420 relations: Abdication, Absolute monarchy, Alan Palmer, Alaska, Alaska Purchase, Alexander Herzen, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Almanach de Gotha, Alt Danzig, Anatolia, Anglicanism, Anna of Russia, Appellate court, Archbishop, Ardahan, Ardahan Province, Arkhangelsk, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian language, Armenians, Artvin Province, Astara, Azerbaijan, Astrakhan, Austrian Empire, Autocracy, Autonomous administrative division, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Łódź, Baku, Baltic Germans, Baltic governorates, Baltic Sea, Baptists, Battle of Gumbinnen, Battle of Krtsanisi, Batum Oblast, Batumi, Belarus, Belarusian language, Berdiansk, Bessarabia, Black Sea, Bloody Sunday (1905), Bolsheviks, Bosporus, ..., Bourgeoisie, Boyar, British Empire, Buddhism, Bureaucracy, Calvinism, Caspian Sea, Catherine I of Russia, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Caucasian Imamate, Caucasian War, Caucasus, Caucasus 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Bruce Lincoln, Wage slavery, Warsaw, White Sea, Winter Palace, World War I, Yemelyan Pugachev, Yevpatoria, Zemstvo, 1867, 1905 Russian Revolution, 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Expand index (370 more) » « Shrink index
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Alan Warwick Palmer (born 1926) is a British author of historical and biographical books.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
The Almanach de Gotha (Gothaischer Hofkalender) was a directory of Europe's royalty and higher nobility, also including the major governmental, military and diplomatic corps, as well as statistical data by country.
Alt Danzig was a German settlement in the southern Russian Empire, present day Ukraine.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Ardahan (არტაანი, Art’aani; Արդահան, Ardahan) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
Ardahan Province (Ardahan ili), is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Artvin Province (Artvin ili, ართვინის პროვინცია Artvinis provintsia) is a province in Turkey, on the Black Sea coast in the north-eastern corner of the country, on the border with Georgia. The provincial capital is the city of Artvin.
Astara, also known as Azerbaijani Astara (Azərbaycan Astarası), is a city in and the capital of the Astara Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic governorates (Прибалтийские губернии), originally the Ostsee governorates (Ostseegouvernements, Остзейские губернии), was a collective name for the administrative units of the Russian Empire set up in the territories of Swedish Estonia, Swedish Livonia (1721) and, afterwards, of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1795).
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Battle of Gumbinnen, initiated by forces of the German Empire on 20 August 1914, was a German offensive on the Eastern Front during the First World War.
The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
The Batum Oblast was an oblast (province) of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with the maritime city of Batum as its center.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Berdyansk, or Berdiansk, (Бердя́нськ, Бердя́нск) is a port city in the Zaporizhia Oblast (province) of south-east Ukraine.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Catherine I (Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born, later known as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya; –) was the second wife of Peter the Great and Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasian Imamate, also known as the Caucasus Imamate (`Imāmat al-Qawqāz), was the state established by the imams in Dagestan and Chechnya during the early-to-mid 19th century in the Northern Caucasus, to fight against the Russian Empire during the Caucasian War, where Russia sought to conquer the Caucasus in order to secure communications with its new territories south of the mountains.
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Greek communities had settled in parts of the north Caucasus, Transcaucasia since well before the Christian and into the Byzantine era, especially as traders, Christian Orthodox scholars/clerics, refugees, or mercenaries who had backed the wrong side in the many civil wars and periods of political in-fighting in the Classical/Hellenistic and Late Roman/Byzantine periods.
The Central Black Earth Region, Central Chernozem Region or Chernozemie (Центрально-черноземная область, Центральная черноземная область, Центрально-черноземная полоса) is a segment of the Eurasian Black Earth belt that lies within Central Russia and comprises Voronezh Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Oryol Oblast and Kursk Oblast.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America.
The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER,, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия, Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire, encompassing constitutional monarchists and right-wing republicans.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Coup of June 1907, sometimes known as Stolypin's Coup, is the name commonly given to the dissolution of the Second State Duma of the Russian Empire, the arrest of some its members and a fundamental change in the Russian electoral law by Tsar Nicholas II on.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf; Куршский залив, Kuršių marios, Zalew Kuroński, Kurisches Haff, Kuršu joma) is separated from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Darya Nikolayevna Saltykova (Дарья Николаевна Салтыкова;; 1730 – December 27, 1801), commonly known as Saltychikha (p), was a Russian noblewoman, sadist, and serial killer from Moscow, who became notorious for torturing and killing more than one hundred of her serfs, mostly women and girls.
David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The term Dnieper Ukraine ("over Dnieper land"), usually refers to territory on either side of the middle course of the Dnieper River.
A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The Relations between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire were minimal until 1855, mostly friendly from 1855 to the early 1890s, then turned hostile over the status of Korea.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Erzurum Province (Erzurum ili) is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.
Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
European History Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles in the field of history.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment—notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov—were shot, bayoneted and clubbed to death in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16-17 July 1918.
The steppe and forest-steppe of Ukraine and southern Russia is good agricultural land, but it was traditionally held by pastoral nomads.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.
Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.
The Franco-Russian Alliance, or Russo-French Rapprochement, was an alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–93; it lasted until 1917.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gümüşhane or Gyumushkhana (Argyròpolis or Arghyropolis, Αργυρόπολις in Greek) is a city and the capital district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Father Georgy Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н; —) was a Russian Orthodox priest and a popular working class leader before the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
"God Save the Tsar!" (Bozhe, Tsarya khrani) was the national anthem of the Russian Empire.
God's Playground: A History of Poland is a history book in two volumes written by Norman Davies, covering a thousand-year history of Poland.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gott mit uns ("God with us") is a phrase commonly used in heraldry in Prussia (from 1701) and later by the German military during the periods spanning the German Empire (1871 to 1918), the Third Reich (1933 to 1945), and the early years of West Germany (1949 to 1962).
The early Russian system of government instituted by Peter the Great, which consisted of various state committees, each named Collegium with subordinate departments named Prikaz, was largely outdated by the 19th century.
The government reforms of Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.
Governor-General of Finland (Suomen kenraalikuvernööri Generalguvernör över Finland Генерал-губернатор Финляндии); was the military commander and the highest administrator of Finland sporadically under Swedish rule in the 17th and 18th centuries and continuously in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland between 1809 and 1917.
A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.
A grand duchy is a country or territory whose official head of state or ruler is a monarch bearing the title of grand duke or grand duchess.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Григо́рий Ефи́мович Распу́тин; –) was a Russian mystic and self-proclaimed holy man who befriended the family of Tsar Nicholas II, the last monarch of Russia, and gained considerable influence in late imperial Russia.
The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
The Gulf of Tadjoura, is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean in the Horn of Africa.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
Gusev (Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Gumbinė; Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk.
Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.
In the Russian Empire, inorodtsy (singular: inorodets, Literally meaning "of different descent/nation") was an ethnicity-based category of population.
Sweden's Constitution of 1772 (regeringsform, "Instrument of Government") took effect through a bloodless coup d'état, the Revolution of 1772, carried out by King Gustav III, who had become king in 1771, establishing a brief absolute monarchy in Sweden.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Izmail (translit. Izmayil; Измаил, translit. Izmail; Ismail; also referred to as Ismail; Izmaił, Исмаил) is a historic city on the Danube river in Odessa Oblast in south-western Ukraine.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judicial reform of Alexander II is generally considered one of the most successful and consistent of all his reforms (along with the military reform).
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Kamehameha I (– May 8 or 14, 1819), also known as Kamehameha the Great (full Hawaiian name: Kalani Paiea Wohi o Kaleikini Kealiikui Kamehameha o Iolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kūnuiākea), was the founder and first ruler of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.
Kars Oblast (Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917.
Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
Kauai, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands.
Kaumualii (c. 1778–May 26, 1824) was the last independent alii nui (supreme ruler of the island) of Kauaokinai and Niokinaihau before becoming a vassal of Kamehameha I of the unified Kingdom of Hawaiokinai in 1810.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
A kholop (p) was a feudally dependent person in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
Kolguyev Island (о́стров Колгу́ев) is an island in Nenets Autonomous Okrug Russia located in the south-eastern Barents Sea (east of the Pechora Sea) to the north-east of the Kanin Peninsula.
Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (p; May 21, 1827, Moscow – March 23, 1907, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and adviser to three Tsars.
Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History is an academic journal published quarterly since 2000 by Slavica Publishers, a division of Indiana University.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in the Republic of China that existed from 1898 to 1945.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
This is a list of the Ministers of National Enlightenment of the Russian Empire, also translated as Ministers of National Education.
This is a list of flags used in Russia.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The magistrates' courts (Мировой суд), an office held by a magistrate or justice of the peace (Мировой судья), is a court within the judiciary of Russia.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
The Manych (Маныч) is a river in the Black Sea-Caspian Steppe of Southern Russia.
Mariupol (Маріу́поль, also Mariiupil; Мариу́поль; Marioupoli) is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
The military history of the modern-day Russian Federation has antecedents involving the Rus' (who built Kiev), the Mongol invasion of the early 13th century, Russia's numerous wars against Turkey, against Poland, Lithuania and Sweden, the Seven Years' War, France (especially the Napoleonic Wars), and the Crimean War of 1853–1856.
Ministry of Finance — one of the Russian Empire's central public institutions, in charge of financial and economic policy.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.
The Ministry of State Property, sometimes translated as the Ministry of State Domains,http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/563897/Ministry-of-State-Domains (Министерство государственных имуществ (МГИ), Ministerstvo gosudarstvennykh imushestv (MGI) was the ministry in the government of the Russian Empire which controlled government-owned lands and any other government property, especially farms and agricultural land, and prior to the abolition of serfdom, the government peasants that worked the lands.
The Ministry of the Imperial Court was established in Russia in 1826, and embraced in one institution all the former separate branches of the Court administration.
Ministry of War of the Russian Empire, (Военное министерство, Military Ministry) was an administrative body in the Russian Empire from 1802 to 1917.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918 (when the Church re-instated the Patriarchate).
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Narodnaya Volya (Will) was a 19th-century revolutionary political organization in the Russian Empire which conducted targeted killing of government officials in attempt to promote reforms in the country.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
The New Siberian Islands (r; translit) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Prince Nikolai Dmitriyevich Golitsyn (Никола́й Дми́триевич Голи́цын; 12 April 1850 – 2 July 1925) was of Russian nobility and was the last prime minister of Imperial Russia.
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (Никола́евск-на-Аму́ре, Nikolayevsk-na-Amure) is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Obshchina (p, literally: "commune") or Mir (мир, literally: "society" (one of the meanings)) or Selskoye obshestvo (Cельское общество, "Rural community", official term in the 19th and 20th century) were peasant village communities, as opposed to individual farmsteads, or khutors, in Imperial Russia.
The October Manifesto (Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order (Манифест об усовершенствовании государственного порядка), is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first constitution, which would be adopted the next year.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (tr) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as Okhrana (t) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
Okrug (окръг, okrǎg, о́круг; округ,; окру́га, okruha; акруга, Akruha; okręg; оқрҿс; йырвел, jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Onega (Оне́га) is a town in the northwest of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, situated at the mouth of the Onega River, a few kilometers from the shore of the Onega Bay of the White Sea.
The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in parts of western Europe, Russia, Iran and Turkey.
An organic law is a law, or system of laws, that form the foundation of a government, corporation or any other organization's body of rules.
Orthodox Christianity in Hawaii began with early Russian missions of the 19th century and continues with multiple Eastern Orthodox churches in the Hawaiian islands.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality (Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, наро́дность, Pravoslávie, samoderzhávie, naródnost'), also known as Official Nationality,Riasanovsky, p. 132 was the dominant ideological doctrine of Russian emperor Nicholas I. It was "the Russian version of a general European ideology of restoration and reaction" that followed the Napoleonic Wars.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外满洲 (Wài Mǎnzhōu) or 外东北 (Wài Dōngběi); Russian: Приаму́рье or Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly part of the Chinese Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
Parochialism is the state of mind, whereby one focuses on small sections of an issue rather than considering its wider context.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Patriarkh Moskovskij i vseja Rusi), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
The Pauline Laws are the house laws of the House of Romanov of the Russian Empire.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Peasants' Land Bank (Крестьянский поземельный банк) was a financial institution of the Russian Empire founded during the reign of Tsar Alexander III, by his Minister of Finance, Nikolai Bunge.
The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for either belligerent.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Reni (Рені; Reni; Рени) is a small town in Odessa Oblast (province) of south Ukraine.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers.
The Russian conquest of the Caucasus mainly occurred between 1800 and 1864.
The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russian Fort Elizabeth is a National Historic Landmark and is administered as the Russian Fort Elizabeth State Historical Park just southeast of present-day Waimea on the island of Kauaokinai in Hawaiokinai.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Nihilist movement was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Russian River, a southward-flowing river, drains 1,485 square miles (3,846 km2) of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in Northern California.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
Russian Turkestan (Русский Туркестан, Russkiy Turkestan) was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire (administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship), comprising the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
The "Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty" (Под высочайшим Его Императорского Величества покровительством Российская-Американская Компания Pod vysochayshim Yego Imperatorskogo Velichestva porkrovitelstvom Rossiyskaya-Amerikanskaya Kompaniya) was a state-sponsored chartered company formed largely on the basis of the United American Company.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars.
The Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire was one of the Russo-Turkish Wars.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sagallo (Сагалло, ساغلو, Sagallou) was a short-lived Russian settlement established in 1889 on the Gulf of Tadjoura in present-day Djibouti.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The Senate of Finland (Suomen senaatti) combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1816 to 1917 and in the independent Republic of Finland from 1917 to 1918.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (translit), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential econometrician, minister, and prime minister in Imperial Russia, one of the key figures in the political arena at the end of 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Social estates in the Russian Empire were denoted by the term soslovie (sosloviye), which approximately corresponds to the notion of the estate of the realm.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State Council (p) was the supreme state advisory body to the Tsar in Imperial Russia.
The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.
Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Targowica Confederation (konfederacja targowicka,, Targovicos konfederacija) was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Türkmenbaşy (Turkmen Cyrillic: Түркменбашы, Turkmen Arabic; ترکمنباشی, also spelled Turkmenbashi, Түркменбаши), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Красноводск) and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Transcaspian Oblast (Закаспійская область), or just simply Transcaspia (Закаспія), was the section of Russian Empire and early Soviet Russia to the east of the Caspian Sea during the second half of the 19th century until 1924.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on 28 May 1812, in Manuc's Inn in Bucharest, and ratified on 5 July 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War.
The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina (Haminan rauha, Freden i Fredrikshamn) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
An ukase, or ukaz (указ, formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The Varangerfjord (Varanger Fjord; Варангер-фьорд, Варяжский залив; Varanginvuono; Várjavuonna) is the easternmost fjord in Norway, north of Finland.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vaygach Island (Vajgač) is an island in the Arctic Sea between the Pechora Sea and the Kara Sea.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Volost (p) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe.
William Bruce Lincoln (September 6, 1938 – April 9, 2000) was a scholar and author who wrote a number of widely-read books on Russian history.
Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Емелья́н Ива́нович Пугачёв) (c. 1742 –) was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great popular insurrection during the reign of Catherine II.
Yevpatoriya is a city of regional significance in Crimea, Ukraine (as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).
A zemstvo (p, plural zemstva – земства) was an institution of local government set up during the great emancipation reform of 1861 carried out in Imperial Russia by Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during July 30–August 23 (July 17–August 10, O.S.) 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium (until August 6) and ending in London.
All-Russian Empire, Empire of Russia, Imperial Russia, Imperial Russian, Imperial Russian Government, Imperial Russian government, Pre-revolutionary Russia, Rossiyskaya Imperiya, Russia (empire), Russian Imperia, Russian Imperial, Russian Tsarist Empire, Russian empire, The Russian Empire, Tsar's empire, Tsarist Empire, Tsarist Russia, Tsarist Russian Empire, Tsarist regime, Tzarist Russia.