319 relations: Acheiropoieta, Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, Alaska, Aleksei (convert), Aleksey Khomyakov, Alexander Men, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexis of Russia, Alexis Toth, Alexius, Metropolitan of Kiev, Anathema, Andrei Rublev, Andrew the Apostle, Anti-abortion movements, Apostasy, Archbishop, Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe, Archiereus, Archpriest, Armenia, Atheism, Aurelio Palmieri, Autocephaly, Avvakum, Balkans, Baptism, Baptists, Belarus, Belarusian Orthodox Church, Belarusians, Bible, Bishop, Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, Black Sea, Bolsheviks, Boris Godunov, Byzantine art, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Rite, Byzantium, Canada, Canons of the Apostles, Catacomb Church, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Catholic Church, Caucasus Greeks, Chapel, China, Chinese Orthodox Church, Christian views on marriage, ..., Christianity, Christianity Today, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of the Rus' 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Acheiropoieta (Medieval Greek: ἀχειροποίητα, "made without hand"; singular acheiropoieton) — also called Icons Made Without Hands (and variants) — are Christian icons which are said to have come into existence miraculously, not created by a human.
The Act of Canonical Communion of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia with the Russian orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate (Акт о каноническом общении Русской Православной Церкви Заграницей с Русской Православной Церковью Московского Патриархата) reunited the two branches of the Russian Orthodox Church: the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) and the Moscow Patriarchate.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleksei was a Russian archpriest who became known for converting to Judaism.
Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (Алексе́й Степа́нович Хомяко́в) (May 13 (O.S. May 1) 1804 in Moscow – October 5 (O.S. September 23), 1860 in Moscow) was a Russian theologian, philosopher, poet and amateur artist.
Alexander Vladimirovich Men (Александр Владимирович Мень; 22 January 1935 – 9 September 1990) was a Russian Orthodox priest, an outstanding theologian, Biblical scholar and writer on theology, Christian history, and other religions.
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.
Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.
Saint Alexis Toth (or Alexis of Wilkes-Barre; March 18, 1853 – May 7, 1909) was a Russian Orthodox church leader in the Midwestern United States who, having resigned his position as a Byzantine Catholic priest in the Ruthenian Catholic Church, became responsible for the conversions of approximately 20,000 Eastern Rite Catholics to the Russian Orthodox Church, which contributed to the growth of Eastern Orthodoxy in the United States and the eventual establishment of the Orthodox Church in America.
Saint Alexius (Алексей or Aleksij in Russian) (before 1296–1378) was Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (from 1354), and presided over the Moscow government during Dmitrii Donskoi's minority.
Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.
Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as pro-life movements, are involved in the abortion debate advocating against the practice of abortion and its legality.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe (officially the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of the Russian Tradition in Western Europe) is a patriarchal exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, following the Russian Orthodox tradition, based in Paris, and having parishes throughout Europe, mainly centered in France.
Archiereus (ἀρχιερεύς, Russian, arkhierei) is a Greek term for bishop, when considered as the culmination of the priesthood.
An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Aurelio Palmieri (Savona, 1870–Rome, 18 October 1926) was an Italian priest and scholar.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
Avvakum Petrov (Авва́кум Петро́в; November 20, 1620/21 – April 14, 1682) was a Russian protopope of the Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian Orthodox Church (Беларуская праваслаўная царква, Белорусская православная церковь) is the official name of the Belarusian Exarchate (Беларускі экзархат, Белорусский экзархат) of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church (Архиерейский собор Русской Православной Церкви) is a local Council, which involves only the bishops, is a formal gathering or council of bishops together with other clerical and lay delegates representing the church to deal with matters of faith, morality, rite, and canonical and cultural life.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a 4th century Syrian Christian text.
The Russian True Orthodox Church (Russkaya istinno-pravoslavnaya tserkov), commonly known as the Catacomb Church (Katakombnaya tserkov), is a denomination that separated from the Russian Orthodox Church during the early years of Communist rule in the Soviet Union.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Greek communities had settled in parts of the north Caucasus, Transcaucasia since well before the Christian and into the Byzantine era, especially as traders, Christian Orthodox scholars/clerics, refugees, or mercenaries who had backed the wrong side in the many civil wars and periods of political in-fighting in the Classical/Hellenistic and Late Roman/Byzantine periods.
The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Orthodox Church was an autonomous Eastern Orthodox church in China.
Marriage is the legally or formally recognized intimate and complementing union of two people as spousal partners in a personal relationship (historically and in most jurisdictions specifically a union between a man and a woman).
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity Today magazine is an evangelical Christian periodical that was founded in 1956 and is based in Carol Stream, Illinois.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
The Christianization of the Rus' people is supposed to have begun in the 860s and was the first stage in the process of Christianization of the East Slavs which continued well into the 11th century.
Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is an Emeritus Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at the University of Cambridge with an interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus is described as communion.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Danilov Monastery (also Svyato-Danilov Monastery or Holy Danilov Monastery; Данилов монастырь, Свято-Данилов монастырь in Russian) is a walled monastery on the right bank of the Moskva River in Moscow.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
The Decree on Separation of Church from State and School from Church (Декрет об отделении церкви от государства и школы от церкви) is a legal act adopted by the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on January 20 (February 2), 1918 came into force on January 23 (February 5) of the same year, on the day of official publication.
Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitri Rostovsky, Димитрій (Туптало)) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution.
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
The Cathedral of the Dormition (Успенский Собор, or Uspensky sobor), also known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
This is the list of the metropolitanates and eparchies (dioceses) of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory.
Epifany Slavinetsky (Епифа́ний Славине́цкий) (died November 19, 1675) was an ecclesiastical expert of the Russian Orthodox Church who helped Patriarch Nikon to revise ancient service-books.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik) is an autonomous Orthodox church whose primate is confirmed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
The Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (Moskva Patriarhaadi Eesti Õigeusu Kirik) is a semi-autonomous Church in the canonical jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow whose primate is appointed by the Holy Synod of the latter.
Eulogius of Paris (Евлогий, born Vasily Semyonovich Georgiyevsky; April 10, 1868 – April 8, 1946 in Paris) was an Orthodox Christian bishop, who led elements of the Russian Orthodox diaspora in Western Europe from 1921 until his death.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European History Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles in the field of history.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
An Exarchate is any territorial jurisdiction (secular or ecclesiastical) whose ruler is described as an exarch.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 or 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598). Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles. In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).
Feodosia Prokopiyevna Morozova (Феодо́сия Проко́пьевна Моро́зова) (1632–1675) was one of the best-known partisans of the Old Believer movement.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Gazeta.ru (газета.ru) is a Russian news site based in Moscow and owned by Rambler&Co.
Colonel George Trofimoff (March 9, 1927 – September 19, 2014) was a former United States military intelligence officer of Russian descent.
Georgia generally refers to.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gleb Pavlovich Yakunin (Глеб Па́влович Яку́нин; 4 March 1936 – 25 December 2014) was a Russian priest and dissident, who fought for the principle of freedom of conscience in the Soviet Union.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Greek Old Calendarists (Greek: Παλαιοημερολογίτες, Paleoimerologites), sometimes abbreviated as GOC ("Genuine Orthodox Christians"), are groups of Old Calendarist Orthodox Christians that remained committed to the traditional Orthodox practice and are not in communion with many other Orthodox churches such as the Orthodox Church of Greece, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, or the Church of Cyprus.
The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquartered in New York City, is an eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων, Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm/Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa (Greek: Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ πάσης Ἀφρικῆς, Patriarcheîon Alexandreías kaì pásēs Aphrikês) is an autocephalous Byzantine Rite jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church, having the African continent as its canonical territory.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gregory the Bulgarian (Григорий Болгарин), or Gregory II (1458 – d. 1474) was an Uniate Ruthenian metropolitan in Kiev, then in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Saint Herman of Alaska (r; 1750s – November 15, 1836) was a Russian Orthodox monk and missionary to Alaska, which was then part of Russian America.
Hilarion Alfeyev (born Grigoriy Valerievich Alfeyev; 24 July 1966) is a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The history of Alaska dates back to the Upper Paleolithic period (around 14,000 BC), when wanderer groups crossed the Bering land bridge into what is now western Alaska.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod.
The Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church (Svyashchennyy sinod Russkoy pravoslavnoy tserkvi) serves by Church statute as the supreme administrative governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church in the periods between Bishops' Councils.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church.
Saint Innocent of Alaska (August 26, 1797 – March 31, 1879, O.S.), also known as Saint Innocent Metropolitan of Moscow (Russian Святитель Иннокентий Митрополит Московский) was a Russian Orthodox missionary priest, then the first Orthodox bishop and archbishop in the Americas, and finally the Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
Irina Andreyevna Papkova (Ирина Андреевна Папкова, now Irina du Quenoy), is a scholar of religion and international relations, currently a Research Fellow of Georgetown University's Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs.
Isidore of Kiev, also known as Isidore of Thessalonica (Ἰσίδωρος τοῦ Κιέβου; Исидор; Ісидор; b. Peloponnesus, 1385 – d.Rome, 27 April 1463) was a Greek Metropolitan of Kiev, cardinal, humanist, and theologian.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan Vasilyevich Kireyevsky (Ива́н Васи́льевич Кире́евский; 3 April 1806 in Moscow – 23 June 1856 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian literary critic and philosopher who, together with Aleksey Khomyakov, is credited as a co-founder of the Slavophile movement.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Izvestia (p) is a long-running high-circulation daily broadsheet newspaper in Russia.
The is an autonomous church within the Orthodox Church, under the omophorion of the Russian Orthodox Church.
John Ireland (September 11, 1838 – September 25, 1918) was the third Roman Catholic bishop and first Roman Catholic archbishop of Saint Paul, Minnesota (1888–1918).
Saint Jonah or Saint Jonas (Иона in Russian) (died 1461?), was the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus' from 1448 to his death in 1461.
Joseph Volotsky — also known as Joseph of Volotsk or Joseph of Volokolamsk (Ио́сиф Во́лоцкий); secular name Ivan Sanin (Ива́н Са́нин) (1439 or 1440 – September 9, 1515) — was a prominent Russian theologian and early proponent of tsarist autocracy, who led the party defending monastic landownership.
Josephites (иосифляне Iosiflyane) so-called after the name of the Metropolitan Joseph (Petrovykh) of Petrograd – leader of resistance in Russian Orthodox Church.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Keston Institute (Keston College) is an organisation dedicated to the study of religion and communist countries, at Oxford, England.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Konstantin Georgiyevich Preobrazhenskiy (Константин Георгиевич Преображенский; born in 1953 in Moscow) is a former KGB lieutenant colonel, an intelligence expert and the author of several books and numerous articles about Russian secret police organizations.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian Orthodox Church (Latvijas Pareizticīgā Baznīca, Latviyskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov’) is a self-governing, i.e. autonomous, Eastern Orthodox Church under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
This article lists the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, spiritual heads of the Russian Orthodox Church, since 1308.
The Living Church (Живая Церковь), also called Renovationist Church (обновленческая церковь) or Renovationism (обновленчество; from обновление ‘renovation, renewal’; official name Orthodox Russian Church, Православная Российская Церковь, later Orthodox Church in USSR, Православная Церковь в СССР) was a schism in the Russian Orthodox Church in 1922–1946.
Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church (Поместный собор Русской Православной Церкви) is an assembly of bishops and other clergy and laity, and sometimes, the local church, or some of its areas for discussion and resolution of issues and affairs doctrine, religious and moral life, device management and discipline.
Macarius (Макарий in Russian) (1482 – January 12, 1563) was a notable Russian cleric, writer, and icon painter who served as the Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia from 1542 until 1563.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Maximus or Maximos.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province.
The Metropolis of Bessarabia (Mitropolia Basarabiei), also referred to as the Bessarabian Orthodox Church, is a Moldovan autonomous Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan bishopric of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
The Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova (Mitropolia Chișinăului și a întregii Moldove; Кишинёвско-Молда́вская митропо́лия), also referred to as the Moldovan Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă din Moldova; Правосла́вная це́рковь Молдо́вы), is a self-governing church under the Russian Orthodox Church.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus' (Ruthenia) was a title of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople that existed in 988–1596 for metropolitan bishops of the Kiev Metropolis and later between 1620 and 1686.
Metropolitan Michael I of Kiev (Митрополит Михаїл Київський, Митрополит Михаил Киевский; died June 15, 992) is considered to be the first Metropolitan of Kiev and All-Rus' from 988-992.
Saint Michael of Chernigov or Mikhail Vsevolodovich (– Saray, 20 September 1246) was a Rus' prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty).
Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318.
The Mitrokhin Archive is a collection of handwritten notes made secretly by KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin during his thirty years as a KGB archivist in the foreign intelligence service and the First Chief Directorate.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА), Natsional'nyi universytet "Kyyevo-Mohylians'ka akademiya") is a national, coeducational research university located in Kiev, Ukraine.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr (νεο-, neo, the prefix for "new"; and μάρτυς, martys, "witness") of the Eastern Orthodox Church was originally given to martyrs who died under heretical rulers or non-christian rulers in post-medieval period (the original martyrs being under pagans, mostly during Roman period).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Metropolitan Nicholas (Митрополит Николай, born as Boris Dorofeyevich Yarusevich, Борис Дорофеевич Ярушевич; January 13, 1892 (December 31, 1891 OS), Kovno – December 13, 1961, Moscow), was a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nil Sorsky (Нил Сорский, also Nilus of Sora and Nil Sorski; birth name: Nikolai Maikov (Николай Майков) (c. 1433–1508) became a leader of a tendency in the medieval Russian Orthodox Church known as the "Non-possessors" which opposed ecclesiastic landownership. The Russian Orthodox Church venerates Nil Sorsky as a saint, marking his feast day on the anniversary of his repose on May 7.
Non-possessors (нестяжатели, nestyazhateli) belonged to a 16th-century movement in the Russian Orthodox Church in opposition to ecclesiastical land-ownership.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Novy Mir (Но́вый Ми́р,, New World) is a Russian language monthly literary magazine.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Saint Olga (Ольга, Old Norse: Helga; died 969 AD in Kiev) was a regent of Kievan Rus' for her son Svyatoslav from 945 until 960.
In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the omophorion (ὠμοφόριον, meaning " borne on the shoulders"; Slavonic: омофоръ, omofor) is the distinguishing vestment of a bishop and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Optina Pustyn (Оптина пустынь, literally Opta's hermitage) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery for men near Kozelsk in Russia.
The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an Eastern Orthodox Church, partly recognized as autocephalous, in North America.
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Saint Paisius Velichkovsky or Wieliczkowski (Paisie de la Neamţ in Romanian; Паисий Величковский in Russian; Паїсій Величковський in Ukrainian; 20 December 1722 – 15 November 1794) was an Eastern Orthodox monk and theologian who helped spread staretsdom or the concept of the spiritual elder to the Slavic world.
A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
Patriarch Adrian (born Andrey, Андрей; 2 October 1627, 1637, or 1639 – 16 October 1700) was the last pre-revolutionary Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
Patriarch Alexy I (Alexius I, Патриарх Алексий I, secular name Sergey Vladimirovich Simanskiy, Серге́й Владимирович Симанский; – April 17, 1970) was the 13th Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) between 1945 and 1970.
Patriarch Alexy II (or Alexius II, Патриарх Алексий II; secular name Alexey Mikhailovich von Ridiger Алексе́й Миха́йлович Ри́дигер; 23 February 1929 – 5 December 2008) was the 15th Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Feodor Nikitich Romanov (Фео́дор Ники́тич Рома́нов,; 1553 – 1 October 1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret (Филаре́т), and became de facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich.
Hermogenes, or Germogen (Гермоге́н) (secular name Yermolay) (before 1530 – February 17, 1612) was the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia from 1606.
Job (Иов, Iov), also known as Job of Moscow (2nd quarter of the 16th century – 19 June 1607) was the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia and is a saint of the Orthodox Church.
Kirill or Cyril (Кирилл, Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop.
Nikon (Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; 7 May 1605 – 17 August 1681) was the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving officially from 1652 to 1666.
The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Patriarkh Moskovskij i vseja Rusi), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Patriarch Sergius (Патриарх Сергий, born Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky, Иван Николаевич Страгородский; – May 15, 1944) was the 12th Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus', from September 8, 1943 until his death.
Tikhon of Moscow (Тихон Московский, –), born Vasily Ivanovich Bellavin (Василий Иванович Беллавин), was a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC).
A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of an ecclesiastical patriarch.
Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The People's Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB, was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20, 1941, and again in 1943, before being renamed the Ministry for State Security (MGB).
The Pereyaslav Council (Переяславская рада), was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in central Ukraine) in January 1654.
Peter (or Pyotr or Petr) Berngardovich Struve (Пётр Бернга́рдович Стру́ве; pronounced; 26 January 1870 in Perm – 22 February 1944 in Paris) was a Russian political economist, philosopher and editor.
St. Hieromartyr Peter of Krutitsy (Священному́ченик Пётр Крути́цкий, born Pyotr Fyodorovich Polyansky, Пётр Фёдорович Поля́нский; June 28, 1862 – September 27 O. S./October 10, 1937), was a Russian Orthodox bishop and martyr. From April 12 till December 9, 1925 he was the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving as the Patriarchal locum tenens. Despite his imprisonment, he remained technically locum tenens until his death in 1937.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Saint Philip II of Moscow (11 February 1507 – 23 December 1569) was a Russian Orthodox monk, who became Metropolitan of Moscow during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
Photios II (Φώτιος Βʹ), (1874 – 29 December 1935) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 7 October 1929 until 26 December 1935.
Plato II or Platon II (29 June 1737 – 11 November 1812) was the Metropolitan of Moscow from 1775 to 1812.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by Peter Benenson in a 28 May 1961 article ("The Forgotten Prisoners") for the London Observer newspaper.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
Saint Raphael of Brooklyn (قديس رافائيل من بروكلين; born Raphael Hawaweeny رفائيل هواويني; November 20, 1860 – February 27, 1915) was bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, auxiliary bishop of Brooklyn, vicar of the Northern-American diocese, and head of the Antiochian Levantine Christian Greek Orthodox mission.
Raskol (раскол,, meaning "split" or "schism") was the event of splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church into an official church and the Old Believers movement in the mid-17th century.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis (Archidioecesis Paulopolitana et Minneapolitana) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in the United States.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей, Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey), or ROCOR, also until 2007 part of True Orthodoxy's Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, historically also referred to as Karlovatsky Synod (Карловацкий синод), or "Karlovatsky group", or the Synod of Karlovci, is since 2007 a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate).
Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) (Vsyerossiǐskiǐ tsentr izučenija obščestvennogo mnenija – VTsIOM), established in 1987, known as the "All-Union Center for the Study of Public Opinion" until 1992, is the oldest polling institution in post-Soviet Russia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church, also known in the United States as the Byzantine Catholic Church, is an Eastern Catholic church that uses the Byzantine Rite for its liturgies, laws, and cultural identity.
Saint Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр; died on 20 December 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Vladimir to Moscow in 1325.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
In religion and ethics, the inviolability or sanctity of life is a principle of implied protection regarding aspects of sentient life which are said to be holy, sacred, or otherwise of such value that they are not to be violated.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
The Thought of Skhariya the Jew, much more commonly known in the church terminology as the Heresy of the Judaizers or Zhidovstvuyushchiye, was a religious concept that existed in Novgorod the Great and Grand Duchy of Moscow in the second half of the 15th century and marked the beginning of a new era of schism in Russia.
The Security Service of Ukraine (Служба Безпеки України (СБУ); Sluzhba Bezpeky Ukrayiny) or SBU, is Ukraine's law-enforcement authority and main government security agency in the areas of counterintelligence activity and combatting terrorism.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (Серге́й Никола́евич Булга́ков; – 13 July 1944) was a Russian Orthodox Christian theologian, philosopher, and economist.
Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Се́ргий Ра́донежский, Sergii Radonezhsky; 14 May 1314 – 25 September 1392), also transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia.
Sheila Fitzpatrick (born June 4, 1941) is an Australian historian.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silouan the Athonite (Russian: Силуан Афонский) also sometimes referred to as Silouan of Athos, Saint Silvanus the Athonite or Staretz Silouan (January 17, 1866 – September 24, 1938) was an Eastern Orthodox monk of Russian origin, born Simeon Ivanovich Antonov who was a poet and monk of the St. Panteleimon Monastery.
The Slavic Greek Latin Academy (Славяно-греко-латинская академия) was the first higher education establishment in Moscow.
The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sobornost (p "Spiritual community of many jointly living people") is a term coined by the early Slavophiles, Ivan Kireyevsky and Aleksey Khomyakov, to underline the need for co-operation between people, at the expense of individualism, on the basis that the opposing groups focus on what is common between them.
Sophia Alekseyevna (p) ruled as regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689.
In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.
Southern Russia or the South of Russia (Юг России, Yug Rossii) is a colloquial term for the southernmost geographic portion of European Russia, generally covering the Southern Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In 1929, elections were held to the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union.
Elections to the Supreme Soviet were held in the Soviet Union on 12 December 1937.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
For the forester, see Hans Carl von Carlowitz. Sremski Karlovci (Сремски Карловци) is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Saint Andrew's Church (Андріївська церква, Andriyivs'ka tserkva; Андреевская церковь, Andreyevskaya tserkov) is a major Baroque church located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
A starets (p; fem. стáрица) is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher.
The State Political Directorate (also translated as the State Political Administration) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
Stefan Yavorsky (Стефа́н Яво́рский, Стефа́н Яво́рський), born Simeon Ivanovich Yavorsky (Симеон Иванович Яворский) (1658), was an archbishop and statesman in the Russian Empire and the first president of the Most Holy Synod.
Stephen of Perm (Russian: Стефан Пермский, also spelled "Stephan", Перымса Стефан; 1340–1396) was a fourteenth-century painter and missionary credited with the conversion of the Komi to Christianity and the establishment of the Bishopric of Perm'.
The Stoglavy Sobor (Стоглавый Собор; translated variously as Hundred Chapter Synod, Council of a Hundred Chapters, etc.) was a church council (''sobor'') held in Moscow in 1551, with the participation of Tsar Ivan IV, Metropolitan Macarius, and representatives of the Boyar Duma.
Symphonia (συμφωνία "accord") is a normative theory or concept in Orthodox Christian theological and political thought, especially within the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, which posits that church and state are to complement each other, exhibiting mutual respect with neither institution presuming to dominate the other.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Journal of Ecclesiastical History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich (18 June 1681, Kiev, Cossack Hetmanate, protectorate of Tsardom of Russia — 19 September 1736, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Ukrainian-born Russian theologian, writer, poet, mathematician, philosopher, rector of the Kiev-Mogila Academy, and Archbishop of Novgorod.
Theosophy, also known as Christian theosophy and Boehmian theosophy, refers to a range of positions within Christianity which focus on the attainment of direct, unmediated knowledge of the nature of divinity and the origin and purpose of the universe.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius (Тро́ице-Се́ргиева Ла́вра) is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
An ukase, or ukaz (указ, formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC; Ukrayinsʹka Pravoslavna Tserkva, Ukrainskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov') is a self-governing church of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (Васи́лий Ники́тич Митро́хин; March 3, 1922 – January 23, 2004) was a major and senior archivist for the Soviet Union's foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, who defected to the United Kingdom in 1992 after providing the British embassy in Riga with a vast collection of KGB files, which became known as the Mitrokhin Archive.
Vasily Vasiliyevich (Василий Васильевич; 10 March 141527 March 1462), known as Vasily II the Blind (Василий II Темный), was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425–1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of Old Russian history.
Vassian Patrikeyev, also known as Vassian Kosoy (Вассиан Патрикеев, Вассиан Косой in Russian; real name – knyaz Василий Иванович Патрикеев, or Vasili Ivanovich Patrikeyev) (c. 1470 – between 1531 and 1545) was a Russian ecclesiastic and political figure and writer.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vekhi (Landmarks) is a collection of seven essays published in Russia in 1909.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vladimir (a) is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow.
Yakunin (Якунин; feminine: Yakunina) is a Russian family name.
Yevgenia Markovna Albats (Евге́ния Ма́рковна Альба́ц, born 5 September 1958, Agentura.ru, referring to another web site., Znamya) is a Russian investigative journalist, political scientist, writer and radio host.
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Tuchkov (in Russian Евгений Александрович Тучков) (1892–1957) was the head of the anti-religious arm of the Soviet OGPU.
The Zealots of Piety (Russian: Кружок ревнителей благочестия) was a circle of ecclesiastical and secular individuals beginning in the late 1630s in Russia at the time of church schism, which gathered around Stefan Vonifatiyev, the confessor of tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
Venerable Zosimas of Palestine, also called Zosima, is commemorated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches on April 4.
The 1917–1918 Local Council of the Orthodox Church of Russia (Поместный собор Православной российской церкви) was the first Local Council of the Russian Church since the end of the 17th century.
The 1936 Soviet Constitution, adopted on 5 December 1936 and also known as the Stalin Constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union.
The 1990 Local Council meeting was the fifth in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Local Council in the second patriarchal period (since 1917), which took place on 7 and 8 June 1990 at the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.
Christian - Russian Orthodox, Church of Moscow, Church of Russia, Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Russia, Eastern Orthodoxy in Russia, Moscow Patriarchate, Orthodox Church of Russia, Orthodoxism in Russia, Patriarchate of Moscow, Patriarchate of Moscow and All Russia, Patriarchate of Moscow and all Russia, Patriarchate of Moscow and all the Rus', Patriarchia.ru, Rus Orthodox Church, Rus' Orthodox Church, Russian Orthadox, Russian Orthadoxy, Russian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox Christian, Russian Orthodox Christianity, Russian Orthodox Christians, Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, Russian Orthodox Church's Moscow patriarchate, Russian Orthodox church, Russian Orthodox religion, Russian orthodox, Russian orthodox church, Ruthenian Orthodox Church, The Moscow Patriarchate, The Russian Church, Поместная Российская Православная Церковь, Русская Православная церковь.