103 relations: Aerial refueling, AGM-45 Shrike, Antenna (radio), Azimuth, Ballistic missile, Beijing, Black Cat Squadron, Boeing B-47 Stratojet, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, C band (NATO), China, Cold War, Command guidance, Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis, Delta wing, Desna River, Douglas B-66 Destroyer, Dvina, East Germany, Electronic countermeasure, Fan Song, Fin, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Fragmentation (weaponry), Francis Gary Powers, Free Libyan Air Force, Fuse (explosives), Guidance system, Gulf War, Haiphong, Hanoi, Houthis, HQ-2J, HQ-9, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Iran–Iraq War, Israeli Air Force, Lavochkin, Libyan Civil War (2011), Lockheed U-2, Mach number, Martin RB-57D Canberra, May Day, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Middle East, MKB Fakel, Moscow, Multistage rocket, ..., NATO reporting name, North Vietnam, NPO Almaz, Nuclear weapon, Operation Iron Hand, Operation Linebacker II, Osprey Publishing, P-12 radar, P-15 radar, Pakistan Air Force, Passive electronically scanned array, Peter Grushin, Project Devil, Project Nike, Qaher-1, Radar, Radio control, Reconnaissance aircraft, Red fuming nitric acid, Republic of China Air Force, Rudolf Anderson, S-25 Berkut, S-300 missile system, Salvo, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present), Scintillation (radar), Semi-trailer truck, Six-Day War, Soviet Air Defence Forces, Sukhoi Su-27, Surface-to-air missile, Surface-to-surface missile, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Tactical ballistic missile, Taiwan, TNT equivalent, United States Air Force, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vietnam War, Volga River, Volkhov River, War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), Warhead, Warsaw Pact, Wild Weasel, Yekaterinburg, Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), Yom Kippur War, 100 mm air defense gun KS-19, 130 mm air defense gun KS-30, 1960 U-2 incident. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
AGM-45 Shrike is an American anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile anti-aircraft radar.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Black Cat Squadron (not to be confused with Black Bat Squadron), formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974.
The Boeing B-47 Stratojet (company Model 450) is an American long range, six-engine, turbojet-powered strategic bomber designed to fly at high subsonic speed and at high altitude to avoid enemy interceptor aircraft.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
The NATO C-band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 500 to 1000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 0.6 and 0.3 m) during the cold war period.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Command guidance is a type of missile guidance in which a ground station or aircraft relay signals to a guided missile via radio control or through a wire connecting the missile to the launcher and tell the missile where to steer in order to intercept its target.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Desna (Десна́; Десна) is a river in Russia and Ukraine, a major left tributary of the Dnieper river.
The Douglas B-66 Destroyer was a United States Air Force light bomber based on the U.S. Navy's A-3 Skywarrior carrier-based heavy attack aircraft.
Dvina may refer to.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
The Fan Song is the NATO reporting name for SNR-75 series of trailer-mounted E band/F band and G band fire control and tracking radars for use with the Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile system.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977)—often referred to as simply Gary Powers—was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.
The Free Libyan Air Force (القوات الجوية الليبية الحرة) was the air force of the National Transitional Council, a collection of defected Loyalist Military personnel and captured aircraft that aligned themselves with the anti-Gaddafi forces in the Libyan Civil War.
In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
HQ-2J or Hongqi-2 (红旗二号导弹) are anti-aircraft missiles mounted on the Type 77 transporter launcher.
The HQ-9 is China’s new generation medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
NPO Lavochkin (НПО Лавочкина, OKB-301, also called Lavochkin Research and Production Association or shortly Lavochkin Association, LA) is a Russian aerospace company.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
The Martin RB-57D Canberra was a specialized high-altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Martin B-57 Canberra tactical bomber, a licence-built version of the English Electric Canberra.
May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on 1 May.
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
MKB "Fakel" (МКБ "Факел", "Torch") also known as P.D.Grushin Machine-building Design Bureau is a Russian government-owned aerospace defense corporation located in Khimki.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment of Russia, China, and, historically, the former Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact).
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
JSC NPO Almaz named after A.A. Raspletin (ГСКБ Концерна ПВО "Алмаз-Антей", former SB-1, 1947–50; KB-1, 1950–66; MKB Strela, 1966–71; TsKB Almaz, 1971–88; NPO Almaz, 1988–2008; GSKB Almaz-Antey, 2008-15) is a Soviet/Russian military R&D enterprise founded in 1947.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Operation Iron Hand was a joint United States Air Force and Navy operation conducted from 1965 to 1973 during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombing campaign, conducted against targets in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the final period of US involvement in the Vietnam War.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The P-12 "Yenisei" (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Spoon Rest" in the west) was an early VHF 3D radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-15 "Tropa" ("Тропа"; "trail") or 1RL13 (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Flat Face A" in the west) is a 2D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
A passive electronically scanned array (PESA), also known as passive phased array, is a phased array antenna, that is an antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions, in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter (such as a magnetron, a klystron or a travelling wave tube) and/or receiver.
Peter Dmitrievich Grushin (Пётр Дмитриевич Грушин, January 15, 1906, Volsk, Russian Empire — November 29, 1993) was a Soviet rocket scientist and, from 1966, an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Project Devil was one of two early liquid-fueled missile projects developed by India, along with Project Valiant, in the 1970s.
Project Nike, (Greek: Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced), was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
The Qaher-1 (Arabic: قاهر-1, meaning "Subduer-1") is originally a Soviet SA-2 missile that was developed locally by the Houthis to be a surface to surface missile that works on 2 stages, liquid fuel and solid fuel.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device.
A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.
Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) is a storable oxidizer used as a rocket propellant.
The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) is the aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
Rudolf Anderson Jr. (September 15, 1927 – October 27, 1962), was a pilot and commissioned officer in the United States Air Force and the first recipient of the Air Force Cross, the U.S. Air Force's second-highest award for heroism.
The S-25 Berkut (С-25 «Беркут»; "Berkut" means golden eagle in English) is a surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM system in the Soviet Union.
The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version.
A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.
An armed conflict between troops of Saudi Arabia and Houthi insurgents is taking place at the Saudi–Yemeni border, at the southern edge of the regions of Najran, Jizan, and Asir.
Scintillation is a fluctuation in the amplitude of a target on a radar display.
A semi-trailer truck (more commonly semi truck or simply "semi") is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Sukhoi Su-27 (Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
A tactical ballistic missile (TBM) (or battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM)) is a ballistic missile designed for short-range battlefield use.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volkhov (Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia.
The War in Abkhazia from 1992 to 1993 was fought between Georgian government forces for the most part, and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian armed forces and North Caucasian militants.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Wild Weasel is a code name given by the United States Armed Forces, specifically the US Air Force, to an aircraft, of any type, equipped with radar-seeking missiles and tasked with destroying the radars and SAM installations of enemy air defense systems.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions, each claiming to constitute the Yemeni government, along with their supporters and allies.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
100 mm air defense gun KS-19 (100-мм зенитная пушка КС-19) was a Soviet anti-aircraft gun.
The KS-30 is a Soviet 130mm anti-aircraft gun that appeared in the early 1950s, closely resembling the German wartime 12.8 cm FlaK 40 antiaircraft gun.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.