112 relations: Aleurone, Alkylresorcinol, Ancient Rome, Apamea sordens, Argentina, Australia, Çatalhöyük, Barley, Bedding (animals), Belarus, Brazil, Bread, Bronze Age, Canada, Carbon-14, Carl Linnaeus, Central Europe, Cereal, Chaff, Chile, China, Chlorops pumilionis, Coeliac disease, Combine harvester, Corn dolly, Cover crop, Craft, Crispbread, Cultivar, Danube, Dietary fiber, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Eastern Europe, Epipalaeolithic, Ergot, Ergotism, Euphrates, Europe, Farmer, Flour, Fodder, Food safety, Forage, France–Germany border, Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein, Fruit anatomy, Germany, Gliadin, Gluten, Gluten-related disorders, ..., Glutenin, Grain, Grain elevator, Green manure, Hardiness (plants), Harvest, Herbalism, Hessian fly, Hungary, JSTOR, Kazakhstan, Kvass, Latvia, Leaf beetle, Lithuania, Lolium, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Manual labour, Mechanised agriculture, Middle Ages, Neolithic, New Zealand, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Nurse crop, Peat, Pliny the Elder, Poaceae, Poland, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Pumpernickel, Rhine, Rolled oats, Russia, Rye beer, Rye bread, Rye whiskey, Salem witch trials, Sand, Scythe, Seed, Sickle, Silo, Soil, Soil conditioner, Spelt, Stook, Straw, Syria, Tell Abu Hureyra, Threshing, Tribe (biology), Triticeae, Turkey, Ukraine, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Vavilovian mimicry, Vodka, Wheat, Wheat allergy, Winnowing, Winter garden, Witch-hunt. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Aleurone (from Greek aleuron, flour) is a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds and tubers.
Alkylresorcinols, also known as resorcinolic lipids, are phenolic lipids composed of long aliphatic chains and resorcinol-type phenolic rings.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Apamea sordens, the rustic shoulder-knot or bordered apamea, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bedding, in ethology and animal husbandry, is material, usually organic, used by animals to support their bodies when resting or otherwise stationary.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorops pumilionis is a species of pest fly from the family Chloropidae.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops.
Corn dollies or corn mothers are a form of straw work made as part of harvest customs of Europe before mechanization.
A cover crop is a crop planted primarily to manage soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and wildlife in an ''agroecosystem'' (Lu et al. 2000), an ecological system managed and largely shaped by humans across a range of intensities to produce food, feed, or fiber.
A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
Crispbread (knäckebröd, hårt bröd, hårdbröd, spisbröd, knäcke, knækbrød, knekkebrød, näkkileipä, näkileib, hrökkbrauð, knekkbreyð, 'Knäckebrot' or 'Knäcke', Knackbrood, knäckebröd) is a flat and dry type of bread or cracker, containing mostly rye flour.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Ditylenchus dipsaci is a plant pathogenic nematode that primarily infects onion and garlic.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotism (pron.) is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
The border between the states of France and Germany has a length of about.
Baron Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein (30 July 1768 in Stuttgart – 28 June 1826 in Merefa) was an early explorer of the flora and archaeology of the southern portion of Imperial Russia, including the Caucasus and Novorossiya.
Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gliadin (a type of prolamin) is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.
Glutenin (a type of glutelin) is the major protein within wheat flour, making up 47% of the total protein content.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
A grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stockpile or store grain.
In agriculture, green manure is created by leaving uprooted or sown crop parts to wither on a field so that they serve as a mulch and soil amendment.
Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The Hessian fly or barley midge, Mayetiola destructor, is a species of fly that is a significant pest of cereal crops including wheat, barley and rye.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery to mechanise the work of agriculture, greatly increasing farm worker productivity.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
In agriculture, a nurse crop is an annual crop used to assist in establishment of a perennial crop.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.
Pumpernickel is a typically heavy, slightly sweet rye bread traditionally made with sourdough starter and coarsely ground rye.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rolled oats are traditionally oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and stabilized by being lightly toasted.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rye beer refers to any beer in which rye (generally malted) is substituted for some portion of the barley malt.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.
Rye whiskey can refer to either of two, different, but related, types of whiskey.
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
A scytheOxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1933: Scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing grass or reaping crops.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.
A silo (from the Greek σιρός – siros, "pit for holding grain") is a structure for storing bulk materials.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.
Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.
A stook, also referred to as a shock or stack, is an arrangement of sheaves of cut grain-stalks placed so as to keep the grain-heads off the ground while still in the field and prior to collection for threshing.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tell Abu Hureyra (تل أبو هريرة) is an archaeological site in the Euphrates valley in modern Syria.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.
Triticeae is a botanical tribe within the subfamily Pooideae of grasses includes genera with many domesticated species.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.
Vavilovian mimicry (also crop mimicry or weed mimicry) is a form of mimicry in plants where a weed comes to share one or more characteristics with a domesticated plant through generations of artificial selection.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
A winter garden is a kind of garden maintained in wintertime.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.