64 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Annals of Physics, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Antimony, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, B2FH paper, Barium, Beta decay, Beta-decay stable isobars, Bismuth, Carbon-burning process, Cosmic dust, CRC Press, Donald D. Clayton, Electron, Gamma ray, Hans Suess, Harold Urey, Heavy metals, Inert gas, Iron, Isotope, Krypton, Lead, Mass number, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron flux, Neutron source, Noble gas, Nuclear astrophysics, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear shell model, Nucleosynthesis, Paul W. Merrill, Polonium, Presolar grains, Quantum mechanics, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Red giant, Reviews of Modern Physics, S-process, ..., Science (journal), Seed nucleus, Silicon carbide, Stable nuclide, Strontium, Table of nuclides, Taylor & Francis, Technetium, The Astrophysical Journal, Thorium, Triple-alpha process, Uranium, Xenon, Yttrium. Expand index (14 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Annals of Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of physics.
The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The B2FH paper, named after the initials of the authors of the paper, Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and Fred Hoyle, is a landmark paper on the origin of the chemical elements published in Reviews of Modern Physics in 1957.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Beta-decay stable isobars are the set of nuclides which cannot undergo beta decay, that is, the transformation of a neutron to a proton or a proton to a neutron within the nucleus.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Donald Delbert Clayton (born March 18, 1935) is an American astrophysicist whose most visible achievement was the prediction from nucleosynthesis theory that supernovae are intensely radioactive.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Hans Eduard Suess (December 16, 1909 – September 20, 1993) was an Austrian born American physical chemist and nuclear physicist.
Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary branch of physics involving close collaboration among researchers in various subfields of nuclear physics and astrophysics, with significant emphasis in areas such as stellar modeling, measurement and theoretical estimation of nuclear reaction rates, cosmology, cosmochemistry, gamma ray, optical and X-ray astronomy, and extending our knowledge about nuclear lifetimes and masses.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Paul Willard Merrill (August 15, 1887 – July 19, 1961) was an American astronomer whose specialty was spectroscopy.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Presolar grains are interstellar solid matter in the form of tiny solid grains that originated at a time before the Sun was formed (presolar: before the Sun).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A seed nucleus is an isotope that is the starting point for any of a variety of fusion chain reactions.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.