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Russian phonology

Index Russian phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted). [1]

95 relations: Affricate consonant, Agha (title), Akanye, Alexander Tsiurupa, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Šešuvis, Šiauliai, Back vowel, Belarusian language, Central vowel, Church Slavonic language, Clitic, Close vowel, Complementary distribution, Coronal consonant, Czech language, Dental consonant, Denti-alveolar consonant, Dialect, Diphthong, Dorsal consonant, Dutch oven, Epenthesis, Final-obstruent devoicing, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gölcük, Kocaeli, Gemination, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Genitive case, Gerhard Schürer, Glottal stop, Hiatus (linguistics), History of the Russian language, Homograph, Homophone, Homorganic consonant, Igor Severyanin, Index of phonetics articles, Jeune Afrique, Jules Verne, Komi Republic, Labial consonant, Labialization, Lenition, Liquid consonant, ..., List of Russian language topics, Mid vowel, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Moscow, Nasal consonant, Near-close vowel, Nominative case, Noyabrsk, Open vowel, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Phonological change, Phonological word, Phonology, Polish language, Postalveolar consonant, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Prepositional case, Proto-Slavic, Reforms of Russian orthography, Retroflex consonant, Russian alphabet, Russian dialects, Russian language, Russian orthography, Semivowel, Slavic languages, Standard language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Structuralism, Subapical consonant, Syncope (phonology), T–V distinction, Tongue shape, Trill consonant, Underlying representation, Velar consonant, Velarization, Vowel reduction, Vowel reduction in Russian, Zürich. Expand index (45 more) »

Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agha (title)

Agha, also Aga (Ottoman Turkish:, آقا āghā "chief, master, lord"), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, and was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire.

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Akanye or akanje (аканне, аканье,, akanje) is a phonological phenomenon in Slavic languages in which the phonemes or are realized as more or less close to.

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Alexander Tsiurupa

Alexander Dmitrievich Tsiurupa (Алекса́ндр Дми́триевич Цюру́па, September 19 (O.S. October 1) 1870, Oleshky — May 8, 1928, Mukhalatka village of Oliva urban-type settlement, Crimea) was a Soviet state and Party figure.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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The Šešuvis is a river in western Lithuania and the main tributary of the Jūra River.

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Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Church Slavonic language

Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Complementary distribution

In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Denti-alveolar consonant

In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dorsal consonant

Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).

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Dutch oven

A Dutch oven is a thick-walled cooking pot with a tight-fitting lid.

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In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Final-obstruent devoicing

Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Gölcük, Kocaeli

Gölcük is a town and district of Kocaeli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Gerhard Schürer

Gerhard Schürer (14 April 1921 – 22 December 2010) was a leading politician in East Germany.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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History of the Russian language

Note: in the following sections, all examples of vocabulary appear in their modern spelling.

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A homograph (from the ὁμός, homós, "same" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.

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A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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Homorganic consonant

In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.

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Igor Severyanin

Igor Severyanin (И́горь Северя́нин, pen name, real name Igor Vasilyevich Lotaryov (И́горь Васи́льевич Лотарёв) (May 16, 1887 – December 20, 1941) was a Russian poet who presided over the circle of the so-called Ego-Futurists. Igor was born in St. Petersburg in the family of an army engineer. Through his mother, he was remotely related to Nikolai Karamzin and Afanasy Fet. In 1904 he left for Harbin with his father but later returned to St. Petersburg to publish first poems at his own expense. It was not until 1913 that, in the words of D.S. Mirsky, "the moment came when vulgarity claimed a place on Parnassus and issued its declaration of rights in the verse of Igor Severyanin". That year, Severyanin (his pen name means "Northerner" in Russian) brought out a collection entitled The Cup of Thunder (Громокипящий кубок), with a preface written by Fyodor Sologub. In one of his most celebrated poems, Lotaryov introduced himself to the readers with the following words: "I am Igor Severyanin, a genius!" He soon gained a cult following, especially in the provinces of Imperial Russia. The poet "captured the popular imagination and reached stardom with his slick pomaded hair parted in the middle; his melancholy, darkly circled eyes; his impeccable tails; and an ever-present lily in his hands". Severyanin's poems treated such extraordinary themes as "ice cream of lilacs" and "pineapples in champagne", intending to overwhelm the bourgeois audience with a riot of colors and glamour associated by them with high society. In his verse, Severyanin admired dirigibles and automobiles, everything that could convey to his followers the notion of modernity. He would often shock the public by professing his admiration for Oscar Wilde or scandalize his emulators with cynical statements and megalomania. During one party, they declared Severyanin "the king of poets", although some respected critics professed their distaste for his work. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Severyanin was one of the first poets to leave Russia. Having settled in Estonia in 1918, he tried to return to Russia afterwards, but could not for various reasons (namely, the civil war, his marriage to a local woman (Felissa Kruut), unreceptive literary climate in Soviet Russia, etc.). After the Soviet occupation of Estonia, 1940 Severyanin continued literary activities, and later died of a heart attack in the German occupied Tallinn in 1941. He was buried in Alexander Nevsky cemetery, Tallinn.

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Index of phonetics articles

No description.

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Jeune Afrique

Jeune Afrique is a French-language pan-African weekly news magazine, founded in 1960 in Tunis and subsequently published in Paris.

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Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Komi Republic

The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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List of Russian language topics

The list of Russian language topics stores articles on grammar and other language-related topics that discuss (or should discuss) peculiarities of the Russian language (as well as of other languages) or provide examples from Russian language for these topics.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Near-close vowel

A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Noyabrsk (p) is the largest city in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located in the middle of the West Siberian oil fields, on the Tyumen–Novy Urengoy railway about north of Surgut.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.

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Phonological word

The phonological word or prosodic word (also called pword, PrWd; symbolised as ω) is a constituent in the phonological hierarchy higher than the syllable and the foot but lower than intonational phrase and the phonological phrase.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Prepositional case

Prepositional case (abbreviated) and postpositional case (abbreviated) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

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Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.

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Reforms of Russian orthography

The reform of Russian orthography refers to official and unofficial changes made to the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language, and in particular those made between the 18th-20th centuries.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Russian alphabet

The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.

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Russian dialects

Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian orthography

Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).

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In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Subapical consonant

A subapical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue.

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Syncope (phonology)

In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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Tongue shape

Tongue shape, in linguistics (articulatory phonetics) describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Underlying representation

In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Vowel reduction

In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".

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Vowel reduction in Russian

Vowel reduction in Russian differs in the standard language and dialects, which differ from one another.

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Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

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Phonology of Russian, Russian Phonology, Russian accent, Russian phonemics, Russian phonetics, Russian pronunciation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_phonology

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