183 relations: Akmal Ikramov, Alexander Nekrich, Americanization, Arabic alphabet, Azerbaijani language, Balkars, Balts, Bashkir language, Belarus, Belarusian language, Belarusians, Bessarabia, Blackletter, Bourgeois nationalism, Case of the Anti-Soviet "Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites", Caucasus, Chechens, Christianization, Citizenship of Russia, Collaborationism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Conflation, Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Congress of Vienna, Congress Poland, Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Crimean Tatars, Crimean War, Cultural assimilation, Cyrillic script, Dagestan, DeKalb, Illinois, Demography, East Slavs, Education in the Soviet Union, Endangered language, Estonia, Ethnic group, Ethnonym, Europe-Asia Studies, Fayzulla Khodzhayev, Federalism, Field Cathedral of the Polish Army, Finnish language, Flying University, Forced assimilation, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, Grand Duchy of Finland, Gregorian calendar, Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, ..., History of the Soviet Union, Ingush people, Interracial marriage, Interwar period, Jadid, Jan T. Gross, January Uprising, Joseph Stalin, Julian calendar, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kalmyks, Karakalpak language, Karelians, Kazakh language, Kazakhstan, Khanate of Kazan, Komi language, Komi peoples, Kommersant, Korenizatsiya, Kuban, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyz people, Language shift, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Latvia, Legitimacy (political), Leibniz Institute of European History, Leonid Brezhnev, Lipovans, Literacy, Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian book smugglers, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian press ban, Lithuanians, Mari people, Marxism and the National Question, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky, Minority group, Mirsaid Sultan-Galiev, Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, Moldovan language, Moldovans, Mordvins, Multilingualism, National delimitation in the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, Northern Illinois University, November Uprising, Official language, Oleksa Hirnyk, Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality, Pan-Islamism, Pan-Turkism, Partitions of Poland, PDF, Pennsylvania State University, Permians, Polish language, Polish literature, Polish Scientific Publishers PWN, Political movement, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Primus inter pares, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Prometheism, Quran, Red Army, Republics of the Soviet Union, Riga, Rogers Brubaker, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian language, Romanians, Routledge, Russia, Russian alphabet, Russian Cross, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russo-Japanese War, Russophilia, Siberia, Slavic Review, Slavophilia, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet people, Soviet Union, Sovietization, Statutes of Lithuania, Tajik language, Tallinn, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Tatar language, Tatarstan, Territorial evolution of Russia, Titular nation, Toponymy, Transnistria, Turkish alphabet, Turkmen language, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Ukrainization, Union of Poles in Belarus, Uralic peoples, Urbanization, Uzbek language, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbekistan, Vasyl Makukh, Vepsians, Vilna Governorate, Vilnius, Vilnius Region, Vilnius University, Volga Bulgaria, Volga Finns, Volga Germans, Volga Tatars, Warsaw, Yiddish. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
Akmal Ikramovich Ikramov (1898–1938) was an Uzbek politician active in Uzbek SSR politics and served as the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan from 1929 to 1937.
Aleksandr Moiseyevich Nekrich, 3 March 1920, Baku – 2 September 1993, Boston) was a Soviet Russian historian. He emigrated to the United States in 1976. He is known for his works on the history of the Soviet Union, especially under Joseph Stalin’s rule. Born in Baku, Azerbaijan, Nekrich fought in the Red Army ranks during World War II and subsequently graduated from the Moscow University with a degree in history. In 1950, he joined the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of General History as a senior researcher and a secretary of that institute’s party cell. Nekrich gained fame for his sensational work June 22, 1941; Soviet Historians and the German Invasion, a study of the Soviet-German confrontation during World War II, which was critical of Stalin and the Soviet leadership over their failure to prepare the country for an anticipated German onslaught. The book was harshly criticized and quickly banned, while Nekrich was excluded from the Communist party. He was allowed, though, to leave the Soviet Union in 1976. Nekrich settled in the U.S. and lectured at Harvard. In emigration, Nekrich published his memoirs (1979), wrote The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War (1978), and coauthored, with Mikhail Heller, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present (1982).
In countries outside the United States of America, Americanization or Americanisation is the influence American culture and business have on other countries, such as their media, cuisine, business practices, popular culture, technology, or political techniques.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Balkars (Малкъарлыла, таулула Malqarlıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
In Marxism, bourgeois nationalism is the practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from initiating class warfare.
The Case of the Anti-Soviet "Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites" (or "Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites"), also known as the Trial of the Twenty-One, was the last of the three public Moscow Trials, show trials charging prominent Bolsheviks with espionage and treason.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Citizenship of Russia is regulated by the federal act regarding citizenship of the Russian Federation (of 2002, with the amendments of 2003, 2004, 2006), Constitution of the Russian Federation (of 1993), and the international treaties that cover citizenship questions to which the Russian Federation is a party.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Conflation happens when the identities of two or more individuals, concepts, or places, sharing some characteristics of one another, seem to be a single identity, and the differences appear to become lost.
The Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (съезд КПСС) was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party and its predecessors.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Modern Qırım Muhtar Sotsialist Sovet Cumhuriyeti; Official Crimean Tatar name in the; Крымская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика Krymskaya Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika) was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
DeKalb is a city in DeKalb County, Illinois, United States.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
Education in the Soviet Union was organized in a highly centralized government-run system.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Fayzulla Ubaydullayevich Khodzhayev (Fayzulla Ubaydulloyevich Xo‘jayev, Файзулла Убайдуллоевич Хўжаев; Файзулла Убайдуллаевич Ходжаев; b. 1896 Bukhara – March 1938, Moscow) was a Bukharan politician.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Field Cathedral of the Polish Army (Katedra Polowa Wojska Polskiego, also known as the Church of Our Lady Queen of the Polish Crown) is the main garrison church of Warsaw and the representative cathedral of the entire Polish Army.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Flying University (Uniwersytet Latający, less often translated as "Floating University") was an underground educationalBetty Jean Lifton, The King of Children: The Life and Death of Janusz Korczak,, St.
Forced assimilation is a process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups that is forced into an established and generally larger community.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Hélène Carrère d'Encausse (born Hélène Zourabichvili; 6 July 1929) is a French politician historian of Georgian origin, specializing in Russian history.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Jadids were Muslim modernist reformers within the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Jan Tomasz Gross (born 1947) is a Polish-American sociologist and historian.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan.
Karelians (karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Korenizatsiya (p, "putting down roots") was an early policy of the Soviet Union for the integration of the non–Russian nationalities into the governments of their specific soviet republic.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Lipovans or Lippovans (Липовáне, Lipoveni, Липовани, липованци) are Old Believers, mostly of Russian ethnic origin, who settled in the Moldavian Principality, and in the regions of Dobruja and Eastern Muntenia.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.
Lithuanian book smugglers (knygnešys, plural: knygnešiai) transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, defying a ban on such materials in force from 1864 to 1904.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
The Mari (мари, марийцы) are a Finno-Ugric ethnic group, who have traditionally lived along the Volga and Kama rivers in Russia.
Marxism and the National Question (Russian: Марксизм и национальный вопрос) is a short work of Marxist theory written by Joseph Stalin in January 1913 while living in Vienna.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov (Михаи́л Никола́евич Муравьёв; 12 October 1796 in Moscow – 12 September 1866 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian imperial statesman of the 19th century, most known for his putting down Polish-Lithuanian uprisings, and subsequent cultural and social depolonization of Northwestern Krai (today's Belarus and Lithuania).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Mirsaid Sultan-Galiev (Мирсәет Хәйдәргали улы Солтангалиев, Mirsäyet Xäydärğäli ulı Soltanğäliev, pronounced; Мирсаид Хайдаргалиевич Султан-Галиев Mirsaid Khaydargalievich Sultan-Galiev; 1892–1940), also known as Mirza Sultan-Galiev, was a Tatar Bolshevik who rose to prominence in the Russian Communist Party in the early 1920s.
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldovan/Romanian: Republica Autonomă Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, or Република Аутономэ Советикэ Cочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet), shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing modern Transnistria (now, de jure, in Moldova, de facto, a breakaway state) and a number of territories that are now part of Ukraine.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the Moldovan language in the Soviet Union and was in official use from 1924 to 1932 and 1938 to 1989 (and still in use today in the Moldovan region of Transnistria).
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/erzät, мокшет/mokšet, мордва/mordva), are the members of a people who speak a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and live mainly in the Republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
National delimitation in the Soviet Union refers to the process of creating well-defined national territorial units (Soviet socialist republics – SSR, autonomous Soviet socialist republics – ASSR, autonomous oblasts (provinces), raions (districts) and okrugs) from the ethnic diversity of the Soviet Union and its subregions.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Northern Illinois University (NIU) is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois, United States, with satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville, Rockford, and Oregon.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oleksa Mykolajovych Hirnyk (Олекса Миколайович Гiрник, Oleksa Mykolajovyč Hirnyk) (28 March 1912 – 21 January 1978) was a Ukrainian Soviet dissident, an engineer by profession, who burned himself to death as an act of protest against Soviet suppression of the Ukrainian language, culture and history.
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality (Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, наро́дность, Pravoslávie, samoderzhávie, naródnost'), also known as Official Nationality,Riasanovsky, p. 132 was the dominant ideological doctrine of Russian emperor Nicholas I. It was "the Russian version of a general European ideology of restoration and reaction" that followed the Napoleonic Wars.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Pan-Turkism is a movement which emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.
The Permians are a branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples and include Komis and Udmurts, speakers of Permic languages.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
Prometheism or Prometheanism (Polish: Prometeizm) was a political project initiated by Poland's Józef Piłsudski.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Rogers Brubaker (born 1956) is professor of sociology at University of California, Los Angeles and UCLA Foundation Chair.
The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
The Russian Cross is the name of a demographic trend that occurred in Russia.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Russophilia (literally love of Russia or Russians) is individual or collective admiration of Russia and Russian culture.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
Soviet people (r) or citizens of the USSR (Grázhdane SSSR) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sovietization is the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils) or the adoption of a way of life and mentality modelled after the Soviet Union.
The Statutes of Lithuania, originally known as the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were a 16th-century codification of all the legislation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its successor, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Territorial changes of Russia happened by means of military conquest and by ideological and political unions in the course of over five centuries (1533-today).
The titular nation is the single dominant ethnic group in the state, typically after which the state was named.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
The Union of Poles in Belarus (Związek Polaków na Białorusi, Саюз Палякаў Беларусі) is an organization located in Belarus.
The Uralic peoples or Uralic speaking peoples are the peoples speaking Uralic languages, divided into two large groups: Finno-Ugric peoples and Samoyedic peoples.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan is the common English name for the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and later, the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), that refers to the period of Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1991.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vasyl Omelyanovich Makukh (Ukrainian: Васи́ль Омеля́нович Ма́кух) (14 November 1927, Lwów Voivodeship, Second Polish Republic – 5 November 1968, Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union) was a Soviet veteran of the World War II, political prisoner and Ukrainian activist, a member of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
Veps, or Vepsians (Veps: vepsläižed), are a Finnic people who speak the Veps language, which belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
The Vilna Governorate (1795–1915; also known as Lithuania-Vilnius Governorate from 1801 until 1840; Виленская губерния, Vilenskaya guberniya, Vilniaus gubernija, gubernia wileńska) or Government of Vilnius was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire created after the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
The Volga Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group, native to the Volga-Ural region, Russia.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.