Pasternak, first published in 1957 in Italy.
The Don Army (Донская армия, Donskaya Armiya) was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
The Don Republic (Донская Республика, later known as the Almighty Don Host, or Всевеликое Войско Донское, Vsevelikoe Voisko Donskoe), was an independent self-proclaimed anti-Bolshevik republic formed by the Armed Forces of South Russia on the territory of Don Cossacks against another self-proclaimed Don Soviet Republic.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
Erzurum Province (Erzurum ili) is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Evan Mawdsley (b. 11 June 1945) is a British historian and former Professor of International History at the University of Glasgow's School of Humanities,.
Major Ewen Cameron Bruce (10 November 1890 – 16 April 1925) was a British Army officer who served with the Heavy Branch of the Machine Gun Corps (Tank Corps from July 1917) during the First World War.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Fall of Giants is a historical novel published in 2010 by Welsh-born author Ken Follett.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
Franklin James Schaffner (May 30, 1920July 2, 1989) was an American film director.
Frederick Marshman Bailey (3 February 1882, Lahore, India – 17 April 1967, Stiffkey, Norfolk) was a British intelligence officer and one of the last protagonists of The Great Game - the fight for supremacy between the Russians and the British Empire along the Himalayas.
After 1918, the term Freikorps was used for the anti-communist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around the German Empire, including in the Baltic states, as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. It was one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
Glazov (p; Глаз, Glaz) is a town in the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Trans-Siberian Railway, on the Cheptsa River.
The Great Siberian Ice march (Russian: Великий Сибирский Ледяной поход, Velikiy Sibirskiy Ledyanoy pokhod) was the winter retreat of Vladimir Kappel's White Russian Army in the course of the Russian Civil War in January–February 1920.
The Green armies, Green Army (Russian: Зелёная Армия), or Greens (Russian: Зелёные) were armed peasant groups which fought against all governments in the Russian Civil War of 1917–22.
Grigory Naumovich Chukhray (Григо́рий Нау́мович Чухра́й, Григорiй Наумович Чухрай; 23 May 1921 – 29 October 2001) was a prominent Soviet film director and screenwriter, and a People's Artist of the USSR (1981).
Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, or Semenov (Григо́рий Миха́йлович Семёнов; September 13 (25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), was a Japanese-supported leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and beyond from December 1917 to November 1920, Lieutenant General and Ataman of Baikal Cossacks (1919).
The history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
How the Steel Was Tempered (Как закалялась сталь, Kak zakalyalas' stal) is a socialist realist novel written by Nikolai Ostrovsky (1904–1936).
Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.
Ilya Trauberg (Ilya Zakharovich Trauberg) was a Russian director born in Odessa on December 13, 1905 who died in Berlin on December 18, 1948.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel (p; – 27 January 1940) was a Russian-language journalist, playwright, literary translator, historian and Bolshevik revolutionary.
The Islamic Army of the Caucasus (Qafqaz İslam Ordusu; Turkish: Kafkas İslâm Ordusu) (also translated as Caucasian Army of Islam) was a military unit of the Ottoman Empire formed on July 10, 1918.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Izhevsk (p; Иж, Iž, or Ижкар, Ižkar) is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Izh River in the Western Ural Mountains.
Jukums Vācietis (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис, Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis; 11 November 1873 – 28 July 1938) was a Latvian Soviet military commander.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kenneth Martin "Ken" Follett, (born 5 June 1949) is a British author of thrillers and historical novels who has sold more than 160 million copies of his works.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kiev Arsenal January Uprising (Січневе повстання Sichneve povstannya), sometimes called simply the January Uprising or the January Rebellion, was the Bolshevik organized workers' armed revolt that started on January 29, 1918 at the Kiev Arsenal factory during the Ukrainian-Soviet War.
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a short-lived constitutional monarchy created towards the end of World War I when Lithuania was under occupation by the German Empire.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of the German Empire during World War I.The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history; by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland; by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History; and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe ("The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn ").
Knight Without Armour (styled as Knight Without Armor in some releases) is a 1937 British historical drama film starring Marlene Dietrich and Robert Donat.
Kokand (Qo‘qon, Қўқон, قوقان; Xuqand; Chagatai: خوقند, Xuqand; Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.
The Kornilov affair, or the Kornilov putsch, was an attempted military coup d'état by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, from September 10 to 13 1917 (August 27–30 old style) against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies.
Krasnodar (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
The Kuban Offensive, also called the Second Kuban Campaign, was fought between the White and Red Armies during the Russian Civil War.
The Kuban People's Republic (Кубанская Народная Республика; Кубанська Народна Республiка) was an anti-Bolshevik state during the Russian Civil War, comprising the territory of the modern-day Kuban region in Russia.
Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.
The Left SR uprising or Left SR revolt was an uprising against the Bolsheviks by the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party in July 1918.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Major General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (9 November 1865 – 18 March 1946) was a British general, who led the Dunsterforce across present-day Iraq and Iran towards Caucasus and oil-rich Baku.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Magaza Masanchi (1886–1937; Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), Magaza Masanchin (Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), or Ma Sanqi, was a Dungan Communist revolutionary commander and Statesman in the Soviet Union.
The Malleson mission was a military action by a small autonomous force of British troops, led by General Wilfrid Malleson, operating against Bolshevik forces over large distances in Transcaspia (modern Turkmenistan) between 1918 and 1919.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Michael John Moorcock (born 18 December 1939) is an English writer and musician, primarily of science fiction and fantasy, who has also published literary novels.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev (Михаил Васильевич Алексеев) (3 November 1857 – 8 October 1918) was an Imperial Russian Army general during World War I and the Russian Civil War.
Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov (Михаи́л Арте́мьевич Муравьёв) (– July 11, 1918) was a Russian officer who changed sides during the time of the Civil War. He was born in a village of Burdukovo, near Vetluga Kostroma Governorate to a peasant family. In 1898 he entered the army, serving in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I, in which he was a lieutenant colonel on the Southwestern Front. After the February Revolution he organized volunteer units to continue the war, but he became disaffected from the Provisional Government and joined the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries. During the October Revolution he defended Petrograd against the forces of Alexander Kerensky. In January 1918 he led Red Guard units against the Central Rada of Ukraine and after the Battle of Kruty his forces took Kiev where they performed mass terror against the offices of the imperial army and pro-Ukrainian elements. Then his forces fought against the Don Cossack forces of General Kaledin. However, after he had been named commander of the eastern front, fighting the Czechoslovak Legion, he heard of the Left SR uprising against the Bolsheviks in early July and rebelled, sailing down the Volga with a thousand men, hoping to take Simbirsk. He was captured by the Bolsheviks, resisted arrest, and was shot while trying to draw a gun.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.
Mikhail Ilych Romm (Михаи́л Ильи́ч Ромм; – 1 November 1971) was a Soviet film director.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (p; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924.
The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers; r) was a short-lived state situated in the Northern Caucasus that existed from 1917 until 1920.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.
Nicholas and Alexandra is a 1971 British biographical film directed by Franklin J. Schaffner and written by James Goldman, based on Robert K. Massie's book of the same name, which partly tells the story of the last ruling Russian monarch, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and his wife, Tsarina Alexandra.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikita Sergeyevich Mikhalkov (Ники́та Серге́евич Михалко́в; born 21 October 1945) is a Russian filmmaker, actor, and head of the Russian Cinematographers' Union.
Nikolai Dimitrovich Avksentiev (Николай Дмитриевич Авксентьев; 1878, Penza – 1943, New York City) was a leading member of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party (PSR).
Nikolai Alexeevich Ostrovsky (Николай Алексеевич Островский; Микола Олексійович Островський; 29 September 1904 – 22 December 1936) was a Soviet socialist realist writer, of Ukrainian origin.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
Novocherkassk (Новочерка́сск, lit. New Cherkassk) is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located near the confluence of the Tuzlov River and Aksay River, the latter a distributary of the Don River.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
The Operation Faustschlag ("Operation Fist Punch"), also known as the Eleven Days' War,Mawdsley (2007), p. 35 was a Central Powers offensive against the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
Orlando Guy Figes (born Islington, 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian history.
Oryol or Orel (p, lit. eagle) is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately south-southwest of Moscow.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
Peter Kenez (born 1937) is a historian specializing in Russian history and Eastern Europe.
Petropavl (Petropavl) or Petropavlovsk (r), is a city on the Ishim River in northern Kazakhstan close to the border with Russia, about 261 km west of Omsk along the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Political Centre (Политцентр) was an independent political group in Irkutsk during the Russian Civil War (1917–1923).
Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War within the territory of the former Russian Empire sought for creation of independent and non-Bolshevik nation states after the October Revolution.
Prodrazvyorstka (p, short for развёрстка, food apportionment) was a Bolshevik policy and campaign of confiscation of grain and other agricultural products from the peasants at nominal fixed prices according to specified quotas (the noun razvyorstka,, and the verb razverstat' refer to the partition of the requested total amount as obligations from the suppliers).
The Provisional All-Russian Government (PA-RG) was a short-lived government (1918–1920) centred in Omsk during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.
The Provisional Priamurye Government (or Provisional Priamur Government, Russian: Приамурский земский край) existed in the Far East Russian region of Priamurye, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922.
The Provisional Siberian Government (later the Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia), was an ephemeral government for Siberia created by the White movement.
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, also Vrangel; Freiherr Peter von Wrangel; (August 27, 1878 April 25, 1928) was a Russian officer in the Imperial Russian Army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Cavalry or Konarmiya (Конармия) is a collection of short stories by Russian author Isaac Babel about the 1st Cavalry Army.
Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Reds is a 1981 American epic drama film co-written, produced, and directed by Warren Beatty.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), also known as the Black Army or simply as Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина.), was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.
Revolutionary Mass Festivals (in Russian массовые праздники), or Mass Spectacles, were participatory, staged cultural events held in the Soviet Union.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In 1917, the Russian Army formally ceased to be the Army of the Russian Empire when the power in Russia was transferred to the Russian Provisional Government.
The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
Samara Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Sarapul (Udmurt and Сара́пул) is a city and a river port in the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kama River, southeast of Izhevsk, the capital of the republic.
Saratov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, Russia, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream (north) of Volgograd.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (a; – October 26, 1973) was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Sergei Appolinarievich Gerasimov (Серге́й Апполина́риевич Гера́симов; 21 May 1906 – 26 November 1985) was a Soviet film director and screenwriter.
Sergey Sergeyevich Kamenev (Серге́й Серге́евич Ка́менев; April 4 (16), 1881 – August 25, 1936), was a Soviet military leader with the Komandarm 1st rank.
Shchors (Щopc) is a 1939 Soviet biopic film directed by Alexander Dovzhenko.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian Army (Sibirskaya Armiya) was an anti-Bolshevik army during the Russian Civil War, which fought from June 1918 – July 1919 in Siberia – Ural Region.
The Siege of Perekop was an important battle in the Russian Civil War.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the proto-Soviet Union into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia.
The was a treaty normalizing relations between the Empire of Japan and the Soviet Union, signed on 20 January 1925.
Stavropol (p) is a city and the administrative center of Stavropol Krai, Russia.
Storm over Asia (Потомок Чингисхана, Potomok Chingiskhana, "The Heir to Genghis Khan") is a 1928 Russian film directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin, written by Osip Brik and Ivan Novokshonov, and starring Valéry Inkijinoff.
Street children are children experiencing poverty, homelessness or both, who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
Sunstroke (Russian: Солнечный удар; translit. Solnechnyy udar) is a 2014 drama film by Russian director Nikita Mikhalkov.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Admiral (Адмиралъ Admiral) is a 2008 biopic about Alexander Kolchak, a vice-admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy and leader of the anti-communist White Movement during the Russian Civil War.
The Don Flows Home to the Sea (1940) is the second in the series of the great Don epic (Tikhii Don) written by Mikhail Sholokhov.
The Elusive Avengers (Неуловимые мстители, translit. Neulovimye mstiteli) is a 1967 Soviet adventure film directed by Edmond Keosayan and made by Mosfilm.
The Flight (Бег, transliteration Beg) is a 1970 Soviet historical drama film, mainly based on writer Mikhail Bulgakov's play Flight, but also on his novel The White Guard and his libretto Black Sea.
The Forty-First (Sorok pervyy) is a 1956 Soviet film based on the eponymous novel by Boris Lavrenyev.
The Red and the White (Csillagosok, katonák) is a 1967 film directed by Miklós Jancsó and dealing with the Russian Civil War.
The White Guard (Белая гвардия) is a novel by 20th-century Russian writer Mikhail Bulgakov, famed for his critically acclaimed later work The Master and Margarita.
This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states.
Tobol (Тобол, Тобыл Tobyl) is a river and the main tributary of the Irtysh.
The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.
Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (p), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
Tartu Peace Treaty (Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu is a peace treaty between Estonia and Soviet Russia signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian State (Українська держава, Ukrajinśka Deržava), sometimes also called the Hetmanate (Гетьманат, Hetmanat), was an anti-socialist government that existed on most of the modern territory of Ukraine (except for West Ukraine) from April 29 to December 14, 1918.
Ulyanovsk is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River east of Moscow.
On, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania.
The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Urals (Ура́л) are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Vasily G Boldyrev (Russian, Василий Георгиевич Болдырев, April 5, 1875 – August 20, 1933) was an Imperial Russian army commander.
Vasily Ivanovich Chapayev or Chapaev (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чапа́ев; – September 5, 1919) was a celebrated Russian soldier and Red Army commander during the Russian Civil War.
Vladimir Alexandrovich Antonov-Ovseyenko (Владимир Александрович Антонов-Овсеенко; Володимир Антонов-Овсєєнко; 9 March 1883 – 10 February 1938), real surname Ovseyenko, party aliases the 'Bayonet' (Штык) and 'Nikita' (Ники́та), a literary pseudonym A. Gal (А. Га́льский), was a prominent Ukrainian Bolshevik leader and diplomat.
Vladimir Oskarovich Kappel (Влади́мир О́скарович Ка́ппель, – January 26, 1920) was a White Russian military leader.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Mikhailovich Zenzinov (Владимир Михайлович Зензинов; historically, his surname was also transcribed as Sensinoff: 29 November 1880 — 20 October 1953) was a member of Russia's Socialist-Revolutionary Party, a participant of the First (1905), Second (February 1917), and Third (November 1917) Russian Revolutions, and an author of a number of books.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
The Volga Region (Поволжье, Povolzhye, literally: "along the Volga") is an historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was an anti-Bolshevik army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
Voronezh (p) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located from where it flows into the Don.
Vsevolod Vitalievich Vishnevsky (Все́волод Вита́льевич Вишне́вский, – February 28, 1951) was a Soviet dramatist and prose writer.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
Henry Warren Beatty (né Beaty; born March 30, 1937) is an American actor and filmmaker.
The West Russian Volunteer Army or Bermontians was an army in the Baltic provinces of the former Russian Empire during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The White Terror in Russia refers to the organized violence and mass killings carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917–23).
Major General Sir Wilfrid Malleson, KCIE CB (1866–1946) was a major-general in the British Indian Army who led a mission to Turkestan during the Russian Civil War.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wilhelm Graf von Mirbach-Harff (2 July 1871 – 6 July 1918) was a German diplomat.
William Henry Chamberlin (February 17, 1897 – September 12, 1969) was an American historian and journalist.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yakov Grigoryevich Blumkin (Яков Григорьевич Блюмкин; 1898 – 3 November 1929) was a Left Socialist-Revolutionary, Bolshevik, and an agent of Cheka and State Political Directorate (GPU).
The Yakut revolt (Russian: Якутский мятеж, Yakutskiy myatezh) or the Yakut expedition (Russian: Якутский поход, Yakutskiy pokhod) was the last episode of the Russian Civil War.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Yelabuga (Ела́буга; الابوغا) is a town in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kama River and east from Kazan.
The 1st Cavalry Army (Первая конная армия) was a prominent Red Army military formation.
Polish 5th Siberian Rifle Division (5.; also known as the Siberian Division and Siberian Brigade) was a Polish military unit formed in 1919 in Russia during World War I. The division fought during the Polish-Bolshevik War, but as it was attached to the White Russian formations, it is considered to have fought more in the Russian Civil War.