33 relations: Animal, Book of Han, Chang'an, Chinese emperors family tree (early), Concubinage, Crown prince, Cult of personality, Duke of Zhou, Emperor Ai of Han, Emperor Cheng of Han, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor of China, Emperor Ping of Han, Emperor Xuan of Han, Emperor Yuan of Han, Empress dowager, Empress Wang (Ping), Gansu, Gengshi Emperor, Han dynasty, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Henan, King Cheng of Zhou, Nanyang, Henan, Puyang, Qingyang, Shandong, Tai'an, Wang Mang, Wang Zhengjun, Wet nurse, Xin dynasty, Ziying.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the foundation of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC (by Qin Shihuangdi), till the end of the Sixteen Kingdoms period, in the first half of the fifth century AD.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.
Emperor Ai of Han (27 BC – 15 August 1 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
Emperor Cheng of Han (51 BC – 17 April 7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty ruling from 33 until 7 BC.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Emperor Ping (9 BC – 3 February 6) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 1 BC to AD 5.
Emperor Xuan of Han (91 BC – 10 January 49 BC), born Liu Bingyi (劉病已), later renamed to Liu Xun (劉詢), was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 74 to 49 BC.
Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC – 8 July 33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) (hiragana: こうたいごう) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor.
Empress Wang (王皇后, personal name unknown) (8 BC – AD 23), formally Empress Xiaoping (孝平皇后), formally during her father Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty Duchess Dowager of Ding'an (定安太后) then Princess Huanghuang (黃皇室主) was an empress during the Han Dynasty—the last of the Western Han Dynasty—who was the daughter of the eventual usurper Wang Mang.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Gengshi Emperor (died AD 25), was an emperor of the Han Dynasty restored after the fall of Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
Nanyang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Henan province, China.
Puyang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China.
Qingyang is a prefecture-level city in eastern Gansu province, China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province of the People's Republic of China.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
Wang Zhengjun (71 BC – 13 AD), officially Empress Xiaoyuan (孝元皇后), later and more commonly known as Grand Empress Dowager Wang, born in Yuancheng (modern Handan, Hebei), was an empress during the Western Han dynasty of China, who played important roles during the reigns of five successive Han emperors (her husband, son, two stepgrandsons, and stepgreat-grandnephew) and later (according to traditional historians, unwittingly) led to the usurpation of the throne by her nephew Wang Mang.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.
Ziying (died January 206 BC) was the third and last ruler of the Qin dynasty.