199 relations: Abdication, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Dovzhenko, Alexander Guchkov, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Kerensky, Alexander Palace, Alexander Parvus, Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Ammunition, Anarchism, Anastasia (1997 film), Anatoly Pepelyayev, Animal Farm, Annexation, April Crisis, April Theses, Arthur Ransome, Austria-Hungary, Ayano-Maysky District, Barbara Engel (historian), Battle of Galicia, Battle of Tannenberg, Battleship Potemkin, Berkshire pig, Black Sea, Bloody Sunday (1905), Bolsheviks, Boris Pasternak, Bread, Cheka, Communism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Constitutional Democratic Party, Council of People's Commissars, Counter-revolutionary, David Lean, Decree on Land, Decree on Peace, Demonstration (protest), Divine right of kings, Doctor Zhivago (film), Don Bluth, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Dual power (Russian Revolution), Duma, February Revolution, Finland, French Revolution, ..., Gary Goldman, George Mason University, George Orwell, Georgi Plekhanov, Georgy Lvov, German Revolution of 1918–19, Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929), Great Retreat (Russian), Green armies, Gregorian calendar, Grigori Aleksandrov, Grigori Rasputin, Grigory Zinoviev, Harvest, Historiography, House arrest, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Indemnity, International Women's Day, Iranian Revolution, Isaac Deutscher, Jacob Schiff, Jacobin (magazine), Joel Carmichael, John Reed (journalist), Joseph Stalin, Julian calendar, Julian day, Julius Martov, July Days, Karl Marx, Kirov Plant, Knight Without Armour, Kornilov affair, Krai, Kronstadt, Kronstadt rebellion, Lavr Kornilov, Left-wing politics, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Lenin in 1918, Leon Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, List of Russian rulers, Malaya Vishera, Marlene Dietrich, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Mensheviks, Mikhail Bulgakov, Mikhail Doller, Mikhail Frunze, Mikhail Romm, Military Revolutionary Committee, Militia, Milyukov note, Moscow, Nancy Carroll, Nestor Makhno, Nicholas II of Russia, Nikolai Ruzsky, October Manifesto, October Revolution, October: Ten Days That Shook the World, Odessa, Okhrana, Old Style and New Style dates, Ottoman Empire, Paris, Pavel Milyukov, Peasant, Petrograd Soviet, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, Progressive Bloc (Russia), Propaganda, Provisional government, Pskov, Pyotr Stolypin, Radek, Red Army, Red Guards (Russia), Red Square, Reds (film), Revolution, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Revolutionary wave, Richard Pipes, Robert Donat, Robert Service (historian), Russian battleship Potemkin, Russian Civil War, Russian Constituent Assembly, Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917, Russian Constitution of 1906, Russian Empire, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russo-Japanese War, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Soviet, Scarlet Dawn, Serfdom, Sergei Eisenstein, Sergei Witte, Socialism, Socialism in One Country, Socialist Revolutionary Party, Soviet (council), Soviet democracy, Soviet Union, State Archive of the Russian Federation, State Duma, State Duma (Russian Empire), Strike action, Subsistence agriculture, Switzerland, Tambov Rebellion, Tauride Palace, Ten Days That Shook the World, Ternopil, The End of St. Petersburg, The State and Revolution, The White Guard, Tobolsk, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, Tsarist autocracy, Tsarskoye Selo, Ural Mountains, Vasily Shulgin, Victor Serge, Viktor Nogin, Vladimir Lenin, Vladivostok, Vosstaniya Square, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Warren Beatty, White movement, White Terror (Russia), Winter Palace, World revolution, World War I, Yale University Press, Yekaterinburg, Zimmerwald, 1905 Russian Revolution. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexander Petrovich Dovzhenko or Oleksander Petrovych Dovzhenko (Олександр Петрович Довженко, Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko; Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Довже́нко, Aleksandr Petrovich Dovzhenko; November 25, 1956), was a Soviet screenwriter, film producer and director of Ukrainian origin.
Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Гучко́в) (14 October 1862 – 14 February 1936) was a Russian politician, Chairman of the Third Duma and Minister of War in the Russian Provisional Government.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; Russian: Александръ Ѳедоровичъ Керенскій; 4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Alexander Palace (Russian: Александровский дворец) is a former imperial residence at Tsarskoye Selo, on a plateau around 30 minutes by train from St Petersburg.
Alexander Lvovich Parvus born Israel Lazarevich Gelfand (1867-1924), was a Marxist theoretician, revolutionary, and a controversial activist in the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
Alexandra Feodorovna (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918) was Empress of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II—the last ruler of the Russian Empire—from their marriage on 26 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Alexei Nikolaevich (Алексе́й Никола́евич) (12 August 1904 – 17 July 1918) of the House of Romanov, was the Tsarevich and heir apparent to the throne of the Russian Empire.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anastasia is a 1997 American animated musical fantasy adventure film directed and produced by former Walt Disney Feature Animation directors, Don Bluth and Gary Goldman in association with Fox Animation Studios, distributed by 20th Century Fox, and starring the voices of Meg Ryan, John Cusack, Kelsey Grammer, Hank Azaria, Christopher Lloyd and Angela Lansbury.
Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (Анатолий Николаевич Пепеляев; 15 August 1891, in Tomsk – 14 January 1938) was a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War.
Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
This page uses old style dates. The April Crisis, which occurred in Russia in April 1917, broke out in response to a series of political and public controversies.
The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration) were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland.
Arthur Michell Ransome (18 January 1884 – 3 June 1967) was an English author and journalist.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Ayano-Maysky District (Ая́но-Ма́йский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #143-pr and municipalLaw #194 district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia.
Barbara Engel (born 28 June 1943) is an American historian of Russia.
The Battle of Galicia, also known as the Battle of Lemberg, was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
Battleship Potemkin (Бронено́сец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.
Berkshire pigs, also known as Kurobuta are a rare breed of pig originating from the English county of Berkshire that are bred and raised in several parts of the world, including England, Japan, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (|p|æ|s|t|ər|ˌ|n|æ|k) (29 January 1890 - 30 May 1960) was a Soviet Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия, Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire, encompassing constitutional monarchists and right-wing republicans.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, responsible for large-scale epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Doctor Zhivago (1965) and A Passage to India (1984).
The Decree on Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on, following the success of the October Revolution.
The Decree on Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the, following the success of the October Revolution.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Doctor Zhivago is a 1965 British-Italian epic romantic drama film directed by David Lean.
Donald Virgil Bluth (born September 13, 1937) is an American animator, film director, producer, writer, production designer, video game designer and animation instructor.
Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr., KBE, DSC (December 9, 1909 – May 7, 2000) was an American actor and a decorated naval officer of World War II.
"Dual Power" (r) was a term first used by Vladimir Lenin, which described a situation in the wake of the February Revolution in which two powers, the workers councils (or Soviets, particularly the Petrograd Soviet) and the official state apparatus of the Provisional Government coexisted with each other and competed for legitimacy.
A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gary Wayne Goldman (born November 17, 1944) is an American film producer, director, animator, writer and voice actor, he is well known for working on films with Don Bluth such as Anastasia, An American Tail, and The Land Before Time.
George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov (Гео́ргий Евге́ньевич Львов; 2 November 18617/8 March 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, from 15 March to 21 July 1917.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive during World War I was initially conceived as a minor German offensive to relieve Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians to their south on the Eastern Front, but resulted in the Central Powers' chief offensive effort of 1915, causing the total collapse of the Russian lines and their retreat far into Russia.
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia (r; 13 June 1918) was the youngest son and fifth child of Emperor Alexander III of Russia and youngest brother of Nicholas II.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.
The Great Retreat was a strategic withdrawal from the Galicia-Poland salient conducted by the Imperial Russian Army during September 1915 in World War I. The Russians' critically under-equipped and (at the points of engagement) outnumbered forces suffered great losses in the Central Powers' July–September summer offensive operations, this leading to the Stavka ordering a withdrawal to shorten the front lines and avoid the potential encirclement of large Russian forces in the salient.
The Green armies, Green Army (Russian: Зелёная Армия), or Greens (Russian: Зелёные) were armed peasant groups which fought against all governments in the Russian Civil War of 1917–22.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Grigori Vasilyevich Aleksandrov or Alexandrov (Григо́рий Васи́льевич Алекса́ндров; original family name was Мормоненко or Mormonenko; 23 January 1903 – 16 December 1983) was a prominent Soviet film director who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1947 and a Hero of Socialist Labor in 1973.
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Григо́рий Ефи́мович Распу́тин; –) was a Russian mystic and self-proclaimed holy man who befriended the family of Tsar Nicholas II, the last monarch of Russia, and gained considerable influence in late imperial Russia.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.
Jacob Henry Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920) was a Jewish-American banker, businessman, and philanthropist.
Jacobin is a left-wing quarterly magazine based in New York offering socialist and anti-capitalist perspectives on politics, economics and culture from the American left.
Joel Carmichael (December 31, 1915 – January 27, 2006) was an American historian, magazine editor, and translator.
John Silas "Jack" Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 17, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and socialist activist, best remembered for Ten Days That Shook the World, his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
Julius Martov or L. Martov (born: Yuliy Osipovich Tsederbaum/Zederbaum) (24 November 1873 – 4 April 1923) was a Russian politician and revolutionary who became the leader of the Mensheviks in early 20th-century Russia.
The July Days refers to events that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between 3 – 7 July 1917 (Julian calendar) (16 July – 20 July, Gregorian calendar), when soldiers, sailors, and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous armed demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kirov Plant, Kirov Factory or Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ) (Kirovskiy Zavod) is a major Russian machine-building manufacturing plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Knight Without Armour (styled as Knight Without Armor in some releases) is a 1937 British historical drama film starring Marlene Dietrich and Robert Donat.
The Kornilov affair, or the Kornilov putsch, was an attempted military coup d'état by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, from September 10 to 13 1917 (August 27–30 old style) against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies.
A krai or kray (край, края́, kraya) was a type of geographical administrative division in the Russian Empire and in the Russian SFSR, and it is one of the types of the federal subjects of modern Russia.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks by rival left-wing parties that started soon after the October Revolution, continued through the Russian Civil War, and lasted into the first few years of Soviet rule.
Lenin in 1918 (Ленин в 1918 году, Lenin v 1918 godu) is a 130-minute-long Soviet propaganda film released in 1939.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
Malaya Vishera (Ма́лая Ви́шера) is a town and the administrative center of Malovishersky District in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.
Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992) was a German actress and singer who held both German and American citizenship.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.
Mikhail Doller (Михаил Иванович Доллер, 1889 – 15 March 1952) was a Soviet film director and screenwriter.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Mikhail Ilych Romm (Михаи́л Ильи́ч Ромм; – 1 November 1971) was a Soviet film director.
The Military Revolutionary Committee (Военно-революционный комитет, Voyennо-revolyutsionny komitet), was the name for military organs created by Bolsheviks Party organizations under the soviets in preparation for the October Revolution (October 1917 – March 1918).
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Milyukov note was an incident on the 20 April 1917, one which resulted in the bolstering of support for the Bolsheviks in Russia, and a widespread mistrust of the Russian Provisional Government.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Nancy Carroll (born Ann Veronica Lahiff, November 19, 1903 – August 6, 1965) was an American actress.
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Ruzsky (Никола́й Влади́мирович Ру́зский) (– October 18, 1918) was a Russian general, member of the state and military councils.
The October Manifesto (Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order (Манифест об усовершенствовании государственного порядка), is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first constitution, which would be adopted the next year.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
October: Ten Days That Shook the World (Октябрь (Десять дней, которые потрясли мир); translit. Oktyabr': Desyat' dney kotorye potryasli mir) is a 1928 Soviet silent historical film by Sergei Eisenstein and Grigori Aleksandrov.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (tr) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as Okhrana (t) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pavel Nikolayevich Miliukov (p; 31 March 1943) was a Russian historian and liberal politician.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War within the territory of the former Russian Empire sought for creation of independent and non-Bolshevik nation states after the October Revolution.
Progressive Bloc was an alliance of political forces in the Russian Empire and occupied 236 of the 442 seats in the Imperial Duma.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (p; –) was the 3rd Prime Minister of Russia, and Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire from 1906 to 1911.
Radek is a name, used as a surname and given name.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
Reds is a 1981 American epic drama film co-written, produced, and directed by Warren Beatty.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), also known as the Black Army or simply as Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина.), was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Friedrich Robert Donat (18 March 19059 June 1958) was an English film and stage actor.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
The Russian battleship Potemkin (translit, "Prince Potemkin of Taurida") was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.
Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in Soviet Russia on 25 November 1917 (although some districts had polling on alternate days), around 2 months after they were originally meant to occur, having been organized as a result of events in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Delegates was a workers' council, or soviet, in Saint Petersburg in 1905.
Scarlet Dawn is a 1932 American pre-Code romantic drama directed by William Dieterle and starring Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. and Nancy Carroll as refugees from the Russian Revolution.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (translit), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential econometrician, minister, and prime minister in Imperial Russia, one of the key figures in the political arena at the end of 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
Soviet democracy (sometimes council democracy) is a political system in which the rule of the population by directly elected soviets (Russian for "council") is exercised.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) (Государственный архив Российской Федерации (ГАРФ)) is a large Russian state archive managed by Rosarkhiv (The Federal Archival Agency of Russia), which preserves some official (mostly concerning activity of police) and personal (including archives of some Romanovs imperial family members from early 19th century to 1918) documents on history of the Russian Empire, official documents of the supreme national legislative and executive institutions of the Russian Provisional Government (1917), Soviet Russia as independent state (1917-1922) and as territorial entity of the USSR (1923-1991), Soviet Union (1922-1991), Russian Federation (since 1992) as well as many other sources.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Tambov Rebellion (historically referred to in the Soviet Union as Antonovshchina), which occurred between 1920 and 1921, was one of the largest and best-organized peasant rebellions challenging the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War.
Tauride Palace (Russian: Tavrichesky dvorets, Таврический дворец) is one of the largest and most historic palaces in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Ten Days That Shook the World (1919) is a book by the American journalist and socialist John Reed about the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, which Reed experienced firsthand.
Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.
The End of St.
The State and Revolution (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the role of the State in society, the necessity of proletarian revolution, and the theoretic inadequacies of social democracy in achieving revolution to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The White Guard (Белая гвардия) is a novel by 20th-century Russian writer Mikhail Bulgakov, famed for his critically acclaimed later work The Master and Margarita.
Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Tsarskoye Selo (a, "Tsar's Village") was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located south from the center of Saint Petersburg.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Vasily Vitalyevich Shulgin (Васи́лий Вита́льевич Шульги́н; 13 January 1878, Kiev – 15 February 1976, Vladimir) was a Russian conservative monarchist, politician and member of the White movement.
Victor Serge, born Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Киба́льчич; December 30, 1890 – November 17, 1947), was a Russian revolutionary and writer.
Viktor Pavlovich Nogin (Ви́ктор Па́влович Ноги́н; 14 February 1878 – 22 May 1924) was a prominent Bolshevik in Moscow, holding many high positions in the party and in government, including Chairman of the Moscow Military-Revolutionary Committee and Chairman of the Presidium of the Executive Committee of Moscow Council of Workers' Deputies.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Vosstaniya Square (Пло́щадь Восста́ния, lit. Uprising Square) is a major square in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (p; 16 February 1893 – 30 June 1953) was a Russian and Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor who developed influential theories of montage.
Henry Warren Beatty (né Beaty; born March 30, 1937) is an American actor and filmmaker.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The White Terror in Russia refers to the organized violence and mass killings carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917–23).
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Zimmerwald was an independent municipality in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland until 31 December 2003.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
1917 Revolution, 1917 Russian Revolution, 1917 revolution, Communist revolution in Russia, October 1917 Revolution, Revolution of 1917, Revolutionary Russia, Russian Revolution (1917), Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian Revolutions, Russian Revolutions of 1917, Russian revolution, Russian revolution of 1917, Russian revolutionaries, Russian revolutionary, Russian revolutionary war, Russian revolutions, The Russian Revolution, The Russian Revolution (1917), War of the Russian Revolution, Wars of the Russian Revolution.