314 relations: Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abd ar-Razzaq an-Naif, Abdul Rahman Arif, Abdul Salam Arif, Ad-Dawr, Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai, Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Al Arabiya, Al-Anfal, Al-Awja, Al-Bu Nasir (Iraqi tribe), Ali Hassan al-Majid, Amman, Amnesty International, Anfal genocide, Anglo-Iraqi War, Anthrax, Anti-Western sentiment, Anwar Sadat, April Glaspie, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arab street, Arab world, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic name, Arrest, Assyrian people, Attrition warfare, Awad Hamed al-Bandar, Axis of evil, Ba'ath Party, Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction), Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Ba'athism, Babel (newspaper), Baghdad, Baghdad International Airport, Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, BBC News, Bedouin, Beirut, Bill Clinton, Biological warfare, Blood Quran, Bombing of Iraq (1998), Cambridge University Press, ..., Camp Cropper, Camp David Accords, Camp Justice (Iraq), Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Capital punishment, Córdoba, Spain, CBS News, Central Intelligence Agency, Chaldean Catholic Church, Charles Pasqua, Charles R. H. Tripp, Chemical weapon, CNN, Coalition Provisional Authority, Code name, Cold War, Commentary (magazine), Con Coughlin, Crimes against humanity, Cult of personality, Czechoslovakia, Damascus, Dan Rather, Dictatorship, Douglas M. Stone, Dujail Massacre, Economy of Iraq, Efraim Karsh, Eid al-Adha, Encyclopædia Britannica, Euphrates, European Union, Execution of Saddam Hussein, Faisal II of Iraq, February 2003 Saddam Hussein interview, Fedayeen Saddam, Federal government of Iraq, Federal government of the United States, Fifth column, Firdos Square statue destruction, France, Francisco Franco, Fuad al-Rikabi, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza Strip, Geneva Conventions, Genocide, George H. W. Bush, George Piro, George W. Bush, George Washington University, Golan Heights, Governorates of Iraq, Granada, Grove Press, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf War, Hafez al-Assad, Halabja, Halabja chemical attack, Hanging, Hans Blix, Harper Perennial, Hosni Mubarak, House of Saddam, Human Rights Watch, Human wave attack, Hussein Kamel al-Majid, Iconoclasm, Imprisonment, International humanitarian law, Interrogation of Saddam Hussein, Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Iraq and weapons of mass destruction, Iraq Football Association, Iraq Petroleum Company, Iraqi Airways, Iraqi Armed Forces, Iraqi biological weapons program, Iraqi Communist Party, Iraqi Governing Council, Iraqi Intelligence Service, Iraqi Interim Government, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi nationalism, Iraqi presidential referendum, 1995, Iraqi presidential referendum, 2002, Iraqi Special Security Organization, Iraqi Turkmens, Islamic Dawa Party, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, Israel, Istanbul, Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, Jacques Chirac, James Baker, Jay Garner, Jordan, Kadhimiya, Kamel Hana Gegeo, Kanan Makiya, Kenneth Kaunda, Khairallah Talfah, Khuzestan Province, Kingdom of Iraq, Kurdish clothing, Kurds, Kuwait, Leonid Brezhnev, Library of Congress Country Studies, Libya, List of Prime Ministers of Iraq, List of recurring South Park characters, List of United Nations Security Council resolutions concerning Iraq, Madrid, Magic (supernatural), Mandaeans, Margaret Thatcher, Marsh Arabs, Marshal, Mecca, Mehrabad International Airport, Mercedes-Benz, Michel Aflaq, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum, Mohammed Hamza Zubeidi, Money laundering, Montana Management, Mushir, Mustafa Barzani, Najaf, National Progressive Front (Iraq), National Security Archive, Nerve agent, New world order (politics), Norman Finkelstein, November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état, Nuclear weapon, Oil-for-Food Programme, OPEC, Operation Opera, Operation Red Dawn, Operation Rockingham, Paris, Patronymic, Paul Bremer, Persian Gulf, Peshmerga, Political faction, Popular Army (Iraq), Popular Unity Party (Iraq), Presidency of Ronald Reagan, President of Iraq, Prime Minister of Iraq, Princeton University Press, Progressivism, Purge, Quran, Qusay Hussein, Raghad Hussein, Ramadan Revolution, Rana Hussein, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Republic of Kuwait, Republican Guard (Iraq), Revolutionary Command Council (Iraq), Robert Baer, Rolex, Ronald Reagan, Rudolf Edlinger, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sa'dun Hammadi, Saddam (name), Saddam Beach, Saddam Hussein, Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations, Saddam Hussein Nagar, Sri Lanka, Saddam Hussein's novels, Saddam Kamel, Saddam: The Secret Life, Sajida Talfah, Saladin Governorate, Samira Shahbandar, Sanctions against Iraq, Sarkis Soghanalian, Saudi Arabia, Second Iraqi–Kurdish War, September 11 attacks, Shabak people, Sharia, Shatt al-Arab, Shepherd, Shia Islam, Shia Islam in Iraq, Show election, Show trial, Sibling, Significance (magazine), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist International, Socialist Worker, South Park, Soviet Union, Spain, State of Palestine, State of the Union, State Sponsors of Terrorism (U.S. list), State terrorism, Strongman (politics), Suez Crisis, Sulfur mustard, Sunni Islam, Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, Surah, Suzanne Mubarak, Syria, Taha Yassin Ramadan, Takbir, Tariq Aziz, Tehran, Television in Iraq, The Economist, The New York Times, The Sun (United Kingdom), Tikrit, Toledo, Spain, Tony Blair, Torture, Treason, Trial of Saddam Hussein, Turkey, U.S. list of most-wanted Iraqis, Uday Hussein, UNESCO, United Arab Republic, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, United States, United States Department of State, University of California Press, Vice President of Iraq, Vladimir Putin, War crime, Wartime sexual violence, Weapon of mass destruction, West Bank, West Germany, Yazidis, Yevgeny Primakov, 14 July Revolution, 17 July Revolution, 1959 Mosul uprising, 1966 Syrian coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1993 cruise missile strikes on Iraq, 2003 invasion of Iraq. 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Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abd ar-Razzaq Said al-Naif (عبد الرزاق النايف) was an Iraqi military officer and general and was briefly Prime Minister of Iraq during 1968 until he was deposed.
Hajj Abdul Rahman Mohammed Arif Aljumaily (Arabic عبد الرحمن محمد عارف الجميلي; April 14, 1916August 24, 2007) was President of Iraq, from April 16, 1966, to July 17, 1968.
‘Abd ul-Salam Mohammed ‘Arif Aljumaily (عبد السلام محمد عارف الجميلي) (21 March 1921 – 13 April 1966) was President of Iraq from 1963 until his death in 1966.
Ad-Dawr (الدور; pronounced similar to "door") also known as Al-Dour, is a small agricultural town near the Iraqi town of Tikrit.
Ahmed Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai (أحمد حسين خضير السامرائي) (born July 2, 1941) was Prime Minister of Iraq from 1993 to 1994, during the rule of President Saddam Hussein.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (أحمد حسن البكر; 1 July 1914 – 4 October 1982) was President of Iraq, from 17 July 1968 until 16 July 1979.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Sūrat al-Anfāl (سورة الأنفال, "The Spoils of War") is the eighth chapter of the Qur'an, with 75 verses.
Al-Awja (العوجا; also known as Owja, Al-Auja or Al-Ouja) is a village 8 miles (13 km) south of Tikrit, in Iraq on the western bank of the Tigris.
The Al-Bu Nasir (in the Arabic: آل أبي ناصر) is one of a number of Arab tribes in Iraq.
Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Anti-Western sentiment, also known as Anti-Atlanticism refers to broad opposition or hostility to the people, culture, values, or policies of the Western World.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
April Catherine Glaspie (born April 26, 1942) is an American former diplomat and senior member of the Foreign Service, best known for her role in the events leading up to the Gulf War.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Arab socialism (Al-Ishtirākīya Al-‘Arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and socialism.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
The Arab street (الشارع العربي, ash-shāriʿ al-ʿarabī) is an expression referring to the spectrum of public opinion in the Arab world, often as opposed or contrasted to the opinions of Arab governments.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Awad Hamad al-Bandar (عواد حمد بندر السعدون; aka: Awad Hamad Bandar Alsa'doon) (2 January 1945 – 15 January 2007) was an Iraqi chief judge under Saddam Hussein's presidency.
The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe foreign governments that, during his administration, sponsored terrorism and sought weapons of mass destruction.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (spelled "Ba'th" or "Baath", "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb Al-Ba'aṯ Al-'Arabī Al-Ištirākī), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Babel was an Iraqi newspaper which was under the direction of Uday Hussein, the son of Saddam Hussein.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baghdad International Airport, previously Saddam International Airport (مطار بغداد الدولي), is Iraq's largest international airport, located in a suburb about west of downtown Baghdad in the Baghdad Governorate.
Barzan Mohamed (17 February 1951 – 15 January 2007), also known as Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen and Barzan Hassan (برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي; Barzan Mohamed), was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and a leader of the Mukhabarat, the Iraqi intelligence service.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
The "Blood Qur'an" is a copy of the Islamic holy book, the Qur'an, claimed to have been written in the blood of the former president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein over the course of two years in the late 1990s.
The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camp Cropper was a holding facility for security detainees operated by the United States Army near Baghdad International Airport in Iraq.
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
Camp Justice (also known as Camp Al-Adala) was a joint Iraqi-American military base in the Kadhimiya district of Baghdad, Iraq.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
Charles Pasqua (18 April 1927 – 29 June 2015) was a French businessman and Gaullist politician.
Charles R. H. Tripp is an academic and author specializing in the politics and history of the Near and Middle East.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Commentary is a monthly American magazine on religion, Judaism, and politics, as well as social and cultural issues.
Con Coughlin (born 14 January 1955) is a British journalist and author, currently The Daily Telegraph Defence Editor.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daniel Irvin Rather Jr. (born October 31, 1931) is an American journalist and the former news anchor for the CBS Evening News. He currently anchors a newscast called The News with Dan Rather at The Young Turks and was previously managing editor and anchor of the television news magazine Dan Rather Reports on the cable channel AXS TV.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Douglas M. Stone is a Major General, United States Marine Forces Reserve, Retired.
The Dujail Massacre refers to the events following an assassination attempt against the Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on 8 July 1982 in Dujail.
Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has provided about 99.7% of foreign exchange earnings in modern times.
Efraim Karsh (אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The execution of Saddam Hussein took place on Saturday, 30 December 2006.
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
The Saddam interview refers to a famous television interview that occurred between President of Iraq Saddam Hussein and American news anchor Dan Rather on February 24, 2003, very shortly before the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
Fedayeen Saddam (Arabic: فدائيي صدام) was a paramilitary organization loyal to the Ba'athist government of Saddam Hussein.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
The destruction of the Firdos Square statue was an event in the invasion of Iraq in 2003 that marked the symbolic end of the Battle of Baghdad.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Fuad al-Rikabi (1932– 1971) was an Iraqi politician and a founder of the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Piro was born January 1, 1967 He is a Beirut-born Assyrian-American Special Agent in Charge (SAC) at the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Miami Field Office.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Iraq consists of 19 governorates (muḥāfażah in Arabic), also known as "provinces".
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1947.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Halabja (Kurdish: Hełebce) is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about northeast of Baghdad and from the Iranian border.
The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.
Harper Perennial is a paperback imprint of the publishing house HarperCollins Publishers.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
House of Saddam is a 2008 drama that charted the rise and fall of Saddam Hussein.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The human wave attack, also known as the human sea attack, is an offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun the defenders by engaging in melee combat.
Hussein Kamel Hassan al-Majid (حسين كامل حسن المجيد) (18 June 1954 – 23 February 1996) was the son-in-law and second cousin of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The Interrogation of Saddam Hussein began shortly after his December 2003 capture, while the deposed President of Iraq was held at the United States Camp Cropper detention facility at Baghdad International Airport.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.
The Iraq Football Association (الاتحاد العراقي لكرة القدم) is the governing body of football in Iraq, controlling the Iraqi national team and the Iraq Super League.
The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq.
Iraqi Airways Company, operating as Iraqi Airways (الخطوط الجوية العراقية Al-Khuṭūṭ al-Jawwiyyah al-`Irāqiyyah), is the national carrier of Iraq, headquartered on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad.
The Iraqi Armed Forces are the military forces of the Government of Iraq.
Saddam Hussein (1937–2006) initiated an extensive biological weapons (BW) program in Iraq in the early 1980s, in violation of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972.
The Iraqi Communist Party (الحزب الشيوعي العراقي; حزبی شیوعی عێراق) is a communist party and the oldest active party in Iraq.
The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, 2004.
The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Amma), also known as the Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence, was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein.
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Iraqi nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Iraqis are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Iraqis.
The Iraqi presidential election of 1995 took place on October 15 of that year.
Presidential elections were held in the Republic of Iraq on October 16, 2002, the second under the rule of Saddam Hussein (the first having taken place in 1995).
The Iraqi Special Security Organization (SSO) (الأمن الخاص Al-Amn al-Khas) was the most powerful Iraqi security agency under President Saddam Hussein and was responsible for personal security of high-ranking government officials and presidential facilities.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
The Islamic Dawa Party, also known as the Islamic Call Party (حزب الدعوة الإسلامية Ḥizb Al-Daʿwa Al-Islāmiyya), is a political party in Iraq.
The Navy of Islamic Republic of Iran Army (نیروی دریایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) acronymed NEDAJA (نداجا), is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (''Artesh'').
The Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI or SIIC) (المجلس الأعلى الإسلامي العراقي Al-Majlis Al-A'ala Al-Islami Al-'Iraqi), (previously the party was known as the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI)) is an Iraqi Shia Islamist Iraqi political party.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (عزة إبراهيم الدوري ‘Izzat Ibrāhīm ad-Dūrī; born 1 July 1942) is a former Iraqi statesman and military commander.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
Jay Montgomery Garner (born April 15, 1938) is a retired United States Army lieutenant general who was appointed in 2003 as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq but was soon replaced by Ambassador Paul Bremer and the ambassador's successor organization to ORHA, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Al-Kāẓimiyyah (الكاظمية) or al-Kāẓimayn (الكاظمين) is a northern neighbourhood of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
Kamel Hana Jejo (? - 18 October 1988) was a personal bodyguard of the former president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and served as his valet and food taster.
Kanan Makiya (born 1949) is an Iraqi-British academic and a professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at Brandeis University.
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
Khairallah Talfah (1910–1993; خير الله طلفاح), also known as Khayr-Allah Telfah, Kairallah Tolfah, Khairallah Tolfah, or Khairallah Tilfah, was an Iraqi Ba'ath Party official, and the maternal uncle and father-in-law of Saddam Hussein.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
Kurdish traditional clothing (Cilî Kurdî) is an ongoing part of Kurdish heritage.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iraq since 1920.
The following is a list of recurring characters in the animated television series South Park.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
The Marsh Arabs (عرب الأهوار ʻArab al-Ahwār "Arabs of the Marshlands"), also referred to as the Maʻdān (معدان "dweller in the plains") or shroog (شروگ, "those from the east")—the latter two often considered derogatory in the present day—are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south and east of Iraq and along the Iranian border.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Tehran Mehrabad International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی مهرآباد), is a joint airport and one of the two international airports serving Tehran, the largest city in Iran.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
Michel Aflaq (ميشيل عفلق‎,, 9 January 1910 – 23 June 1989) was a Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist.
Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, journal on Middle East issues founded by the late Barry Rubin and edited by Dr.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Ayatollah Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum (محمد بحر العلوم‎; 17 December 1927 – 7 April 2015) was a Twelver Shi'a Islamic leader and politician in Iraq, who served as the President of the Governing Council of Iraq (43rd Prime Minister of Iraq).
Mohammed Amza az-Zubeidi (1938 – December 2, 2005) (محمد حمزة الزبيدي) was the Prime Minister of Iraq from 1991 to 1993.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Montana Management is a trust fund once owned by Saddam Hussein.
Mushir (مشير) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor".
Mustafa Barzani (Mistefa Barzanî) (March 14, 1903 – March 1, 1979) also known as Mullah Mustafa, was a Kurdish nationalist leader, and one of the most prominent political figures in modern Kurdish politics.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
The National Progressive Front (al-Jabha al-Wataniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF, sometimes known as the Progressive Patriotic and National Front) was an Iraqi Popular Front announced on 16 July 1973 and constituted in 1974, ostensibly formed within the framework of a "joint action programme" to establish a coalition between the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, the Iraqi Communist Party, the Kurdistan Revolutionary Party, a pro-government section of the Kurdish Democratic Party, and miscellaneous independents.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
Norman Gary Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American political scientist, activist, professor, and author.
The November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état took place between November 13 and November 18, 1963 when, following internal party divisions, pro-Nasserist Iraqi officers led a military coup within the Ba'ath Party.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Operation Opera (מבצע אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.
Operation Rockingham was the codeword for UK involvement in inspections in Iraq following the war over Kuwait in 1990–91.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30, 1941) is an American diplomat.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
A political faction is a group of individuals within a larger entity, such as a political party, a trade union or other group, or simply a political climate, united by a particular common political purpose that differs in some respect to the rest of the entity.
The Iraqi Popular Army also known as the People's Army or People's Militia (Arabic: الجيش الشعبي Al Jaysh ash Shaabi) was a paramilitary organization composed of civilian volunteers to protect the Ba'ath regime against internal opposition and serve as a counterbalance against any coup attempt by the regular Iraqi Army.
The Popular Unity Party is a political party in Iraq led by Youssif Hamdan.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution".
The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
In history, religion and political science, a purge is a removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, another organization, their team owners, or society as a whole.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai, قصي صدام حسين; –) was the second son of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Raghad Hussein is the daughter of Saddam Hussein, the previous president of Iraq.
The Ramadan Revolution, also referred to as the 8 February Revolution and the February 1963 coup d'état in Iraq, was a military coup by the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi-wing which overthrew the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim in 1963.
Rana Saddam Hussein (Arabic:رنا صدام حسين) is the second-eldest daughter of the former President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, officially the Regional Command of the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, was the highest decision-making organ of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
The Republic of Kuwait was a short-lived and self-styled republic formed in the aftermath of the invasion of Kuwait by Ba'athist Iraq during the early stages of the Persian Gulf War.
The Iraqi Republican Guard (حرس العراق الجمهوري Ḥaras al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy) was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.
The Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council was established after the military coup in 1968, and was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 American-led invasion.
Robert Booker "Bob" Baer (born July 1, 1952) is an American author and a former CIA case officer who was primarily assigned to the Middle East.
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watchmaker.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rudolf Edlinger (born February 20, 1940) is a Social Democratic Party of Austria politician and a former Austrian Minister of Finance (1997–2000) under Chancellor Viktor Klima.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sa'dun Hammadi (22 June 1930 – 14 March 2007; سعدون حمادي) was briefly Prime Minister of Iraq under President Saddam Hussein from March until September 1991.
Saddam (Arabic: صدام, Ṣaddām) is an Arabic title which means "One who confronts", other meanings include: "One who frequently causes collisions", "Powerful collider", "Powerful confronter".
Saddam Beach is a fishing village in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).
Saddam Hussein Town (சதாம் உசேன் நகர்) is the name of a village exclusively inhabited by local Muslims in the Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka.
Saddam Hussein, the late President of Iraq, wrote four novels and a number of poems.
Saddam Kamel Hassan al-Majid (1956-1996) was the second cousin and son-in-law of deposed Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Saddam: The Secret Life is a book by Con Coughlin.
Sajida Khairallah Talfah (ساجدة خيرالله طلفاح) (born June 24, 1937) is the widow and cousin of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, and mother of two sons (Uday and Qusay) and three daughters (Raghad, Rana, and Hala).
The Saladin or Salah ad Din Governorate (صلاح الدين, Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn) is a governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad.
Samira Shahbandar was Saddam Hussein's second wife.
The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on Ba'athist Iraq.
Sarkis Garabet Soghanalian (Սարգիս Սողանալեան; February 6, 1929 – October 5, 2011), nicknamed Merchant of Death, was an international private arms dealer who gained fame for being the "Cold War's largest arms merchant""." Frontline/World (produced in March 2001).
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Iraqi–Kurdish War was the second chapter of the Barzani rebellion, initiated by the collapse of the Kurdish autonomy talks and the consequent Iraqi offensive against rebel KDP troops of Mustafa Barzani during 1974–1975. The war came in the aftermath of the First Iraqi–Kurdish War (1961–1970), as the 1970 peace plan for Kurdish autonomy had failed to be implemented by 1974. Unlike the previous guerrilla campaign in 1961–1970, waged by Barzani, the 1974 war was a Kurdish attempt at symmetric warfare against the Iraqi Army, which eventually led to the quick collapse of the Kurds, who were lacking advanced and heavy weaponry. The war ended with the exile of the Iraqi KDP party and between 7,000–20,000 deaths from both sides combined.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Shabak people (الشبك, شەبەک) are a group in Iraq, who speak Shabaki, a Northwestern Iranian language of the Kurdish Zaza–Gorani group.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
More than two thirds of the population of Iraq 70% are Shia Muslims.
A show election, also known as a sham election or rubber stamp election, is an election that is held purely for show; that is, without any significant political choice.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
Significance, established in 2004, is a bimonthly magazine published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA).
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, which seek to establish democratic socialism.
Socialist Worker is the name of a number of newspapers currently or formerly associated with the International Socialist Tendency (IST).
South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism".
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Iraqi High Tribunal (IHT), formerly the Iraqi Special Tribunal and sometimes referred to as the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, is a body established under Iraqi national law to try Iraqi nationals or residents accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other serious crimes committed between 1968 and 2003.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Suzanne Mubarak (سوزان مبارك, Sūzān Mubārak; born 28 February 1941) is the wife of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and was the First Lady of Egypt during her husband's presidential tenure from 14 October 1981 to 11 February 2011.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (طه ياسين رمضان الجزراوي; 1938 – 20 March 2007) was a prominent Iraqi Kurd, serving as one of the two Vice Presidents of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003.
The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also transliterated Tekbir or Takbeer, is the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "God is greatest".
Tariq Aziz (طارق عزيز, born Mikhail Yuhanna, ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܝܘܚܢܢ, ميخائيل يوحنا, baptized Manuel Christo; 28 April 1936 – 5 June 2015) was Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister (1979–2003) and Foreign Minister (1983–1991) and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Iraqi state media collapsed.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Trial of Saddam Hussein was the trial of the deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Interim Government for crimes against humanity during his time in office.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
In April 2003, the United States drew up a list of most-wanted Iraqis, consisting of the 55 members of the deposed Iraqi regime whom they most wanted to capture.
Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (عُدي صدّام حُسين) (18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein by his first wife, Sajida Talfah, and the brother of Qusay Hussein.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Iraq has three vice presidents or deputy presidents, although a debate is ongoing about a political reform to abolish their posts.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov (Евге́ний Макси́мович Примако́в, tr. Yevgeniy Maksimovich Primakov; 29 October 1929 – 26 June 2015) was a Russian politician and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Russia from 1998 to 1999.
The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy which had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.
The 17 July Revolution was a bloodless coup in Iraq in 1968, led by General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, which brought the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party to power.
The 1959 Mosul Uprising was an attempted coup by Arab nationalists in Mosul who wished to depose the then Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim, and install an Arab nationalist government which would then join the Republic of Iraq with the United Arab Republic.
The 1966 Syrian coup d'état refers to events between 21 and 23 February in which the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The cruise missiles strike on Iraq in June 1993 were ordered by U.S. President Bill Clinton as both a retaliation and a warning triggered by the attempted assassination by alleged Iraqi agents on former U.S. President George H. W. Bush while on a visit to Kuwait in 14–16 April 1993.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
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