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Sápmi

Index Sápmi

Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps. [1]

178 relations: Apatite, Arctic Circle, Arjeplog, Ájtte, Östersund, Barents Region, Barents Sea, Belarusian language, Belarusians, Bodø, Bokmål, Centre Party (Sweden), Chris Heister, Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation, Confederation of Independent Football Associations, Conservative Party (Norway), Coordinated Universal Time, Counties of Sweden, County council (Norway), County governor (Norway), Cultural area, Dalarna County, Dialect continuum, East Slavic languages, Egil Olli, Endangered language, English language, Enontekiö, Environmental inequality in Europe, Estonian language, FA Sápmi, Fennoscandia, Finland, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Finnmark, Finnmark Act, Finns, Fishery, Gáivuotna – Kåfjord – Kaivuono, Gällivare, Gray wolf, Gulf of Bothnia, Gunnar Viken, Hattfjelldal, Häme, Härjedalen, Hålogalandsallmenningen, Helsinki, Inari, Finland, ..., Ingrian language, Jämtland, Jämtland County, Jöns Svanberg, Johannes Schefferus, Jokkmokk, Karasjok, Karelian language, Kautokeino, Kebnekaise, Kiruna, Kola Peninsula, Kven language, Kven people, Labour Party (Norway), Laestadianism, Lake Inari, Lakselv, Lapland (Finland), Lapland (Sweden), Lapland War, Laponia (historical province), Laponian area, Lappmarken, Left Party (Sweden), Livonian language, Lovozero (rural locality), Lovozersky District, Lule River, Meänkieli dialects, Meänmaa, Midnight sun, Moderate Party, Murmansk, Murmansk Oblast, National anthem, National day, Nesseby, Nord-Trøndelag, Nordic countries, Nordland, Norrbotten, Norrbotten County, Northern Norway, Northern Sami, Norway, Norwegian language, Norwegian Sea, Norwegians, Oslo, Ostrobothnia (historical province), Oulu, Pavel Sulyandziga, Pekka Aikio, Per-Ola Eriksson, Permafrost, Pidgin, Polar night, President of Russia, Provinces of Sweden, Raion, Regions of Finland, Reindeer, Riddu Riđđu, Runar Sjåstad, Russenorsk, Russia, Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Russian diaspora, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russians, Saami Council, Saltfjellet, Sami assembly of 1917, Sami cuisine, Sami languages, Sami national anthem, Sami National Day, Sami native region (Finland), Sami Parliament of Finland, Sami Parliament of Norway, Sami Parliament of Sweden, Sami people, Sámi politics, Sápmi, Sápmi football team, Sør-Trøndelag, Scandinavia, Snåsa, Steinkjer, Stockholm, Subarctic, Sweden, Swedes, Swedish language, Tana, Norway, Tavastia (historical province), Terje Olsen (politician), Time zone, Tore Sandvik, Tornedalians, Tour de Barents, Trøndelag, Troms, Tromsø, Trondheim, Tundra, Tysfjord, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Umeå, UNESCO, United Russia, University of Tromsø, Uralic languages, Utsjoki, Vadsø, Västerbotten, Västerbotten County, Västernorrland County, Veps language, Votic language, White Sea, World Heritage site, 2006 Viva World Cup, 2008 Viva World Cup, 2014 ConIFA World Football Cup. Expand index (128 more) »

Apatite

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.

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Arctic Circle

The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.

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Arjeplog

Arjeplog (Pite Sami: Árjepluovve) is a locality and the seat of Arjeplog Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 1,977 inhabitants in 2010.

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Ájtte

Ájtte, the Swedish Mountain and Sami Museum (Svenskt fjäll- och samemuseum), is a cultural and natural history museum in Jokkmokk in Lapland, Sweden.

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Östersund

Östersund (Staare) is an urban area (city) in Jämtland in the middle of Sweden.

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Barents Region

The Barents Region is a name given, by advocates of establishing international cooperation after the fall of the Soviet Union, to the land along the coast of the Barents Sea, from Nordland in Norway to the Kola Peninsula in Russia and beyond all the way to the Ural Mountains and Novaya Zemlya, and south to the Gulf of Bothnia of the Baltic Sea and the great lakes Ladoga and Onega.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Belarusians

Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.

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Bodø

Bodø (Bådåddjo) is a town and a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.

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Bokmål

Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.

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Centre Party (Sweden)

The Centre Party (Centerpartiet, abbreviated C) is a liberal and agrarian political party in Sweden.

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Chris Heister

Chris Heister (born Gun Christina Heister 18 September 1950 in Östhammar) is a Swedish Moderate Party politician and Leader of the Opposition on Stockholm County Council.

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Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation

The Civic Chamber (In Russian: Общественная палата) is a consultative civil society institution with 168 members created in 2005 in Russia to analyze draft legislation and monitor the activities of the parliament, government and other government bodies of Russia and its Federal Subjects.

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Confederation of Independent Football Associations

The Confederation of Independent Football Associations is the international governing body for Non-FIFA affiliated Associations for association football.

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Conservative Party (Norway)

The Conservative Party (Høyre, Høgre, H, literally "Right") is a conservative.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Counties of Sweden

The counties of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges län) are the top-level geographic subdivisions of Sweden.

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County council (Norway)

A County council (Fylkesting) is the highest governing body of the county municipalities in Norway.

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County governor (Norway)

The County Governor (Fylkesmannen) is a Norwegian government agency that represents 17 of the Norwegian counties.

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Cultural area

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).

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Dalarna County

Dalarna County (Kopparbergs län) is a county or län in middle Sweden.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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East Slavic languages

The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.

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Egil Olli

Egil Andreas Olli (born 13 October 1949) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.

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Endangered language

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Enontekiö

Enontekiö (Eanodat, Enontekis) is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx.

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Environmental inequality in Europe

Environmental racism in Europe has been documented in relation to racialized immigrant and migrant populations alongside Romani (Roma/Gypsy), Yenish, Irish Traveller, and communities (such as the Sami, Komi, and Nenets) from within continental borders.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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FA Sápmi

FA Sápmi is a football association which is the organizer of the Sápmi football team representing the indigenous Sámi people.

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Fennoscandia

Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnic languages

The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finnmark

Finnmark (italic; Finnmark; Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.

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Finnmark Act

The Finnmark Act (Finnmarksloven in Norwegian) of 2005 transferred about 96% (about 46,000 km2) of the area in the Finnmark county in Norway to the inhabitants of Finnmark.

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Finns

Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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Fishery

Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Gáivuotna – Kåfjord – Kaivuono

Gáivuotna (Northern Sami) – Kåfjord (Norwegian) – Kaivuono (Kven) is a municipality in Troms county, Norway.

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Gällivare

Gällivare (Jällivaara, Jiellevárri or Váhčir, Jellivaara) is a locality and the seat of Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 8,449 inhabitants in 2010.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Gulf of Bothnia

The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Gunnar Viken

Gunnar Johannes Viken (born 9 July 1948 in Levanger) is a Norwegian dairy farmer and politician for the Conservative Party.

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Hattfjelldal

Hattfjelldal (Aarborte and Árbordi) is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.

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Häme

Häme (Swedish: Tavastland, Latin: Tavastia) is the name of a geographical region in Finland, associated with the Tavastians, or Häme people (hämäläiset), a subgroup of the Finnish people.

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Härjedalen

Härjedalen (Herjedalen) is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden.

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Hålogalandsallmenningen

Hålogalandsallmenningen is the proposed name for the organization which is expected to manage about 50% of the land and inland water resources in the counties of Troms and Nordland in Norway.

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Inari, Finland

Inari (Aanaar, Anár, Aanar, Enare, Enare) is Finland's largest municipality (but one of the most sparsely populated), with four official languages, more than any other in the country.

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Ingrian language

Ingrian (also called Izhorian) is a nearly extinct Finnic language spoken by the (mainly Orthodox) Izhorians of Ingria.

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Jämtland

Jämtland (Norwegian: Jemtland,; Latin: Iemptia) or Jamtland is a historical province (landskap) in the centre of Sweden in northern Europe.

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Jämtland County

Jämtland County (Jämtlands län) is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna.

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Jöns Svanberg

Jöns Svanberg (1771–1851) was a Swedish clergyman and natural scientist.

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Johannes Schefferus

Johannes Schefferus (February 2, 1621 – March 26, 1679) was one of the most important Swedish humanists of his time.

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Jokkmokk

Jokkmokk (Lule Sámi: Jåhkåmåhkke or Dálvvadis; Northern Sámi: Dálvvadis; Finnish: Jokimukka) is a locality and the seat of Jokkmokk Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 2,786 inhabitants in 2010.

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Karasjok

Karasjok or Kárášjohka (Northern Sami) or Kaarasjoki (Finnish) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Karelian language

Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.

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Kautokeino

(Norwegian) or Guovdageaidnu (Northern Sami) (also: Koutokeino and Koutokeino) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Kebnekaise

Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi, "Cauldron Crest") is the highest mountain in Sweden.

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Kiruna

Kiruna (Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost town in Sweden, situated in the province of Lapland.

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Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

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Kven language

The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.

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Kven people

Kvens (Kven/Finnish: kveeni, Norwegian: kvener, Swedish: kväner, Northern Sami: kveanat) are a Finnic ethnic minority in Norway who are descended from Finnish peasants and fishermen who emigrated from the northern parts of Finland and Sweden to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Labour Party (Norway)

The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.

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Laestadianism

Laestadianism, also known as Laestadian Lutheranism and Apostolic Lutheranism, is a conservative Lutheran revival movement started in Lapland in the middle of the 19th century.

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Lake Inari

Lake Inari (Inarijärvi/Inarinjärvi, Anárjávri, Aanaarjävri, Aanarjäuʹrr, Enare träsk, Enaresjøen) is the largest lake in Sápmi and the third-largest lake in Finland.

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Lakselv

(Leavdnja; Lemmijoki) is the largest village and administrative centre of Porsanger Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Lapland (Finland)

Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.

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Lapland (Sweden)

Lappland, often Anglicized as Lapland (Latin: Lapponia, Northern Sami: Sápmi), is a province in northernmost Sweden.

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Lapland War

The Lapland War (Lapin sota; Lapplandskriget; Lapplandkrieg) was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany effectively from September to November 1944 in Finland's northernmost region, Lapland, during World War II.

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Laponia (historical province)

Laponia (Lappland) was a historical Swedish province, or landscape, in the north of Sweden which evolved from Lappmarken.

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Laponian area

The Laponian area is a large mountainous wildlife area in the Lapland province in northern Sweden, more precisely in Gällivare Municipality, Arjeplog Municipality and Jokkmokk Municipality.

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Lappmarken

Lappmarken was an earlier Swedish name for the northern part of the old Kingdom of Sweden inhabited by the Sami people.

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Left Party (Sweden)

The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet, V) is a socialist and feminist political party in Sweden.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Lovozero (rural locality)

Lovozero (Лово́зеро; Луяввьр; Luujäuˊrr; Lujávri; Luujärvi) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Lovozersky District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on both banks of the Virma River, which is not far from Lake Lovozero, and southeast of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Lovozersky District

Lovozersky District (Лово́зерский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.

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Lule River

Lule River (Lule älv, Luleälven) is a major river in Sweden, rising in northern Sweden and flowing southeast for before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Luleå.

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Meänkieli dialects

Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden along the valley of the Torne River.

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Meänmaa

Meänmaa, or sometimes Torne Valley or Torne River Valley (Finnish: Tornionlaakso, Swedish: Tornedalen Meänkieli: Meänmaa) lies at the border of Sweden and Finland.

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Midnight sun

The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.

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Moderate Party

The Moderate Party (Moderata samlingspartiet, M: "Moderate Unity Party", commonly referred to in Swedish as Moderaterna: "Moderates") is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden.

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Murmansk

Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.

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Murmansk Oblast

Murmansk Oblast (r) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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National day

A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.

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Nesseby

Unjárga (Northern Sami) or Nesseby (Norwegian) (also Uuniemi in Kven/Finnish) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Nord-Trøndelag

Nord-Trøndelag ("North Trøndelag") was a county constituting the northern part of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordland

Nordland (Nordlánda) is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) to the west.

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Norrbotten

Norrbotten, known in English as North Bothnia, is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden.

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Norrbotten County

Norrbotten County (Norrbottens län; Norrbottenin lääni) is the northernmost county or län of Sweden.

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Northern Norway

Northern Norway (Nord-Norge, Nord-Noreg; Davvi-Norga) is a geographical region of Norway, consisting of the three northernmost counties Nordland, Troms and Finnmark, in total about 35% of the Norwegian mainland.

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Northern Sami

Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Norwegian Sea

The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.

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Norwegians

Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.

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Oslo

Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Ostrobothnia (historical province)

Ostrobothnia, Österbotten (literally "Eastern Bottom", "botten" deriving from Old Norse botn in the meaning of 'bay', and Latinized "bothnia"), Pohjanmaa (literally "Bottom (low) lands") is a historical province comprising a large western and northern part of modern Finland (which was then the "eastern half" of Sweden).

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Oulu

Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.

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Pavel Sulyandziga

Pavel Vasilievich Sulyandziga (Павел Васильевич Суляндзига born 20 February 1962 in Olon, Pozharsky District, Primorsky Kray) is a Russian indigenous rights activist of Udege nationality.

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Pekka Aikio

Veli Pekka Olavi Aikio (born 21 September 1944 in Sodankylä, Finland) served as the president of the Sami Parliament of Finland for three terms from 1996 to 2008.

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Per-Ola Eriksson

Per-Ola Anders Eriksson (born October 18, 1946) is a Swedish politician.

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Permafrost

In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Pidgin

A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.

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Polar night

The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Provinces of Sweden

The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.

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Raion

A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).

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Regions of Finland

Finland comprises 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Riddu Riđđu

Riddu Riđđu is an annual Sami music and culture festival held in Olmmáivággi (Manndalen) in the Gáivuotna (Kåfjord) municipality in Norway.

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Runar Sjåstad

Runar Sjåstad (born 28 August 1968) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.

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Russenorsk

Russenorsk (Руссено́рск,; Russo-Norwegian) is an extinct dual-source pidgin language formerly used in the Arctic, which combined elements of Russian and Norwegian, and which was created by Russian traders and Norwegian fishermen from northern Norway and the Russian Kola Peninsula.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North

The Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON) (Russian: Ассоциация коренных, малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации (АКМНССиДВ) is the Russian national umbrella organisation representing 41 indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East. It is a non-governmental organisation in Consultative Status with ECOSOC and one of the six indigenous Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council.

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Russian diaspora

The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Saami Council

The Saami Council (Sámiráđđi) is an umbrella organization for Sámi organizations in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

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Saltfjellet

Saltfjellet is a mountain area in Nordland county, Norway that separates the two regions of Helgeland and Salten.

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Sami assembly of 1917

The Sami assembly of 1917 was the first Sami national assembly.

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Sami cuisine

Sami cuisine is the cuisine of peoples from the Sápmi territory of the Sami people, which spans Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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Sami national anthem

Sámi soga lávlla (English: Song of the Sami Family/People) is the anthem of the Sámi people.

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Sami National Day

The Sami National Day (Sámi álbmotbeaivi, Säämi aalmugpeivi, Saa´mi meersažpei´vv, Saemiej åålmegebiejjie, Samenes nasjonaldag, Samernas nationaldag, Saamelaisten kansallispäivä) is an ethnic national day for the Sami people that falls on February 6 as this date was when the first Sámi congress was held in 1917 in Trondheim, Norway.

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Sami native region (Finland)

The Sami native region of Finland (Saamelaisten kotiseutualue in Finnish, Sámiid ruovttuguovllu in Northern Sami, Samernas hembygdsområde in Swedish) is the northernmost part of Lappi administrative region in Finland (formerly Lappi Province), home of approximately half of Finland's Sami population.

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Sami Parliament of Finland

The Sami Parliament of Finland (Saamelaiskäräjät, Sámediggi, Sämitigge, Sääʹmteʹǧǧ) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Finland.

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Sami Parliament of Norway

The Sami Parliament of Norway (Sametinget, Sámediggi, Sámedigge, Saemiedigkie, Sääʹmteʹǧǧ) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Norway.

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Sami Parliament of Sweden

The Sami Parliament of Sweden (Sametinget in Swedish and Sámediggi in Northern Sami) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Sweden.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Sámi politics

Sámi politics refers to politics that concern the ethnic group called Sámis in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

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Sápmi

Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.

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Sápmi football team

The Sápmi national football team is a national football team representing the Sámi people, who inhabit northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

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Sør-Trøndelag

Sør-Trøndelag was a county comprising the southern portion of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Snåsa

Snåsa (Norwegian) or Snåase (Sami) is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Steinkjer

Steinkjer is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Subarctic

The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedes

Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tana, Norway

or is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Tavastia (historical province)

Tavastia (Swedish: Tavastland; Finnish: Häme; Russian: Yam or Yemi) is a historical province in the south of Finland.

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Terje Olsen (politician)

Terje Olsen (born 4 January 1951) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party.

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Time zone

A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.

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Tore Sandvik

Tore Sandvik (born 30 May 1972) is a Norwegian orienteering competitor and World champion.

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Tornedalians

The Tornedalians are descendants of Finns who, at some point, settled to the areas of today's Northern Sweden near the Torne Valley district and west from there.

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Tour de Barents

Tour de Barents is a cross-country skiing race held in the Lapland region in Northern Europe.

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Trøndelag

Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.

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Troms

Troms (italic; Tromssa) is a county in Northern Norway.

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Tromsø

Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.

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Trondheim

Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Tysfjord

Tysfjord (Norwegian) or Divtasvuodna (Lule Sami) is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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Umeå

Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Uumaja, Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Ubmi) is a city in north east Sweden.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Russia

United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.

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University of Tromsø

The University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway (Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet; is the world's northernmost university. Located in the city of Tromsø, Norway, it was established in 1968, and opened in 1972. It is one of eight universities in Norway. The University of Tromsø is the largest research and educational institution in northern Norway. The University's location makes it a natural venue for the development of studies of the region's natural environment, culture, and society. The main focus of the University's activities is on the Auroral light research, Space science, Fishery science, Biotechnology, Linguistics, Multicultural societies, Saami culture, Telemedicine, epidemiology and a wide spectrum of Arctic research projects. The close vicinity of the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research and the Polar Environmental Centre gives Tromsø added weight and importance as an international centre for Arctic research. Research activities, however, are not limited to Arctic studies. The University researchers work within a broad range of subjects and are recognised both nationally and internationally. On 1 January 2009, the University of Tromsø merged with Tromsø University College. On 1 August 2013, the university merged with Finnmark University College to form Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet (The University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway), thereby adding campuses in Alta, Hammerfest and Kirkenes. On 1 January 2016, Narvik University College and Harstad University College merged with UiT - The Arctic University of Norway. As of January 2016 the university now has six campus locations in northern Norway, the main campus being Tromsø.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Utsjoki

Utsjoki (Ohcejohka, Uccjuuhâ, Uccjokk, Utsjok) is a municipality in Finland, the northernmost in the country.

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Vadsø

Vadsø (Čáhcesuolu; Vesisaari) is a municipality in Finnmark County, Norway.

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Västerbotten

Västerbotten, known in English as West Bothnia or Westrobothnia, is a province (landskap) in the north of Sweden, bordering Ångermanland, Lapland, North Bothnia, and the Gulf of Bothnia.

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Västerbotten County

Västerbotten County (Västerbottens län) is a county or län in the north of Sweden.

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Västernorrland County

Västernorrland County (Västernorrlands län) is a county (län) in the north of Sweden.

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Veps language

The Veps language (also known as Vepsian, natively as vepsän kel’, vepsän keli, or vepsä), spoken by the Vepsians (also known as Veps), belongs to the Finnic group of the Uralic languages.

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Votic language

Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography), is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.

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White Sea

The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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2006 Viva World Cup

The 2006 Viva World Cup an international tournament for football, took place in Occitania from 20 November 2006 to 24 November 2006.

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2008 Viva World Cup

The 2008 VIVA World Cup was the second VIVA World Cup, an international tournament for football, that took place in July 2008.

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2014 ConIFA World Football Cup

The 2014 ConIFA World Football Cup is the first edition of the ConIFA World Football Cup, an international football tournament for states, minorities, stateless peoples and regions unaffiliated with FIFA organised by ConIFA and a successor of Viva World Cup, last held in 2012.

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Redirects here:

Lapland (region), Lappia, Saamiland, Sameland, Samiland, Sapmi, Sapmi (area), Sápmi (area).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sápmi

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