410 relations: Abbas I of Persia, Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns, Abbas II of Persia, Abbas III, Abbasi (currency), Abdication, Achaemenid Empire, Afghan (ethnonym), Afghanistan, Afshar people, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Alchemy, Aleppo, Alexander II of Imereti, Ali Mirza Safavi, Allahverdi Khan, Allamah, Alqas Mirza, Amu Darya, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Ange de Saint Joseph, Anna of Russia, Anthony Jenkinson, Anthony Shirley, Aq Qoyunlu, Aqa Mirak, Arabs, Archery, Ardabil, Ardabil Carpet, Aristocracy, Armenia, Armenian language, Armenians, Astrakhan, Astrology, Astronomy, Avicenna, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijanis, Öljaitü, Ālī Qāpū, Şahkulu rebellion, Şehzade Bayezid, Babur, Baghdad, ..., Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī, Bahrain, Bakhtrioni uprising, Balkh, Baloch people, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Damghan (1729), Battle of Dimdim, Battle of Gulnabad, Bayezid II, Bookbinding, Bureaucracy, Bursa, Buyid dynasty, Cabaret, Caliphate, Calligraphy, Cambridge University Press, Cape of Good Hope, Capture of Baghdad (1624), Capture of Ormuz (1622), Caravanserai, Caspian Sea, Casus belli, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chador, Chaharbagh School, Chaharbagh, Isfahan, Christianity, Circassian languages, Circassians, Civil law (legal system), Common law, Council of State, Courtier, Crimean Khanate, Criminal law, Culture of Iran, Dagestan, Dastur al-Muluk, Derbent, Dervish, Despina Khatun, Div Sultan Rumlu, Diyarbakır, Durrani, Dutch East India Company, East India Company, Ehsan Yarshater, Empire, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Iranica, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eunuch, Euphrates, Farrukh Yassar, Fars Province, Fatwa, Fencing, Fiqh, First language, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah, Foot whipping, Ganja, Azerbaijan, García de Silva Figueroa, George Bournoutian, George XI of Kartli, Georgia (country), Georgian abazi, Georgian language, Georgians, Ghazal, Ghazi (warrior), Ghazni, Ghilji, Ghilman, Ghulat, Gilan Province, Golden Horde, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Greater Iran, Greater Khorasan, Gulf of Aden, Gunpowder Empires, Habsburg–Persian alliance, Halil İnalcık, Hamadan, Harem, Hasht Behesht, Hatem Beg Ordubadi, Heraclius II of Georgia, Herat, Hindu, Hindu Kush, History of Islam, Holy Roman Empire, Hossein Nasr, Hotak dynasty, Humayun, Hurrem Sultan, Hurufism, Ijtihad, Ilkhanate, Illuminationism, Imam, Imamate (Twelver doctrine), Iran, Iran–Russia relations, Iranian architecture, Iranian languages, Iranian philosophy, Iranian studies, Iraq, Isfahan, Iskandar Beg Munshi, Isma'ilism, Ismail I, Ismail II, Ismail III, Jahan Shah, Jahrom, Jamshid, Janissaries, Jean Chardin, Jean de Thévenot, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Jesse of Kakheti, John F. 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Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns refers to the four campaigns Safavid king Abbas I led between 1614-1617, in his East Georgian vassal kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).
Shah Abbas II (Shāh Abbās) (30 August 1632 – 26 October 1666), was the seventh Safavid king (shah) of Iran, ruling from 1642 to 1666.
Abbas III (January 1732 – February 1740) (شاه عباس سوم.) reigned 1732–1736; was a son of Shah Tahmasp II and Shahpuri Begum of the Safavid dynasty.
ʿAbbāsī was a name applied to gold and silver coins in Iran first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (r. 1581–1629).
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, by Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afshar, also spelled Awshar or Afşar, are one of the Oghuz Turkic peoples.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander II (ალექსანდრე II) (died April 1, 1510) was a king of Georgia in 1478 and of Imereti from 1483 to 1510.
Padeshah Ali Mirza Safavi succeeded his father Haydar Safavi as leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelver Shi'i militant religious order, in 1488.
Allahverdi Khan (اللّه وردی خان, ალავერდი-ხანი) (ca. 1560 – June 3, 1613) was an Iranian general and statesman of Georgian origin who, initially a ghulām ("military slave"), rose to high office in the Safavid state.
Allamah (علامه, Urdu and), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by scholars of Islamic fiqh, jurisprudence, and philosophy.
Abu'l Ghazi Sultan Alqas Mirza (ابوالقاسم قاضی سلطان آل قصبه میرزا), better known as Alqas Mirza (آل قصبه میرزا; b. 15 March 1516 - d. 9 April 1550), was a Safavid prince and the second son of king (shah) Ismail I (r. 1501–1524).
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ange de Saint Joseph (secular name Joseph de la Brosse) (b. at Toulouse, 1636; d. at Perpignan, 1697) was a French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Anthony Jenkinson (1529 – 1610/1611) was born at Market Harborough, Leicestershire.
Sir Anthony Shirley (or Sherley) (1565–1635) was an English traveller, whose imprisonment in 1603 by King James I caused the English House of Commons to assert one of its privileges—freedom of its members from arrest—in a document known as The Form of Apology and Satisfaction.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Aqa Mirak (fl. 1520 – Qazvin, 1576) was a Persian illustrator and painter.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
The Ardabil Carpets (Ardebil Carpets) are a pair of famous Iranian carpets in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
Ali Qapu (عالی قاپو, ‘Ālī Qāpū) is a grand palace in Isfahan, Iran.
The Şahkulu rebellion (9 April 1511 – 2 July 1511) was a widespread pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising in Anatolia, directed against the Ottoman Empire, in 1511.
Şehzade Bayezid (1525 – 25 September 1561) was an Ottoman prince as the son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife Hürrem Sultan.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī (also known as Sheikh Baha'i, شیخ بهایی) (18 February 1547 – 1 September 1621) was a Shia Islamic scholar, philosopher, architect, mathematician, astronomer and poet who lived in the late 16th and early 17th centuries in Safavid Iran.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The Bakhtrioni uprising was a general revolt in the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kakheti against the political domination of Safavid Persia, in 1659.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Damghan or Battle of Mihmandoost was fought on September 29 to October 5, 1729, near the city of Damghan.
The Battle of Dimdim is the name for the battle between the Safavid Empire and the Sunni Kurds of the Ottoman Empire between 1609 and 1610.
The Battle of Gulnabad (Sunday, March 8, 1722) was fought between the military forces from Hotaki Dynasty and the army of the Safavid Empire.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Capture of Baghdad occurred on 14 January 1624, which was part of the ongoing war between Shah Abbas I against Sultan Murad IV.
In the 1622 Capture of Ormuz (Persian: بازپس گیری هرمز) an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island after a ten-week siege, thus opening up Persian trade with England in the Persian Gulf.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A chādor (چادر), also variously spelled in English as chadah, chad(d)ar, chader, chud(d)ah, chadur and naturalized as is an outer garment or open cloak worn by some women in Iran, Iraq and some other countries under the Persianate cultural sphere as well as predominantly Shia areas i.e. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Tajikistan and Turkey, in public spaces or outdoors.
Chahār Bāgh school (Madreseye Chahār Bāgh in Persian or مدرسه چهار باغ), also known as Shah school, is a 17-18th century cultural complex in Isfahan, Iran.
Chahar Bagh Boulevard (Persian: چهارباغ, translation: Four Gardens) is a historical avenue in Isfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A Council of State is the name of a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction.
A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dastūr al-Mulūk (دستور الملوک) is one of only three surviving administrative handbooks from early 18th-century Safavid Iran and an important research tool for scholars in Iranology.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
Theodora Megale Komnene (Θεοδώρα Μεγάλη Κομνηνή), also known as Despina Khatun (دسپینا خاتون; from the Greek title Despoina and Mongol title Khatun, both meaning "Lady, princess, queen") was the daughter of John IV of Trebizond, who married the Aq Qoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan in 1458.
Div Sultan Rumlu (دیو سلطان روملو) was a Turkoman military commander and politician from the Rumlu clan, one of the seven chief Qizilbash tribes which provided crack troops for Safavid guard.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Erzincan (Երզնկա, Yerznka) is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Turkey.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Farrukh Yassar was the last independent Shirvanshah of Shirvan (1465–1500).
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Firuz Shah Zarrin Kolah (فیروزشاه زرین کلاه, literal meaning in English: King Firuz of golden crown) was a Kurdish dignitary,F.
Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment which consists of hitting the bare soles of a person's feet.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Don García de Silva Figueroa (December 29, 1550 – July 22, 1624) was a Spanish diplomat, and the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid in Persia as the location of Persepolis, the ancient capital of the Achaemenid Empire and one of the great cities of antiquity.
George A. Bournoutian (جورج بورنوتیان., 25 September 1943, Isfahan, Iran) is an Iranian-American professor, historian, and author of Armenian descent.
George XI (Georgian: გიორგი XI) (1651 – April 21, 1709), known as Gurgin Khan in Iran, was a Georgian monarch who ruled the Kingdom of Kartli as a Safavid Persian subject from 1676 to 1688 and again from 1703 to 1709.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Abazi (აბაზი) was a Georgian silver coin, deriving its name and existence from the Iranian abbasi, which was in use from the early 17th century into the early 19th.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
The Ghilji (غلجي Ghəljī), غلزایی), also called Khaljī (خلجي), Khiljī, Ghilzai, or Gharzai (غرزی; ghar means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy. The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis. The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan, but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the current President of Afghanistan, also belongs to the Ghilji tribe. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar, Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan, Persia. The founder of the Hotak Empire was Mirwais Hotak. Another famous Ghilji from the 18th century was Azad Khan Afghan, who rose to power from 1752 to 1757 in western Iran.
Ghilman (singular غُلاَم,Other standardized transliterations: /.. plural غِلْمَان)Other standardized transliterations: /..
Ghulāt (lit, singular ghālī) is a term used in the theology of Shia Islam to describe some minority Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to figures of Islamic history (usually a member of the Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
The Gunpowder Empires were the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires.
A Habsburg–Persian alliance or Habsburg-Safavid alliance was attempted and to a certain extent achieved in the 16th century between the Habsburg Empire and the Safavid Empire in their common conflict against the Ottoman Empire.
Halil İnalcık (26 May 1916 – 25 July 2016) was a Turkish historian of the Ottoman Empire.
Hamadān or Hamedān (همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Hasht Behesht (هشت بهشت), meaning "Eight Paradises" is a Safavid era palace in Isfahan, Iran.
Hatem "Beg" Ordubadi (حاتم بیگ اردوبادی), was an Iranian aristocrat from the Ordubadi family, who served as the grand vizier of the Safavid king (shah) Abbas I (r. 1588–1629) from 1591 to 1610/1.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
Hurrem Sultan (خرم سلطان, Ḫurrem Sulṭān, Hürrem Sultan; 1502 – 15 April 1558), often called Roxelana, was the favourite and later the chief consort and legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.
Hurufism (حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi literal meaning "letters") was a Sufi doctrine, which was born in Astrabad and spread in areas of western Persia and Anatolia in later 14th – early 15th century.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Illuminationist or ishraqi philosophy is a type of Islamic philosophy introduced by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the twelfth century CE.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Imāmah (اٍمامة) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver theology.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iranian philosophy (Persian:فلسفه ایرانی) or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings.
Iranian studies (ايرانشناسی), also referred to as Iranology and Iranistics, is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Iskandar Beg Munshi, a.k.a. Iskandar Beg Turkman (c. 1560 – c. 1632), was a Persian historian of Turkmen origin of the Safavid emperor Shah Abbas I. Iskandar Beg began as an accountant in the bureaucracy, but later became a privileged secretary of the Shahs.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
Ismail Mirza (اسماعیل میرزا) later known by his first dynastic name of Ismail II (شاه اسماعیل دوم) (31 May 1537– 24 November 1577) was the third Safavid Shah of Iran, ruling from 1576 to 1577.
Abu Torab (ابوتراب), better known by his dynastic name of Ismail III (اسماعیل), was a Safavid prince, who reigned as a figurehead under the authority of Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari briefly from 1750 to 1751, and then under the Zand ruler Karim Khan from 1751 till his death in 1773.
Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 in Khoy – 1467 in Tabriz) (جهان شاه; Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks dynasty in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c. 1438 – 1467.
Jahrom (جهرم, also known as Jahrūm) is a city and capital of Jahrom County, Fars Province, Iran.
Jamshid (جمشید, Jamshīd) (Middle- and New Persian: جم, Jam) (Avestan: Yima) is a mythological figure of Greater Iranian culture and tradition.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.
Jean de Thévenot (16 June 1633 – 28 November 1667) was a French traveller in the East, who wrote extensively about his journeys.
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.
Jesse (იესე) or Isā Khān (ისა-ხანი) (died September 15, 1615), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a Safavid-appointed ruler of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1614 to 1615.
John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.
John IV Megas Komnenos (Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, Ķêbêrdej-Baĺķêr Respublikê; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика, Qabartı-Malqar Respublika), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karabakh (Ղարաբաղ Gharabagh; Qarabağ) is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
Kay Khosrow (کیخسرو) is a legendary king of Iran of Kayanian dynasty and a character in the Persian epic book, Shahnameh.
Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.
Ketevan the Martyr (ქეთევან წამებული, ketevan tsamebuli) (c. 1560 – September 13, 1624) was a queen of Kakheti, a kingdom in eastern Georgia.
The illuminated manuscript Khamsa of Nizami British Library, Or.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani khanates or Persian khanates, or Iranian khanates, were various provinces and principalities established by Persia (Iran) on their territories in the Caucasus (modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan) from the late Safavid to the Qajar dynasty.
Khayr al-Nisa Begum (known under the royal title Mahd-i Ulya, "the highest-ranked cradle") (died 26 July 1579) was an Iranian Mazandarani princess from the Marashi dynasty, who was the wife of the Safavid shah (king) Mohammed Khodabanda (r. 1578–1587) and mother of Abbas I. During the early part of her husband's reign she was a powerful political figure in her own right and governed Iran de facto between February 1578 and July 1579.
Khoy (خوی; خوی; also Romanized as Khoy and Khoi), is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
The Kingdom of Imereti (იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
The Second Kingdom of Kakheti (კახეთის სამეფო, k'axetis samepo; also spelled Kaxet'i or Kakhetia) was a late medieval/early modern monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kakheti, with its capital first at Gremi and then at Telavi.
The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.
Kiya Husayn II (کیا حسین), was the last ruler of the Afrasiyab dynasty, ruling from the late 15th-century till his death in 1504.
Komnenos (Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461).
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lala (لله, Lala) was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman in the Ottoman and Safavid Empire.
Lezgins (лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; Azerbaijani: "Ləzgilər"; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native predominantly to southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is the list of Grand Viziers (vazīr-e azam) of the Safavid dynasty.
The following is a list of Shia Islamic dynasties.
This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word.
This list includes the biological mothers of Safavid Shahs.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Luarsab II the Holy Martyr (ლუარსაბ II) (1592 – 21 June (O.S.), 1 July (N.S.), 1622), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kartli (eastern Georgia) from 1606 to 1615.
Mahabad (مهاباد; also Romanized as Mihābād and Muhābād), (Mehabad: مەهاباد); is a city and capital of Mahabad County, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran.
Shāh Mahmūd Hotak, (شاه محمود هوتک), also known as Shāh Mahmūd Ghiljī (شاه محمود غلجي) (lived 1697 – April 22, 1725), was an Afghan ruler of the Hotak dynasty who overthrew the heavily declined Safavid dynasty to briefly become the king of Persia from 1722 until his death in 1725.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metzad (מיצד), also Asfar, is an Israeli settlement organised as a community settlement in the Gush Etzion settlement bloc in the West Bank.
Michael George Andrew Axworthy (born 26 September 1962) is a British academic, author, and commentator.
Mir Damad (ميرداماد) (d. 1631 or 1632), known also as Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi, or Asterabadi, was an Iranian philosopher in the Neoplatonizing Islamic Peripatetic traditions of Avicenna and Suhrawardi, a scholar of the traditional Islamic sciences, and foremost figure (together with his student Mulla Sadra), of the cultural renaissance of Iran undertaken under the Safavid dynasty.
Mir Fendereski or Mir Findiriski (Persian: میرفِنْدِرِسْکی)‎ (1562–1640) was a Persian philosopher, poet and mystic of the Safavid era.
Mīrwais Khān Hotak (مير ويس خان هوتک), also known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī (شاه ميرويس غلجي) (1673 – November 1715), was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738.
Mirza Salman Jaberi Isfahani (میرزا سلمان جابری اصفهانی; also spelled Jabiri) was a prominent Persian statesman in Safavid Iran, who served as the grand vizier of Ismail II (r. 1576-77) and Mohammad Khodabanda (r. 1577-1588).
Mirza Kamal al-Din Shah Hossein Isfahani (میرزا کمال الدین شاه حسین اصفهانی), better simply known as Mirza Shah Hossein (میرزا شاه حسین), was an Iranian nobleman, who served as the vakil (vicegerent) and vizier of the Safavid Empire.
Mohammad Baqer Mirza better known in the West as Safi Mirza (15 September 1587, Mashhad – 2 February 1614, Rasht) was the oldest son of king (shah) Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629), and the crown prince of the Safavid Dynasty during Abbas' reign and his own short life.
Mohammad Khodābandeh or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammad Shah or Sultan Mohammad (شاه محمد خدابنده, born 1532; died 1595 or 1596), was Shah of Persia from 1578 until his overthrow in 1587 by his son Abbas I. He was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran and succeeded his brother, Ismail II.
Muhammad Paolo Zaman Kirmani known as Muhammad Zaman (fl. 1680 – c. 1700), a famous Safavid calligrapher and painter.
Mohammad Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699) (علامه مجلسی Allameh Majlesi; also Romanized as: Majlesi, Majlessi, Majlisi, Madjlessi), known as Allamah Majlesi or Majlesi Al-Thani (Majlesi the Second), was a renowned and very powerful Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric, during the Safavid era.
Muhsen Feyz KashaniH.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi (died 1623-24 or 1626-7) was an Iranian theologian and founder or proponent of the conservative (Akhbari) strand in Twelver Shi'a Islamic belief, those who favor hadith over fatwās.
Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Akmal al-Wahid Bihbahani, also Vahid Behbahani (1706–1791), was a Twelver Shia Islamic scholar.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Muhammad Shayboniy, شیبک خان) also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader whose original name: shibägh, stands for wormwood and also black obsidian.
Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, also called Mulla Sadrā (ملا صدرا; also spelled Molla Sadra, Mollasadra or Sadr-ol-Mote'allehin; صدرالمتألهین) (c. 1571/2 – 1640), was an Iranian Shia Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century.
Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
The Muscovy Company (also called the Russian Company or the Muscovy Trading Company, Московская компания, Moskovskaya kompaniya) was an English trading company chartered in 1555.
The Musha‘sha’iyyah (المشعشعية) were a Shi'i sect founded and led by Muhammad ibn Falah, an Iraqi-born theologian who believed himself to be the earthly representative of Ali and the Mahdi.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Naqsh-e Jahan Square (میدان نقش جهان Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: "Image of the World Square"), also known as Meidan Emam, is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
The Nuqtavi (نقطوية Nuqṭawiyyah) movement was founded by Mahmūd Pasīkhānī (محمود پسیخانی) when he proclaimed himself the Mahdi in 1397.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ottoman–Persian War was a conflict between the forces of the Safavid Empire and those of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1735.
The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.
The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555 was one of the many military conflicts fought between the two arch rivals, the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent, and the Safavid Empire led by Tahmasp I.
The Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) was one of the many wars between the neighboring arch rivals of Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman–Safavid War was a war between Safavid Persia under Abbas I of Persia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Ahmed I. It began in 1603 and ended with a decisive Safavid victory in 1618.
The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623–1639 was the last of a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, then the two major powers of Western Asia, over control of Mesopotamia.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pahlevāni and zoorkhāneh rituals is the name inscribed by UNESCO for varzesh-e pahlavāni (آیین پهلوانی و زورخانهای, "heroic sport") or varzesh-e bāstāni (ورزش باستانی; varzeš-e bāstānī, "ancient sport"), a traditional system of athletics originally used to train warriors in Iran and adjacent lands.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pari Khan Khanum (پریخان خانم, also spelled Parikhan Khanum; 1548–1576) was a Safavid princess, the daughter of the Safavid king (shah) Tahmasp I (1524 – 1576) and his Circassian consort, Sultan-Agha Khanum.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Paul Bairoch (24 July 1930 in Antwerp – 12 February 1999 in Geneva) was one of the great post-war economic historians who specialised in global economic history, urban history and historical demography.
The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
A Persian carpet or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī),Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.
The Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602) was dispatched by the Persian Shah Abbas I in 1599 to obtain an alliance against the Ottoman Empire.
The Persian embassy to Europe (1609–1615) was dispatched by the Persian Shah Abbas I in 1609 to obtain an alliance with Europe against the Ottoman Empire.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Pope Clement VIII (Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 5 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qarabagh (Qarah Bagh) district is 56 km to the south-west of Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan.
Qasr-e Shirin (Kurdish: Qesirî Şîrîn, قصرشيرين; also Romanized as Qaşr-e Shīrīn and Qasr-ī-Shīrīn; also known as Ghasr-ī-shīrīn and Ghasr-shīrīn) is a city and capital of Qasr-e Shirin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Qazvin (قزوین,, also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Reza Abbasi, Riza yi-Abbasi or Reza-e Abbasi, رضا عباسی in Persian, usually Reza Abbasi also Aqa Reza (see below) or Āqā Riżā Kāshānī (– 1635) was the leading Persian miniaturist of the Isfahan School during the later Safavid period, spending most of his career working for Shah Abbas I. He is considered to be the last great master of the Persian miniature, best known for his single miniatures for muraqqa or albums, especially single figures of beautiful youths.
Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC (10 November 1565 – 25 February 1601), was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599.
Sir Robert Shirley (c. 1581 – 13 July 1628) was an English traveller and adventurer, younger brother of Sir Anthony Shirley and Sir Thomas Shirley.
Roger Savory is a British-born Professor Emeritus at the University of TorontoRoger Savory, "Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations"- University of Toronto" who is an Iranologist and specialist on the Safavids.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.
Sabzevar (سبزوار), previously known as Beyhagh (also spelled "Beihagh"; بيهق), is a city and capital of Sabzevar County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, approximately 220 kilometres west of the provincial capital Mashhad, in northeastern Iran.
The Sack of Shamakhi took place in 1721, when rebellious Sunni Lezgins, within the declining Safavid Empire, attacked the capital of Shirvan province, Shamakhi (in present-day Azerbaijan Republic).
Sadr al-Din Musa(1305-1391)(صدر الدين) was the son and successor of Safi-ad-din Ardabili.
Safavid art is the art of the Persian Safavid dynasty from 1501 to 1722, in present-day Iran and Caucasia.
The conquest of Shirvan was the first campaign of Ismail, the then leader of the Safaviyya order.
The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.
The Shirvan province (Velāyat-e Shirvān) was an velayat (province) founded by the Safavid Empire on the territory of modern Azerbaijan and Russia (Dagestan) between 1501 and 1736 with its capital in the town of Shamakhi.
The Safaviyya Səfəviyyə(صفویه)was a tariqa (Sufi order) founded by the | Encyclopædia IranicaV.
Sam Mirza (سام میرزا), better known by his dynastic name of Shah Safi (شاه صفی) was the sixth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1629 to 1642.
Sheikh Safi-ad-din Is'haq Ardabili (of Ardabil) (1252–1334) (شیخ صفیالدین اسحاق اردبیلی Shaikh Ṣāfī ad-Dīn Isḥāq Ardabīlī), was the Kurdish, Cambridge University Press, 1997,, p. 39.
The Sarbadars (from سربدار sarbadār, "head on gallows"; also known as Sarbedaran سربداران) were a mixture of religious dervishes and secular rulers that came to rule over part of western Khurasan in the midst of the disintegration of the Mongol Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century (established in 1337).
Mirza Mohammad Taqi (c. 1579 – 11 October, 1645) (میرزا محمد تقی), better known as Saru Taqi (سارو تقی, meaning "Taqi the blond") was a eunuch of Safavid Empire, who served as the Grand Vizier of the Safavid king (shah) Safi (r. 1629–1642) and the latter's son Abbas II (r. 1642–1666) until he was assassinated on 11 October 1645.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Iran has made considerable advances in science and technology through education and training, despite international sanctions in almost all aspects of research during the past 30 years.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish: II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" or ("Selim the Drunkard") and Sarı Selim ("Selim the Blond"), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.
Semnan (سمنان, also Romanized as Semnān and Samnān) is the capital city of Semnan Province, Iran.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The Shah Mosque (مسجد شاه), also known as Royal Mosque or Imam Mosque after the Iranian Revolution, is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran, standing in south side of Naghsh-e Jahan Square.
Shāh Nimatullāh or Shāh Ni'matullāh Wali, (شاه نعمتالله ولی Shāh Ni'matullāh-i Valī), also spelled as Ne'matollah, Ni'matallah and Ni'mat Allāh, was a Persian Sufi Master and poet from the 14th and 15th centuries.
"Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardī (شهابالدین سهروردی, also known as Sohrevardi) (1154-1191) was a PersianC.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
The Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp (شاهنامه شاهطهماسب) or Houghton Shahnameh is one of the most famous illustrated manuscripts of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Greater Iran, and a high point in the art of the Persian miniature.
The Shahsevan (Şahsevənlər), are a branch of the Turkic Oghuz groups, sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijani people, located primarily in Iran and on the territory of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
Shamkhal Sultan, also known as Shamkhal Sultan Cherkes, was an important Circassian noble of the second half of the 16th century in the Safavid Empire.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shaykh Haydar or Sheikh Haydar (Shaikh Ḥaidar; b. 1459, Amed - d. 9 July 1488, Tabasaran) was the successor of his father (Shaykh Junayd) as leader of the Safaviyya from 1460-1488.
Sheikh Junayd (died 1460) (Shaikh Junaid) was the son of Shaykh Ibrahim.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (مسجد شیخ لطف الله) is one of the architectural masterpieces of Iranian architecture that was built during the Safavid Empire, standing on the eastern side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan, Iran.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shirvanshah (شروانشاه, Şirvanşah), also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century.
The siege of Isfahan was a six-month-long siege of Isfahan, the capital of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, by the Hotaki-led Afghan army.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Simon II (სიმონ II), also known as Svimon or Semayun Khan (born c. early 1610s – died 1630), was a Persian-appointed king (actually, khan) of Kartli, eastern Georgia, from 1619 to 1630/1631.
Sir Thomas Herbert, 1st Baronet (1606–1682), was an English traveller, historian and a gentleman of the bedchamber of King Charles I while Charles I was in the custody of Parliament (from 1647 until the King's execution in January 1649).
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
A stud farm or stud in animal husbandry is an establishment for selective breeding of livestock.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sam Mirza (سام میرزا), later known by his first dynastic name of Safi II (شاه صفی), and thereafter known by his more famous second dynastic name of Suleiman I (شاه سلیمان), was the eighth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1 November 1666 to 29 July 1694.
Sultan Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (شاه سلطان حسین) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid Shah of Iran (Persia).
Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara (حسین بایقرا / Husayn Bāyqarā) was born in Herat in June–July 1438 C.E. to Ghiyas ud-din Mansur Mirza son of Bayqarah Mirza I son of Umar Shaikh Mirza I son of Amir Timur Beg Gurkani.
Sultan Mahmud (c. 1464 – c. 1543) was the last Mihrabanid malik of Sistan, from c. 1495 until c. 1537.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.
Tahmasp II (1704? – 11 February 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran).
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Teimuraz I (თეიმურაზ I) (1589–1661), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a Georgian monarch who ruled, with intermissions, as King of Kakheti from 1605 to 1648 and also of Kartli from 1625 to 1633.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
The Treaty of Constantinople (Константинопольский договор) Russo-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia (Iran Mukasemenamesi) was a treaty concluded on 24 June 1724 between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, dividing large portions of the territory of mutually neighbouring Safavid Iran between them.
The Treaty of Ganja was concluded between the Russian Empire and Iran on 10 March 1735 near the city of Ganja (present-day Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Resht was signed between the Russian Empire and Safavid Empire at Rasht on 21 January 1732.
The Treaty of Zuhab (عهدنامه زهاب), also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması), was an accord signed between the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Twelfth Night, or What You WillUse of spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the First Folio: "Twelfe Night, Or what you will" is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–1602 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
ʿUrf (العرف) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or 'knowledge', of a given society.
Usulis (الاصولية) are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Uzun Hasan or Uzun Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was the 9th shahanshah of the Oghuz Turkic Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, and generally considered to be its strongest ruler.
Van Province (Armenian:Վան Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Taj Al-Din Ebrahim ibn Rushan Amir Al-Kurdi Al-Sanjani (or Sinjani; Persian: تاج الدين ابراهيم كردی سنجانی)‎ (1216–1301), titled Sheikh Zahed (or Zahid) Gilani, was an Iranian Grandmaster (murshid-i kamil) of the famed Zahediyeh Sufi Order at Lahijan.
The Zahediyeh Sufi Order was founded by Zahed Gilani of Lahijan.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zāyandé-Rūd or Zāyanderūd (زاینده رود, from زاینده “life giver” and رود “river”), also spelled as Zayandeh-Rood or Zayanderood, is the largest river of the Iranian Plateau in central Iran.
In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.
Afghan Interlude, Iran during the Safavid, Persian Safavid dynasty, Safavid, Safavid Dynasty, Safavid Empire, Safavid Iran, Safavid Iraq, Safavid Persia, Safavid Persian Empire, Safavid empire, Safavid era, Safavids, Safawi, Safawid, Safawid Empire, Safawid dynasty, Saffavid, Saffavid Dynasty, Saffavid dynasty, Saffavids, Safvis, Sefevi, Sefevi state.