44 relations: Adenoviridae, Albert Sabin, Amide, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Carcinogenesis, Cis-regulatory element, Cysteine, DNA replication, Electrostatics, Genome, Glutamic acid, Human papillomavirus infection, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophobe, Importin α, Leucine, Lysine, Malignant transformation, Maurice Hilleman, Methionine, Mutation, Nuclear localization sequence, P300-CBP coactivator family, P53, Papovavirus, Phenylalanine, Phosphorylation, Polyomaviridae, Proline, Retinoblastoma, Retinoblastoma protein, RNA polymerase II, S phase, Serine, SV40, Threonine, Tumor suppressor, Valine, Van der Waals force, X-ray crystallography.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of neighboring genes.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Importin alpha, or karyopherin alpha refers to a class of adaptor proteins that are involved in the import of proteins into the cell nucleus.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Malignant transformation is the process by which cells acquire the properties of cancer.
Maurice Ralph Hilleman (August 30, 1919 – April 11, 2005) was an American microbiologist who specialized in vaccinology and developed over 40 vaccines, an unparalleled record of productivity.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence that 'tags' a protein for import into the cell nucleus by nuclear transport.
The p300-CBP coactivator family is composed of two closely related transcriptional co-activating proteins (or coactivators).
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
A papovavirus is any member of the former virus family of Papovaviridae.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Polyomaviridae is a family of viruses whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.
The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.