235 relations: Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha, Abdul Hamid II, Action off Măcin, Ahmed Eyüb Pasha, Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, Alexander Gorchakov, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexandru Cernat, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Amasya, Ardahan, Arkadi Monastery, Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, Armenian Question, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Armenians, Arshak Ter-Gukasov, Artillery, Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Prussian War, Balkan Mountains, Balkans, Bashi-bazouk, Batak massacre, Battle of Shipka Pass, Battle of Sofia, Battle of Tashkessen, Battles of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Batum Oblast, Batumi, Bela Palanka, Benjamin Disraeli, Bessarabia, Black Sea, Black Sea Fleet, Bohemia, Bolesław Prus, Boris Shelkovnikov, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Budjak, Bulgaria, Cambridge University Press, Carol I of Romania, Caucasus, Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917), Charles Darwin, Circassians, Concert of Europe, ..., Congress of Berlin, Constanța, Constantinople, Constantinople Conference, Cretan Revolt (1866–1869), Crimean Tatars, Crimean War, Crusades, Cyprus, Damascus, Danube, De jure, Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire, Desertion, Dhimmi, Dmitry Milyutin, Doğubayazıt, Dobruja, Druze, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Rumelia, Edict of Gülhane, Edirne, Edward Malet, Eiffel Bridge, Ungheni, Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Enosis, Erzurum, Field marshal, First Constitutional Era, First Geneva Convention, Flag of Switzerland, Flag of Turkey, Flags of the Ottoman Empire, Franco-Prussian War, Franz Joseph I of Austria, French invasion of Russia, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Galați, Geneva Conventions, George Warren Wood, Gheorghe Manu, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1831–1891), Great Britain, Great Eastern Crisis, Great power, Grigol Dadiani (Kolkhideli), Gyula Andrássy, Hajduk, Harmanli massacre, History of Georgia (country), History of the Balkans, History of the Jews in Bulgaria, Imperial Guard (Russia), Imperial Russian Army, Industrial Revolution, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Iosif Gurko, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Irish question, Irredentism, Islamic calendar, Istanbul, Ivan Davidovich Lazarev, Ivan Turgenev, Januarius MacGahan, Jizya, John Joseph (historian), Justin McCarthy (American historian), Kars, Kars Oblast, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Konstantin Makovsky, Kosta Protić, Krupp, League of the Three Emperors, Lebanon, Lieutenant general, Lion and Sun, Macedonia (region), Marche slave, Maritsa, Maronite Church, Marquess of Salisbury, Massacre, Mehmed Ali Pasha (marshal), Mehmed Fuad Pasha, Mehmed Riza Pasha, Mihail Cerchez, Mikhail Dragomirov, Mikhail Loris-Melikov, Mikhail Skobelev, Milan I of Serbia, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Mkrtich Khrimian, Montenegro, Muslim, Nationalism, Nationalities Papers, Naval mine, Niš, Nicholas I of Montenegro, Nikopol, Bulgaria, Old Style and New Style dates, Oltu, Opalchentsi, Oscar Wilde, Osman Nuri Pasha, Otto von Bismarck, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman fleet organisation during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Ottoman Navy, Outlaw, Pan-Slavism, PDF, Peter Balakian, Pirot, Pleven, Plovdiv, Polish Legion in Turkey, Principality of Bulgaria, Principality of Montenegro, Principality of Serbia, Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria, Pyotr Vannovsky, Règlement Organique (Mount Lebanon), Red Lion and Sun Society, Reichstadt Agreement, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian War of Independence, Ruse, Bulgaria, Russia, Russian Armenia, Russian Empire, Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Sarıkamış, Süleyman Hüsnü Paşa, Scorched earth, Second Italian War of Independence, Second Schleswig War, Serbian Army, Sevastopol, Shipka Pass, Siege of Plevna, Slavophilia, Sofia, Stara Zagora, Sublime Porte, Sukhumi, Svishtov, Switzerland, Syria, The Doll (novel), The Turkish Gambit, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Treaty of Paris (1856), Treaty of San Stefano, Tsarevich, Unification of Germany, United Principalities, United States, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Victor Hugo, Vidin, Vito Positano, Vranje, Western Armenia, Westernizer, William Ewart Gladstone, Yeşilköy, Yerevan, Zákupy, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 19th century. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha (1807–1883), also known as Çırpanlı Abdi Pasha or Abdul Kerim Pasha, son of Ahmed Ağa, was an Ottoman military commander, born in Chirpan, Ottoman Bulgaria.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
The Action off Măcin was a naval engagement between a torpedo boat of the Romanian Navy with a mixed Romanian-Russian crew and a monitor of the Ottoman Navy which took place during the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War.
Ahmed Eyüb Pasha (Modern Turkish: Ahmet Eyüp Paşa; 1833–1893) was an Ottoman military commander, who participated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78).
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (احمد مختار پاشا;‎ 1 November 1839 – 21 January 1919) was an Ottoman field marshal and Grand Vizier.
Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Горчако́в), (15 July 179811 March 1883) was a Russian diplomat and statesman from the Gorchakov princely family.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Alexandru Cernat (January 17, 1828 – December 8, 1893) was a Moldavian-born Romanian general.
The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
Ardahan (არტაანი, Art’aani; Արդահան, Ardahan) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
The Arkadi Monastery (in Greek: / Moní Arkadhíou) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery, situated on a fertile plateau 23 km (14 mi) to the southeast of Rethymnon on the island of Crete in Greece.
The Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, also known as Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul, is today head of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople (Պատրիարքութիւն Հայոց Կոստանդնուպոլսոյ), one of the smallest Patriarchates of the Oriental Orthodox Church but one that has exerted a very significant political role and today still exercises a spiritual authority.
The term "Armenian Question", as used in European history, became commonplace among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arshak Ter-Gukasov (Արշակ Տեր-Ղուկասով; 1819 – 8 January 1881) was a Lieutenant-General of the Russian Empire.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A bashi-bazouk (başıbozuk,, "one whose head is turned, damaged head, crazy-head", roughly "leaderless" or "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army, raised in times of war.
The Batak massacre was a massacre of Bulgarians in Batak by Ottoman irregular troops in 1876 at the beginning of the April Uprising.
The Battle of Shipka Pass consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as Opalchentsi, and the Ottoman Empire for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
The Battle of Sofia (Битката при София) was the culmination of Russian General Iosif Gurko's Western Squad for the defeat of the Orkhanie army in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878).
The Battle of Tashkessen or Battle of Tashkesan (Turkish: Taşkesen Muharebesi) was a battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Chronological listing of the battles of the Battles of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
The Batum Oblast was an oblast (province) of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with the maritime city of Batum as its center.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
Bela Palanka (Serbian Cyrillic: Бела Паланка) is a town and municipality located in the Pirot District of southeastern Serbia.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolesław Prus (pronounced: bɔ'lεswaf 'prus; 20 August 1847 – 19 May 1912), born Aleksander Głowacki, is a leading figure in the history of Polish literature and philosophy and a distinctive voice in world literature.
Boris Martynovich Shelkovnikov (Борис Мартынович Шелковников; 1837 – 10 February 1878), was a Russian general of the imperial army.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Viceroyalty was the Imperial Russian administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy (главноуправляющий) (1801–1844, 1882–1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844–1882, 1904–1917).
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The 1876–77 Constantinople Conference (Tersane Konferansı "Shipyard Conference", after the venue Tersane Sarayı "Shipyard Palace") of the Great Powers (Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) was held in Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 23 December 1876 until 20 January 1877.
The Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869 (Κρητική Επανάσταση του 1866) or Great Cretan Revolution (Μεγάλη Κρητική Επανάσταση) was a three-year uprising in Crete against Ottoman rule, the third and largest in a series of Cretan revolts between the end of the Greek War of Independence in 1830 and the establishment of the independent Cretan State in 1898.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Count Dmitry Alekseyevich Milyutin (Дмитрий Алексеевич Милютин; 28 June 1816, Moscow – 25 January 1912, Simeiz near Yalta) was Minister of War (1861–81) and the last Field Marshal of Imperial Russia (1898).
Doğubayazıt is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, and it is the easternmost district of Turkey, bordering Iran.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Rumelia (Източна Румелия, Iztochna Rumeliya; روم الى شرقى, Rumeli-i Şarkî; Ανατολική Ρωμυλία, Anatoliki Romylia) was an autonomous territory (oblast in Bulgarian, vilayet in Turkish) in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty.
The Gülhane Hatt-ı Şerif (Supreme Edict of the Rosehouse) or Tanzimât Fermânı (Imperial Edict of Reorganization) was a proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I in 1839 that launched the Tanzimât period of reforms and reorganization in the Ottoman Empire.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Sir Edward Baldwin Malet, 4th Baronet (10 October 1837 – 29 June 1908) was a British diplomat.
The Eiffel Bridge (Podul Eiffel) is a bridge over the River Prut and a checkpoint between Moldova and Romania.
The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on humanitarian and medical vehicles and buildings, and to be worn by medical personnel and others carrying out humanitarian work, to protect them from military attack on the battlefield.
Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The flag of Switzerland consists of a red flag with a white cross (a bold, equilateral cross) in the centre.
The flag of Turkey (Türk bayrağı) is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent.
The Ottoman Empire used a variety of flags, especially as naval ensigns, during its history.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Galați (also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
George Warren Wood (known professionally as George W. Wood) (1814-1901) was a Presbyterian Minister and missionary who became the secretary of the Congregationalist American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Gheorghe Manu (26 July 1833, Bucharest, Wallachia – 16 May 1911, Bucharest, Kingdom of Romania) was a Romanian Army general, artillery inspector and statesman.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 – 18 December 1909) was the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Великий князь Николай Николаевич; 8 August 1831 – 25 April 1891) was the third son and sixth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78 began in the Ottoman Empire's territories on the Balkan peninsula in 1875, with the outbreak of several uprisings and wars that resulted in the meddling of international powers, and was ended with the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Prince Grigol Dadiani (გრიგოლ დადიანი; 6 October 1814 – 24 December 1901) was a member of the Georgian noble Dadiani family of Mingrelia.
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (8 March 1823 – 18 February 1890) was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries.
Harmanli massacre refers to the battle between Russian and Turkish forces and the ensuing mass death of Muslim civilians near Harmanli in early 1878,The Congress of Berlin and after, William Norton Medlicott, page 157 during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
The nation of Georgia (საქართველო sakartvelo) was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia.
The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
Jews have had a continuous presence in historic Bulgarian lands since before the 2nd century CE, and have often played an important part in the history of Bulgaria.
The Russian Imperial Guard, officially known as the Leib Guard (Лейб-гвардия leyb-gvardiya, from German Leib "Body"; cf. Life Guards / Bodyguard) were military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Count Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gurko (Ио́сиф Влади́мирович Роме́йко-Гурко́; —), also known as Joseph or Ossip Gourko, was a prominent Russian field marshal during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Irish Question was a phrase used mainly by members of the British ruling classes from the early 19th century until the 1920s.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivan Davidovich Lazarev (Հովհաննես Դավթի Լազարյան, Hovhannes Davti Lazarian; Иван Давыдович Лазарев; 17 October 1820 – 14 August 1879) was an Imperial Russian Army general of Armenian origin.
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.
Januarius Aloysius MacGahan (June 12, 1844 – June 9, 1878) was an American journalist and war correspondent working for the New York Herald and the London Daily News.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Joseph (born January 9, 1923) is an Assyrian-American educator and historian of Middle Eastern studies.
Justin A. McCarthy (born October 19, 1945) is an American demographer, professor of history at the University of Louisville, in Louisville, Kentucky.
Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.
Kars Oblast (Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky (Константин Егорович Маковский; —) was an influential Russian painter, affiliated with the "Peredvizhniki (Wanderers)".
Kosta Protić (Коста Протић; 29 September 1831 – 4 June 1892) was the first Serbian General and the Chief of the Serbian General Staff.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
The Three Caesars' Alliance or Union of the Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund, Союз трёх императоров) was an alliance between the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Lion and Sun (شیر و خورشید, Shir o Khorshid) is one of the main emblems of Iran (Persia), and formerly was an element in Iran's national flag.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Marche slave in B-flat minor, Op. 31 (published as Slavonic March) or Serbo-Russian March (Словенски марш / Српско-руски марш, Slovenski marsh / Srpsko-ruski marsh, Славя́нский марш / Сербско-русский марш, Slavyanskiy marsh / Serbsko-russkiy marsh) or Slavic March is an orchestral tone poem by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky published in October 1876.
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Mehmed Ali Pasha (November 18, 1827 – September 7, 1878Osman Selim Kocahanoğlu, "Bir Osmanlı Ailesi ve Ali Fuad Cebesoy", Ali Fuat Cebesoy'un Arşivinden Askeri ve Siyasi Belgeler, Temel Yayınları, İstanbul, 2005,, p. 13.) was a German-born Ottoman career officer and marshal.
Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1814 – February 12, 1869), sometimes known as Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha and commonly known as Fuad Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman known for his prominent role in the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th-century Ottoman Empire, as well as his leadership during the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war in Syria.
Mehmed Riza Pasha or Serasker Riza Pasha (Turkish: Serasker Rıza Paşa; 1844–1920) was an Ottoman military commander.
Mihail Cerchez Cristodulo (1839–1885) was a Romanian general.
Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov (Михаил Иванович Драгомиров; –) was a Russian general and military writer.
Count Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-Melikov (Միքայել Լորիս-Մելիքով; – 24 December 1888) was a Russian-Armenian statesman, General of the Cavalry, and Adjutant General of H. I. M. Retinue.
Mikhail Dmitriyevich Skobelev (29 September 1843 – 7 July 1882) was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Milan Obrenović (Милан Обреновић; 22 August 1854 – 11 February 1901) was the ruler of Serbia from 1868 to 1889, first as prince (1868-1882), subsequently as king (1882-1889).
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Mkrtich Khrimian (classical reformed: Մկրտիչ Խրիմյան; 4 April 182029 October 1907) was an Armenian Apostolic Church leader, educator, and publisher who served as Catholicos of All Armenians from 1893 to 1907.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationalities Papers is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge for the Association for the Study of Nationalities.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Niš (Ниш) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District.
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Никола I Петровић-Његош; – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.
Nikopol (Никопол; historically Niğbolu, Νικόπολις, Nikópolis, Nikápoly, Nicopolis) is a town in northern Bulgaria, the administrative center of Nikopol municipality, part of Pleven Province, on the right bank of the Danube river, downstream from the mouth of the Osam river.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oltu (Oltisi); is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Opalchentsi (опълченци) were Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
Osman Nuri Pasha (عثمان نوری پاشا‎; 1832, Tokat, Ottoman Empire – 5 April 1900, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire), also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peter Balakian (Փիթըր Պալաքեան, born June 13, 1951) is an Armenian American poet, writer and academic, the Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of Humanities at Colgate University.
Pirot (Пирот) is a city and the administrative center of the Pirot District in southeastern Serbia.
Pleven (Плевен) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
The Polish Legion in Turkey (Legion Polski w Turcji) was a military force formed in Istanbul by emigrants from Partitioned Poland to fight with the Ottoman Army in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
The Principality of Bulgaria (Княжество България, Knyazhestvo Balgariya) was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
The Principality of Montenegro (Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910.
The Principality of Serbia (Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.
The Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria (Временное русское управление в Болгарии, Временно руско управление в България) was an interim government established for Bulgarian territories liberated by the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Pyotr Semyonovich Vannovsky (Пётр Семёнович Ванновский; Russian (before 1918): Пётръ Семёновичъ Ванновскій; Пётр Сямёнавіч Ванновскі) was an Imperial Russian statesman and military leader, General of the Infantry (1883), Adjutant General (1878) of Belarusian extraction, who served in the Imperial Russian Army.
The Règlement Organique ("Organic Regulation") was a series of international conventions, between 1860 and 1864, between the Ottoman Empire and the European Powers, which led to the creation of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.
The Red Lion and Sun Society of Iran (جمعیت شیر و خورشید سرخ ایران) was established in 1922 and admitted to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in 1923.
The Reichstadt agreement was an agreement made between Austria-Hungary and Russia in July 1876, who were at that time in an alliance with each other and Germany in the League of the Three Emperors, or Dreikaiserbund.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. The mobilization began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge.
Ruse (also transliterated as Rousse, Russe or Rusçuk; Русе) is the fifth largest city in Bulgaria.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian Armenia is the period of Armenian history under Russian rule from 1828, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire following Qajar Iran's loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) and the subsequent ceding of its territories that included Eastern Armenia per the out coming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Novopazarski sandžak; Новопазарски санџак; Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that was created in 1865.
Sarıkamış is a town and a district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha (Süleyman Hüsnü Paşa; 1838–1892) was an Ottoman military commander.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.
The Serbian Army (Копнена Војска / Kopnena Vojska, lit.) is the land-based component of the Serbian Armed Forces, responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia from foreign hostiles; participating in peacekeeping operations; and providing humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
Shipka Pass (Шипченски проход, Shipchenski prohod) (el. 1150 m./3820 ft.) is a scenic mountain pass through the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria.
The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Stara Zagora (Стара Загора) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, and the administrative capital of the homonymous Stara Zagora Province.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.
Svishtov (Свищов, known as Свѣщний / Sveshtniy in old Bulgarian) is a town in northern Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the Danube river opposite the Romanian town of Zimnicea.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Doll (Lalka) is the second of four acclaimed novels by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus (real name Aleksander Głowacki).
The Turkish Gambit (Турецкий гамбит, Turetskiy gambit) is the second novel from the Erast Fandorin series of historical detective novels by Russian author Boris Akunin.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Tsarevich (Царе́вич) is a Slavic title given to tsars' sons.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which later became Romania, adopted in 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of both territories, which were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vidin (Видин) is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria.
Vittorio "Vito" Positano, (2 October 1833 – 26 November 1886) was an Italian diplomat known for saving the Bulgarian capital city of Sofia from burning during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Vranje (Врање) is a city and the administrative center of the Pčinja District in southern Serbia.
Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.
Westernizers (За́падник, zapadnik) were a group of 19th-century intellectuals who believed that Russia's development depended upon the adoption of Western European technology and liberal government.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
Yeşilköy (prior to 1926, San Stefano or Santo Stefano from the Greek: Άγιος Στέφανος pronounced Ayos Stefanos, rendered in Turkish as Ayastefanos, Сан Стефано) is a neighbourhood (mahalle) in the district of Bakırköy, Istanbul, Turkey, on the Marmara Sea about west of Istanbul's historic city centre.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Zákupy (Reichstadt) is a town of the Česká Lípa District, in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic.
The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
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