52 relations: Adherens junction, Alpha helix, Amphiphile, Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Astrocyte, Basic fibroblast growth factor, Blood vessel, Cell growth, Cell migration, Cytoskeleton, Embryogenesis, Endothelium, Fibrosarcoma, Fingolimod, G protein–coupled receptor, Gene, Gi alpha subunit, GNAI1, GNAI3, Gq alpha subunit, GTPase, Hypertrophy, Knockout mouse, Ligand (biochemistry), Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lysophospholipid receptor, Macromolecule, MAPK/ERK pathway, MAPK1, MAPK3, MMP1, Multiple sclerosis, N-terminus, Paracellular transport, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Protein, Protein kinase B, Protein–protein interaction, Rac (GTPase), Signal transduction, Small interfering RNA, Solution, Sphingosine-1-phosphate, Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, Spleen, Vascular endothelial growth factor, White blood cell, ..., Zwitterion, 5-HT1A receptor. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens, intermediate junction, or "belt desmosome") are protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial tissues, usually more basal than tight junctions.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
FGF2, also known as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF-β, is a growth factor and signaling protein encoded by the FGF2 gene.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant mesenchymal tumour derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by the presence of immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells in a storiform pattern.
Fingolimod (INN, trade name Gilenya, Novartis) is an immunomodulating drug, mostly used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI1 gene.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI3 gene.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
The lysophospholipid receptor (LPL-R) group are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family of integral membrane proteins that are important for lipid signaling.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as MAPK1, p42MAPK, and ERK2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK1 gene.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK3 gene.
Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) also known as interstitial collagenase and fibroblast collagenase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP1 gene.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Paracellular transport refers to the transfer of substances across an epithelium by passing through the intercellular space between the cells.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Rac is a subfamily of the Rho family of GTPases, small (~21 kDa) signaling G proteins (more specifically a GTPase).
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid, also known as lysosphingolipid.
The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the lipid signalling molecule Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators are a class of drugs used as immunomodulators, most notably in cases of multiple sclerosis.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).