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Russian ruble

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The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. [1]

133 relations: Abkhazia, Agence France-Presse, Amandus Adamson, Amur Oblast, Amur River, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Apollo, Arkhangelsk, Belarus, Bilateral trade, Bolshoi Theatre, Brass, Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod, Catherine the Great, Central Bank of Russia, Chersonesus, China Daily, Coat of arms of Russia, Consumer price index, Crimea, Cupronickel, Currency symbol, Decimalisation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donetsk People's Republic, Economic collapse, Economy of Russia, Elvira Nabiullina, Emperor of All Russia, Er (Cyrillic), Eurasian Economic Union, Export, February Revolution, Fiat money, Fisht Olympic Stadium, Flag of Russia, Foreign exchange market, Fraud, Goznak, Great Recession, International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, ISO 4217, Ivan Aivazovsky, Ivan Bilibin, Izvestia, Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Bridge, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Dam, Lak language, ..., Lev Yashin, Luhansk People's Republic, Mari language, Microsoft, Millennium of Russia, Mint (facility), Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow Mint, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, Novgorod Kremlin, Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns, Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel, Peter and Paul Fortress, Peter the Great, Petroleum, Philippine peso, Pornography, Pound sterling, Premier of the People's Republic of China, President of Russia, Price of oil, Psychological pricing, QR code, Quadriga, Renminbi, Reuters, RIA Novosti, Roman Khudyakov, RT (TV network), RTS Index, Ruble, Ruble sign, Russia, Russian alphabet, Russian Empire, Russian financial crisis (2014–2017), Russian five-ruble banknote, Russian language, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russian Republic, Russian ruble, Russian ten-ruble banknote, Russky Bridge, Russky Island, Saint George, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Mint, Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, San Jose, California, Scribal abbreviation, Sevastopol, Sochi, Solovetsky Monastery, South Ossetia, Soviet ruble, Soviet Union, St. John the Baptist Church, Yaroslavl, State Duma, Stock market, Swallow's Nest, Swiss franc, Swissinfo, TASS, The Moscow Times, The Washington Post, Transnistria, U (Cyrillic), Unicode, Veliky Novgorod, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Putin, Vostochny Cosmodrome, Wen Jiabao, Xinhua News Agency, Yaroslav the Wise, Yaroslavl, Yenisei River, Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2018 FIFA World Cup. Expand index (83 more) »


Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Amandus Adamson

Amandus Heinrich Adamson (12 November 1855 in Uuga-Rätsepa, near Paldiski – 26 June 1929 in Paldiski) was an Estonian sculptor and painter.

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Amur Oblast

Amur Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Bilateral trade

Bilateral trade or clearing trade is trade exclusively between two states, particularly, barter trade based on bilateral deals between governments, and without using hard currency for payment.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.

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Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.

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Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod

The Cathedral of St. Sophia (the Holy Wisdom of God) in Veliky Novgorod is the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Novgorod and the mother church of the Novgorodian Eparchy.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Central Bank of Russia

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Центральный банк Российской Федерации Tsentral'nyy bank Rossiyskoy Federatsii) also known as the Bank of Russia (Банк России Bank Rossii) is the central bank of the Russian Federation, founded in 1860 as The State Bank of the Russian Empire, headquartered on Neglinnaya Street in Moscow.

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Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.

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China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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Coat of arms of Russia

The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.

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Consumer price index

A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of of and purchased by households.

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Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.

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Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.

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Currency symbol

A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

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Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Donetsk People's Republic

The Donetsk People's Republic (DPR or DNR, dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə, Донецька Народна Республіка) is a proto-state in the Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine recognized only by the partially recognized South Ossetia.

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Economic collapse

Economic collapse is any of a broad range of bad economic conditions, ranging from a severe, prolonged depression with high bankruptcy rates and high unemployment (such as the Great Depression of the 1930s), to a breakdown in normal commerce caused by hyperinflation (such as in Weimar Germany in the 1920s), or even an economically caused sharp rise in the death rate and perhaps even a decline in population (such as in countries of the former USSR in the 1990s).

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Economy of Russia

Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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Elvira Nabiullina

Elvira Sakhipzadovna Nabiullina (Эльвира Сахипзадовна Набиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзәде кызы Нәбиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзада ҡыҙы Нәбиуллина; born 29 October 1963) is a Russian economist and head of the Central Bank of Russia.

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Emperor of All Russia

The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.

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Er (Cyrillic)

Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.

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The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Fisht Olympic Stadium

Fisht Olympic Stadium (r) is an outdoor stadium in Sochi, Russia.

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Flag of Russia

The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Joint Stock Company "Goznak" (short for Государственный знак, or State Insignia) is a Joint Stock Company in Russia, responsible for R&D as well as manufacturing in security products, including banknotes, coins, stamps, ID-cards, secure documents, state orders and medals, as well as providing secure IT services.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis

International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Ivan Aivazovsky

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.

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Ivan Bilibin

Ivan Yakovlevich Bilibin (p; – 7 February 1942) was a 20th-century illustrator and stage designer who took part in the Mir iskusstva, contributed to the Ballets Russes, co-founded the Union of Russian Painters (Сою́з ру́сских худо́жников) and from 1937 was a member of the Artists' Union of the USSR.

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Izvestia (p) is a long-running high-circulation daily broadsheet newspaper in Russia.

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Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.

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Khabarovsk Bridge

Khabarovsk Bridge is a road and rail bridge built in 1999.

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Krasnoyarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.

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Krasnoyarsk Dam

The Krasnoyarsk Dam is a high concrete gravity dam located on the Yenisey River about upstream from Krasnoyarsk in Divnogorsk, Russia.

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Lak language

The Lak language (лакку маз, lakːu maz) is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family.

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Lev Yashin

Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet professional footballer, widely regarded as the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the sport.

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Luhansk People's Republic

The Luhansk People's Republic (Луганська Народна Республіка), also known as Lugansk People's Republic (lʊˈɡanskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə), usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in eastern Ukraine.

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Mari language

The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Millennium of Russia

The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.

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Mint (facility)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

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Monetary reform in Russia, 1998

The monetary reform of 1998 in Russia was launched on January 1, 1998.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow Kremlin

The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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Moscow Mint

The Moscow Mint (Московский монетный двор) is a mint in Russia engaged in manufacturing of coins, medals and decorations.

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Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky (also spelled as Nikolai Nikolaevich Muraviev-Amurskiy; Никола́й Никола́евич Муравьёв-Аму́рский; —) was a Russian general, statesman and diplomat, who played a major role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into the Amur River basin and to the shores of the Sea of Japan.

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Novgorod Kremlin

Novgorod Kremlin (also Detinets) stands on the left bank of the Volkhov River in Veliky Novgorod about two miles north of where it empties out of Lake Ilmen.

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Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns

The Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange (also Bourse) and Rostral Columns, located in Saint Petersburg in the Russian Federation, are significant examples of Greek Revival architecture.

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Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel

The Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel (Часовня Параскевы Пятницы) is a Russian Orthodox Chapel, situated on the top of Karaulnaya Mountain, in Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.

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Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso (Philippine English:,, plural pesos; piso; peso; sign: ₱; code: PHP), is the official currency of the Philippines.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Premier of the People's Republic of China

The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Price of oil

The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).

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Psychological pricing

Psychological pricing (also price ending, charm pricing) is a pricing/marketing strategy based on the theory that certain prices have a psychological impact.

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QR code

QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.

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A quadriga (Latin quadri-, four, and iugum, yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire's equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon).

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The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Roman Khudyakov

Roman Ivanovich Khudyakov (Ромáн Ивáнович Худякóв; born 28 January 1977 in Tiraspol, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union) is a Transnistrian-born Russian politician.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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RTS Index

The RTS Index "Russia Trading System" (abbreviated: RTSI) is a free-float capitalization-weighted index of 50 Russian stocks traded on the Moscow Exchange, calculated in the US dollars.

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The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.

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Ruble sign

The ruble sign (₽) is the currency sign used for the Russian ruble, the official currency of Russia.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian alphabet

The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian financial crisis (2014–2017)

The financial crisis in Russia in 2014–2017 was the result of the collapse of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014.

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Russian five-ruble banknote

The Russian five-ruble banknote was introduced in 1998 and then discontinued in 2001 because of inflation.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)

In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.

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Russian Republic

The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Russian ten-ruble banknote

The Russian ten-ruble note was introduced in the 1998 Monetary reform, but was discontinued in 2010 due to inflation.

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Russky Bridge

The Russky Bridge (Русский мост, Russian Bridge) is a cable-stayed bridge in Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

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Russky Island

Russky Island (Ру́сский о́стров, lit. Russian Island) is an island in Peter the Great Gulf in the Sea of Japan, in the city of Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

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Saint George

Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint Petersburg Mint

Saint Petersburg Mint (Санкт-Петербу́ргский моне́тный двор) is one of the world's largest mints.

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Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg

The Peter and Paul Cathedral (Петропавловский собор) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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San Jose, California

San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.

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Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.

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Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.

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Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.

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Solovetsky Monastery

The Solovetsky Monastery (p) is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia.

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South Ossetia

South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.

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Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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St. John the Baptist Church, Yaroslavl


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State Duma

The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.

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Stock market

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

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Swallow's Nest

The Swallow's Nest (Ластівчине гніздо, Lastivchyne hnizdo, Ласточкино гнездo, Lastochkino gnezdo) is a decorative castle located at Gaspra, a small spa town between Yalta and Alupka, in the Crimean Peninsula.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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SWI swissinfo.ch is a ten-language news and information platform produced by the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.

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Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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The Moscow Times

The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.

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U (Cyrillic)

U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Vostochny Cosmodrome

Soyuz-2.1a from Vostochny Cosmodrome. 28 April 2016 The Vostochny Cosmodrome (Космодром Восточный Kosmodrom Vostochny "Eastern Spaceport") is a Russian spaceport under construction on the 51st parallel north in the Amur Oblast, in the Russian Far East.

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.

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Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.

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Yenisei River

The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.

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Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope

The Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope (P-2500, RT-70) is an RT-70 radio telescope and planetary radar at the Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria, Crimea.

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1998 Russian financial crisis

The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2018 FIFA World Cup

The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.

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Py6, Russia Rubles, Russian Rouble, Russian Ruble, Russian currency, Russian fifty-ruble banknote, Russian kopek, Russian rouble, Russian rubel, Russian rubles, Российский рубль, Руб.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_ruble

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