181 relations: Ageing, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Ale, Ames Research Center, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Ancient Greek, Antibody, Ascomycota, Ascus, Asexual reproduction, Bacteria, Baker's yeast, Baking, Barm, Barm cake, Base pair, Berkeley body, Biological life cycle, BioSentinel, Biotin, Bread, Brewing, Budding, Calcium, Calorie restriction, Cell biology, Cell culture, Cell cycle, Cell growth, Cell signaling, Cellobiose, Cellular respiration, Cenovis, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Crohn's disease, Cystine, Database, Desensitization (medicine), DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA polymerase delta, DNA repair, Do it yourself, Emil Christian Hansen, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, European hornet, Extrachromosomal rDNA circle, ..., Fermentation, Fitness (biology), Fleischmann's Yeast, Fobos-Grunt, Franz Meyen, Fungus, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Gamete, Gametogenesis, Gene, Gene knockout, Genetic recombination, Genetic variation, Genome, Genotoxicity, Glucomannan, Glucose, Glycine, Grape, Green fluorescent protein, Growth medium, Guinness Yeast Extract, Histidine, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Intron, Ion, Iron, Kaiser roll, Lactobacillus, Lactose, Latin alphabet, Leavening agent, Life, List of microorganisms tested in outer space, List of Oregon state symbols, Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment, Louis Pasteur, Lysine, Magnesium, Maltose, Marmite, Mating of yeast, Maximum life span, Meiosis, Methoxsalen, Methyl methanesulfonate, Microbiological culture, Micrometre, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mitosis, Model organism, Molecular biology, Mutation, Neochromosome, Nir Friedman, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nutritional yeast, Oregon, Organism, Outcrossing, Outer space, Panspermia, Pantothenic acid, Peptide, PGG-glucan, Phosphorus, Plant cuticle, Ploidy, Polistes, Polistes dominula, Protease, Protein, Protein–protein interaction, Public domain, RAD52, Radiation, Red Star Yeast, Regulator of G protein signaling, Rejuvenation (aging), Repeated sequence (DNA), Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Saccharomyces paradoxus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomycetaceae, Saccharomycetales, Saccharomycotina, Scanning electron microscope, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Scientific control, Self-replication, Senescence, Sexual reproduction, Signal transduction, Sirtuin 1, Smithsonian Institution, Spore, Stop codon, Strain (biology), Stress (biology), Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sup45p, Synthetic genetic array, Tandem affinity purification, Tapai, Tetrad (meiosis), The Planetary Society, Transfer RNA, Transformation (genetics), Transposable element, Trehalose, Two-hybrid screening, Ulcerative colitis, UniProt, Urea, Vegemite, Vienna bread, Winemaking, World War II, X-ray, Yeast, Yeast extract, Zinc, Zymosan. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
An ascus (plural asci; from Greek ἀσκός 'skin bag') is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Barm is the foam, or scum, formed on the top of liquor – fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer or wine, or feedstock for hard liquor or industrial ethanol distillation – when fermenting.
A barm cake is a soft, round, flattish bread roll from northwest England, traditionally leavened with barm.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Berkeley bodies are organelles unique to the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a secretory mutation in the genes sec7 and sec14.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
BioSentinel is a planned low-cost CubeSat spacecraft on an astrobiology mission that will use yeast to detect, measure, and compare the impact of deep space radiation on DNA repair over long time beyond low-Earth orbit.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellobiose is a disaccharide with the formula C12H22O11.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cenovis is a product based on yeast extract that is similar to Marmite and Vegemite, rich in vitamin B1.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
DNA polymerase delta is an enzyme complex found in eukaryotes that is involved in DNA replication and repair.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
"Do it yourself" ("DIY") is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals.
Emil Christian Hansen (8 May 1842 – 27 August 1909) was a Danish mycologist and fermentation physiologist.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European hornet (Vespa crabro) is the largest eusocial wasp native to Europe.
Extrachromosomal rDNA circles (aka ERC) are extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), are self replicating sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) found in a strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and are suggested to contribute to their aging and found in their aged cells.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Fleischmann’s Yeast is a brand of yeast sold to both consumer and industrial markets in the United States and Canada.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.
Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen (28 June 1804 – 2 September 1840) was a Prussian physician and botanist.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Glucomannan is a water-soluble polysaccharide that is considered a dietary fiber.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Guinness Yeast Extract, commonly known by its initials GYE, was an Irish savoury spread, made from yeast extract.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Kaiser roll (Emperor roll, Kaisersemmel), also called a Vienna roll (Wiener Kaisersemmel; as made by hand also: Handsemmel, kajzerca) or a hard roll, is a typically crusty round bread roll, originally from Austria.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
The survival of some microorganisms exposed to outer space has been studied using both simulated facilities and low Earth orbit exposures.
The U.S. state of Oregon has 27 official emblems, as designated by the Oregon State Legislature.
The Living Interplanetary Flight ExperimentAsian Scientist,, Srinivas Laxman, 9 November 2011 (LIFE or Phobos LIFE) was an interplanetary mission developed by the Planetary Society.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Marmite is a British food spread currently produced by Unilever.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single-celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence.
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Methoxsalen (also called xanthotoxin, marketed under the trade names Oxsoralen, Deltasoralen, Meladinine) is a drug used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and some cutaneous lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to UVA light from lamps or sunlight.
Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), also known as methyl mesylate, is an alkylating agent and a carcinogen.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
A neochromosome is a chromosome that is not normally found in nature.
Nir Friedman (born 1967) is an Israeli Professor of Computer Science and Biology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nutritional yeast is a deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Poly---D-glucopyranosyl---D-glucopyranose glucan (PGG glucan, proprietary name Betafectin) is an anti-infective agent and a form or type of beta-glucan.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Wasps of the cosmopolitan genus Polistes (the only genus in the tribe Polistini) are the most familiar of the polistine wasps, and are the most common type of paper wasp in North America.
The European paper wasp (Polistes dominula, often misspelled as dominulus) is one of the most common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus Polistes.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
RAD52 homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as RAD52, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RAD52 gene.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Red Star Yeast Company, LLC is a joint-venture of Lesaffre, and Archer Daniels Midland Company.
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.
Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical species of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database is a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly known as baker's or budding yeast.
Saccharomyces paradoxus is a wild yeast and the closest known species to the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Saccharomyces pastorianus is a yeast used industrially for the production of lager beer, and was named in honour of Louis Pasteur by the German Max Reess in 1870.
The Saccharomycetaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding.
Saccharomycetales belongs to the kingdom of Fungi and the division Ascomycota.
Saccharomycotina is a subdivision (subphylum) of the division (phylum) Ascomycota in the Kingdom Fungi.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.
A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sup45p is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a yeast) eukaryotic translation termination factor.
Synthetic genetic array analysis (SGA) is a high-throughput technique for exploring synthetic lethal and synthetic sick genetic interactions (SSL).
Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a purification technique for studying protein–protein interactions.
Tapai (also tapay or tape), is traditional fermented rice found throughout much of Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, especially in Austronesian cultures.
The tetrad is the four spores produced after meiosis of a yeast or other Ascomycota, Chlamydomonas or other alga, or a plant.
The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.
Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vegemite is a thick, black Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives.
Vienna bread is a type of bread that is produced from a process developed in Vienna, Austria, in the 19th century.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zymosan is a glucan with repeating glucose units connected by β-1,3-glycosidic linkages.
Baker's Yeast, Bakers' yeast, Baker’s yeast, Bread yeast, Cerevisiae, S cerevisiae, S. Cerevisiae, S. cerevisciae, S. cerevisiae, S.cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins, Sacchromyces cerevisiae.