ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for "general report creation processor") is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Chris Date (born 1941) is an independent author, lecturer, researcher, and consultant, specializing in relational database theory.
Codd's twelve rules are a set of thirteen rules (numbered zero to twelve) proposed by Edgar F. Codd, a pioneer of the relational model for databases, designed to define what is required from a database management system in order for it to be considered relational, i.e., a relational database management system (RDBMS).
In a relational database, a column is a set of data values of a particular simple type, one value for each row of the database.
This is a comparison of object-relational database management systems (ORDBMSs).
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of relational database management systems.
Contextual Query Language (CQL), previously known as Common Query Language, is a formal language for representing queries to information retrieval systems such as search engines, bibliographic catalogs and museum collection information.
Couchbase Server, originally known as Membase, is an open-source, distributed (shared-nothing architecture) multi-model NoSQL document-oriented database software package that is optimized for interactive applications.
In computing, cross-platform software (also multi-platform software or platform-independent software) is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms.
D is a set of prescriptions for what Christopher J. Date and Hugh Darwen believe a relational database management system ought to be like.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
A data control language (DCL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language used to control access to data stored in a database (Authorization).
A data definition language or data description language (DDL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language for defining data structures, especially database schemas.
A data manipulation language (DML) is a computer programming language used for adding (inserting), deleting, and modifying (updating) data in a database.
A data model (or datamodel) is a set of tables, linked by relationships and is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to properties of the real world entities.
In computing, a data warehouse (DW or DWH), also known as an enterprise data warehouse (EDW), is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence.
A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure.
The database schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS).
A transaction symbolizes a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.
A database trigger is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a particular table or view in a database.
Datalog is a declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog.
Dataphor is an open-source truly-relational database management system (RDBMS) and its accompanying user interface technologies, which together are designed to provide highly declarative software application development.
In computer science, declarative programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that expresses the logic of a computation without describing its control flow.
Distributed Data Management Architecture (DDM) is IBM's open, published software architecture for creating, managing and accessing data on a remote computer.
A domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer language specialized to a particular application domain.
Donald D. Chamberlin (born 21 December 1944) is an American computer scientist who is best known as one of the principal designers of the original SQL language specification with Raymond Boyce.
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) is a database interoperability standard from The Open Group.
Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.
Firebird is an open source SQL relational database management system that "runs on Linux, Microsoft Windows, and several Unix platforms".
A 4th-generation programming language (4GL) or (procedural language) is any computer programming language that belongs to a class of languages envisioned as an advancement upon third-generation programming languages (3GL).
Georeferencing means that the internal coordinate system of a map or aerial photo image can be related to a ground system of geographic coordinates.
Harvey Mudd College (HMC) is a private residential liberal arts college in Claremont, California.
Hawker Siddeley was a group of British manufacturing companies engaged in aircraft production.
Hibernate ORM (Hibernate in short) is an object-relational mapping tool for the Java programming language.
A hierarchical query is a type of SQL query that handles hierarchical model data.
A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.
Hyper Text Structured Query Language (HTSQL) is a schema-driven URI-to-SQL query language that takes a request over HTTP, converts it to a SQL query, executes the query against a database, and returns the results in a format best suited for the user agent (CSV, HTML, etc.) The HTSQL language is implemented on "HTSQL servers," which use HTSQL to convert web requests into equivalent SQL, executes requests on a server-side database, and returns results in XML, HTML, CSV, JSON, or YAML formats.
Hugh Darwen is a computer scientist who was an employee of IBM United Kingdom from 1967.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Business System 12, or simply BS12, was one of the first fully relational database management systems, designed and implemented by IBM's Bureau Service subsidiary at the company's international development centre in Uithoorn, Netherlands.
IBM Db2 contains database-server products developed by IBM.
IBM Informix is a product family within IBM's Information Management division that is centered on several relational database management system (RDBMS) offerings.
IBM Research - Almaden is in Almaden Valley, San Jose, California, and is one of IBM's twelve worldwide research labs that form IBM Research.
SQL/DS (Structured Query Language/Data System), released in 1981, was IBM's first commercial relational-database management system.
IBM System R is a database system built as a research project at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory beginning in 1974.
The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
The ISO/IEC Information Technology Task Force (ITTF) is a body jointly formed by ISO and IEC responsible for the planning and coordination of the work of JTC 1.
InterBase is a relational database management system (RDBMS) currently developed and marketed by Embarcadero Technologies.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
ISAM (an acronym for indexed sequential access method) is a method for creating, maintaining, and manipulating indexes of key-fields extracted from random data file records to achieve fast retrieval of required file records.
ISBL (Information Systems Base Language) is the relational algebra notation that was invented for PRTV, one of the earliest database management systems to implement E.F. Codd's relational model of data.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32 Data management and interchange is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which develops and facilitates standards within the field of data management and interchange.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) for the programming language Java, which defines how a client may access a database.
Java Object Oriented Querying, commonly known as jOOQ, is a light database-mapping software library in Java that implements the active record pattern.
The Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) is a platform-independent object-oriented query language defined as part of the Java Persistence API (JPA) specification.
Language Integrated Query (LINQ, pronounced "link") is a Microsoft.NET Framework component that adds native data querying capabilities to.NET languages.
In computer science, a list or sequence is an abstract data type that represents a countable number of ordered values, where the same value may occur more than once.
This is a list of relational database management systems.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft.
Mimer SQL is an SQL-based relational database management system produced by the Swedish company Mimer Information Technology AB (Mimer AB), formerly known as Upright Database Technology AB.
MonetDB is an open source column-oriented database management system developed at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in the Netherlands.
MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing.
MySQL ("My S-Q-L") is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
A navigational database is a type of database in which records or objects are found primarily by following references from other objects.
IBM Netezza (pronounced ne-teez-a) designs and markets high-performance data warehouse appliances and advanced analytics applications for uses including enterprise data warehousing, business intelligence, predictive analytics and business continuity planning.
A NoSQL (originally referring to "non SQL" or "non relational") database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.
NuoDB is a database company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Object Query Language (OQL) is a query language standard for object-oriented databases modeled after SQL.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Online analytical processing, or OLAP, is an approach to answering multi-dimensional analytical (MDA) queries swiftly in computing.
Online transaction processing (OLTP) is where information systems facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing.
In computing, Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard application programming interface (API) for accessing database management systems (DBMS).
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PL/pgSQL (Procedural Language/PostgreSQL) is a procedural programming language supported by the PostgreSQL ORDBMS.
PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database.
PostgreSQL, often simply Postgres, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and standards compliance.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
QUEL is a relational database query language, based on tuple relational calculus, with some similarities to SQL.
Query by Example (QBE) is a database query language for relational databases.
Query languages or data query languages (DQLs) are computer languages used to make queries in databases and information systems.
Raymond F. Boyce (1947–1974) was an American computer scientist who was known for his research in relational databases.
Relational algebra, first created by Edgar F. Codd while at IBM, is a family of algebras with a well-founded semantics used for modelling the data stored in relational databases, and defining queries on it.
A relational data stream management system (RDSMS) is a distributed, in-memory data stream management system (DSMS) that is designed to use standards-compliant SQL queries to process unstructured and structured data streams in real-time.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) based on the relational model invented by Edgar F. Codd at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory.
The relational model (RM) for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic, first described in 1969 by Edgar F. Codd, where all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations.
In the context of a relational database, a row—also called a tuple—represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
SAP HANA is an in-memory, column-oriented, relational database management system developed and marketed by SAP SE.
SAP SE (Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung, "Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing") is a German-based European multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations.
The SQL SELECT statement returns a result set of records from one or more tables.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store unique values, without any particular order.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
In computing, a snowflake schema is a logical arrangement of tables in a multidimensional database such that the entity relationship diagram resembles a snowflake shape.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
SQL CLR or SQLCLR (SQL Common Language Runtime) is technology for hosting of the Microsoft.NET common language runtime engine within SQL Server.
SQL PL stands for Structured Query Language Procedural Language and was developed by IBM as a set of commands that extend the use of SQL in the IBM DB2 (DB2 UDB Version 7) database system.
SQL-92 was the third revision of the SQL database query language.
The SQL/CLI, or Call-Level Interface, is an extension to the SQL standard is defined in SQL:1999 (based on CLI-95), but also available in later editions such as ISO/IEC 9075-3:2003.
SQL/JRT, or SQL Routines and Types for the Java Programming Language, is an extension to the SQL standard first published as ISO/IEC 9075-13:2002 (part 13 of SQL:1999).
The SQL/MED ("Management of External Data") extension to the SQL standard is defined by ISO/IEC 9075-9:2008 (originally defined for SQL:2003).
SQL/OLB, or Object Language Bindings, is a standard for embedding SQL in Java, commonly known by its prior name as SQLJ (part 0).
SQL/PSM (SQL/Persistent Stored Modules) is an ISO standard mainly defining an extension of SQL with a procedural language for use in stored procedures.
The SQL/Schemata, or Information and Definition Schemas, part to the SQL standard is defined by ISO/IEC 9075-11:2008.
SQL/XML or XML-Related Specifications is part 14 of the Structured Query Language (SQL) specification.
SQL:1999 (also called SQL 3) was the fourth revision of the SQL database query language.
SQL:2003 is the fourth revision of the SQL database query language.
SQL:2006 or ISO/IEC 9075:2006 standard is the fifth revision of the ISO standard for the SQL database query language.
SQL:2008 is the sixth revision of the ISO and ANSI standard for the SQL database query language.
SQL:2011 or ISO/IEC 9075:2011 (under the general title "Information technology – Database languages – SQL") is the seventh revision of the ISO (1987) and ANSI (1986) standard for the SQL database query language.
SQL:2016 or ISO/IEC 9075:2016 (under the general title "Information technology – Database languages – SQL") is the eighth revision of the ISO (1987) and ANSI (1986) standard for the SQL database query language.
SQLJ is a deprecated working title for efforts to combine Java and SQL.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
In computing, the star schema is the simplest style of data mart schema and is the approach most widely used to develop data warehouses and dimensional data marts.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a number of object-relational database features into SQL, chiefly among them structured user-defined types, usually called just structured types.
A sublanguage is a subset of a language.
Sybase was an enterprise software and services company that produced software to manage and analyze information in relational databases.
A table is a collection of related data held in a structured format within a database.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
Teradata Corporation is a provider of database and analytics-related products and services.
The Third Manifesto (1995) is Christopher J. Date's and Hugh Darwen's proposal for future database management systems, a response to two earlier Manifestos with the same purpose.
In logic, a three-valued logic (also trinary logic, trivalent, ternary, or trilean, sometimes abbreviated 3VL) is any of several many-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true, false and some indeterminate third value.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases.
In mathematics, the transitive closure of a binary relation R on a set X is the smallest relation on X that contains R and is transitive.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
Tuple calculus is a calculus that was created and introduced by Edgar F. Codd as part of the relational model, in order to provide a declarative database-query language for data manipulation in this data model.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) is an IBM DASD file storage access method, first used in the OS/VS1, OS/VS2 Release 1 (SVS) and Release 2 (MVS) operating systems, later used throughout the Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) architecture and now in z/OS.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
XQuery (XML Query) is a query and functional programming language that queries and transforms collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C.
ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
The.NET strategy was a long-term Microsoft software development and marketing plan, envisioned in late 1990s.
.QL (pronounced "dot-cue-el") is an object-oriented query language used to retrieve data from relational database management systems.
4D (4th Dimension, or Silver Surfer, as it was known during early development) is a relational database management system and IDE developed by Laurent Ribardière.
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