341 relations: Aéropostale (aviation), Aïn Séfra, Aïr Mountains, Abu Simbel temples, Acacia, Adaptation, Addax, Adrar des Ifoghas, Adrar Plateau, Adrar, Algeria, Aeolian processes, African silverbill, African wild dog, Afroasiatic languages, Afrovenator, Agadez, Agitoxin, Air mass, Algeria, Algerian Desert, Algiers, Allerød oscillation, Allopatric speciation, Amaranthaceae, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ancient Greece, Ancient Libya, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Antarctica, Antelope, Aoulef, Apostolic Vicariate of Sahara, Aquifer, Arabization, Archaeoastronomy, Archaeology, Arctic, Arid Lands Information Network, Aridity index, Arrowhead, Aswan, Asyut, Atacama Desert, Atlantic coastal desert, Atlantic Ocean, Atlas Mountains, Axial tilt, Azalai, Azores High, ..., Balanites, Bamako, Béchar, Bølling oscillation, Beja people, Benin, Berber languages, Berbers, Bilma, Biskra, Black-faced firefinch, Blue Nile, Borkou, Bou Bernous, Burkina Faso, Byzantine Empire, Cairo–Dakar Highway, Canary Current, Cape to Cairo Road, Capsian culture, Carthage, Cataracts of the Nile, Catholic Church, Cattle in religion and mythology, Cenchrus biflorus, Cerastes (genus), Chad, Cheetah, Chile, China, Chott Melrhir, Climate, CNN, Condominium (international law), Contour line, Cornulaca monacantha, Crocodile, Cyrenaica, Dakar, Dakhla Oasis, Dama gazelle, Dansgaard–Oeschger event, Darfur, Date palm, Death Valley National Park, Deathstalker, Desert, Desert climate, Desertification, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Dinosaur, Diurnal temperature variation, Dorcas gazelle, Dromedary, Dry lake, Dune, Eastern Desert, Ecoregion, Egypt, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, El Oued, Emi Koussi, Endemism, Ennedi Plateau, Erg (landform), Esparto, Ethiopian Highlands, European colonialism, Evapotranspiration, Faiyum, Farafra, Egypt, Faya-Largeau, Fennec fox, Fezzan, Floristics, Fossil, Fossil water, Frank White (botanist), French Fourth Republic, French North Africa, French Sudan, French Third Republic, Fula people, Gabal El Uweinat, Garamantes, Ghardaïa, Ghat, Libya, Glacial period, Goat, Gobero, Guanche language, Hacettepe University, Hadley cell, Halophyte, Hamada, Hanno the Navigator, Hassaniya Arabic, Hassi Messaoud, Hausa people, Heinrich event, High-pressure area, History of slavery, Hoggar Mountains, Holocene, Holocene climatic optimum, Hunter-gatherer, Hydrobiologia, Hydrology, Hyrax, Iberian Peninsula, Iberomaurusian, Ice sheet, In Salah, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Jobaria, July Monarchy, Kano, Kanuri people, Köppen climate classification, Kharga Oasis, Khartoum, Kiffian culture, Kingdom of Italy, Kufra, Lake Victoria, Last Glacial Maximum, Last glacial period, Late Pleistocene, Libya, Libyan Desert, Lichen, List of deserts, List of deserts by area, Low-pressure area, Luxor, Maghreb, Mahdist War, Mali, Marine isotope stage, Mauritania, Mechta-Afalou, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Mining, Monitor lizard, Monsoon, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Mummy, Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, Myrtus, N'Djamena, Nabta Playa, NASA World Wind, Natural gas, Negev, Negroid, Neolithic, Neolithic Subpluvial, Nerium, Niger, Niger River, Nile, Nomad, North Africa, North African climate cycles, North African ostrich, North Atlantic oscillation, North Saharan steppe and woodlands, Northeast African cheetah, Northwest African cheetah, Nouakchott, Nubia, Nubian Desert, Nubians, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oasis, Olive, Online Etymology Dictionary, Oran, Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Tripolitania, Ouallene, Ouargla, Ouarzazate, Ouranosaurus, Pale fox, Paul Sereno, Peru, Petroglyph, Petroleum, Phoenicia, Phosphate, Physiographic province, Poaceae, Polar front, Pope Pius IX, Population, Port Sudan, Potential evaporation, Precession, Precipitation, Prehistoric Egypt, Qattara Depression, Radiocarbon dating, Rain shadow, Rüppell's fox, Red Sea, Reggane, Relative humidity, Restoration (Spain), Rhim gazelle, Richat Structure, Sahara Conservation Fund, Sahara Desert (ecoregion), Sahara pump theory, Sahara Sea, Saharan Atlas, Saharan explorers, Saharan silver ant, Sahel, Sahrawi people, Salt pan (geology), Sanhaja, Savanna, Scyllatoxin, Senegal, Shield volcano, Siwa Oasis, Sohag, Soil salinity, Solar irradiance, Songhai people, South Saharan steppe and woodlands, Speleothem, Stonehenge, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subtropical ridge, Succulent plant, Sudan, Sudan (region), Sunlight, Sunshine duration, Tamanrasset, Tamarix, Tanezrouft, Tassili n'Ajjer, Tazirbu, Ténéré, Tenerian culture, Thermae, Thermal low, Tibesti Mountains, Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands, Tifinagh, Timbuktu, Timimoun, Togo, Toubou people, Toulouse, Trans-African Highway network, Trans-Sahara Highway, Tripoli, Tripoli–Cape Town Highway, Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Tuareg people, Tunisia, Tunisian salt lakes, Tusk, Uan Muhuggiag, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, Upper Egypt, Varieties of Arabic, Vascular plant, Vegetation, Wadi, Wadi Halfa, West Africa, West African crocodile, West Saharan montane xeric woodlands, Western Sahara, Wet season, White Nile, World War II, Younger Dryas, Zaghawa people, Zenaga language, 20th parallel north. Expand index (291 more) » « Shrink index
Aéropostale (formally, Compagnie générale aéropostale) was a pioneering aviation company which operated from 1918 to 1933.
Aïn Séfra (عين الصفراء, lit. yellow spring) is a municipality in Naâma Province, Algeria.
The Aïr Mountains or Aïr Massif (Ayăr; Hausa: Eastern Azbin, Western Abzin) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara Desert.
The Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples at Abu Simbel (أبو سمبل), a village in Nubia, southern Egypt, near the border with Sudan.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), also known as the white antelope and the screwhorn antelope, is an antelope of the genus Addax, that lives in the Sahara desert.
The Adrar des Ifoghas (also Adrar des Iforas; Tamasheq: ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵓⵖⴰⵙ in Tifinagh; Adrar n Ifoghas; أدرار إيفوغاس Ifoghas' Mountain) is a massif in located in the Kidal Region of Mali, reaching into Algeria.
The Adrar (Berber:, lit. mountain) is a highland natural and historical region of the Sahara Desert in northern Mauritania.
Adrar (Berber: Adrar, ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ; أدرار) is the administrative capital of Adrar Province, the second largest province in Algeria.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
The African silverbill (Euodice cantans) is a small passerine bird formerly considered conspecific with the Asian species Indian silverbill, (Euodice malabarica).
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Afrovenator ("African hunter") is a genus of megalosaurid theropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic Period of northern Africa.
Agadez, formerly spelled Agades, is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 118,244 (2012 census).
Agitoxin is a toxin found in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus (yellow scorpion).
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Algerian Desert (الصحراء الجزائرية) is located in north-central Africa and is part of the Sahara Desert.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Allerød oscillation (Allerødtiden) was a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred c.13,900 to 12,900 BP, nearly at the end of the last glacial period.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Aoulef (translit) is a town and commune and capital of Aoulef District, in Adrar Province, south-central Algeria.
The Vicariate Apostolic of Sahara (Vicariatus Apostolicus Saharensis) is a former Roman Catholic missionary jurisdiction in colonial Algeria and Libya.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures".
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN) is a Kenya-based non-governmental organisation that seeks to exchange ideas and experiences among "grassroots change agents".
An aridity index (AI) is a numerical indicator of the degree of dryness of the climate at a given location.
An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
The Atlantic coastal desert is the westernmost ecoregion in the Sahara Desert of North Africa.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
The Azalai (Tamasheq, var. Azalay) is a semi-annual salt caravan route practiced by Tuareg traders in the Sahara desert between Timbuktu and the Taoudenni salt mine in Mali, or the act of traveling with a caravan along that route.
The Azores High (Anticiclone dos Açores) also known as North Atlantic (Subtropical) High/Anticyclone or the Bermuda-Azores High, is a large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure typically found south of the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean, at the Horse latitudes.
Balanites is a Afrotropical, Palearctic and Indomalayan genus of flowering plants in the caltrop family, Zygophyllaceae.
Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).
Béchar (بشار) is the capital city of Béchar Province, Algeria.
The Bølling oscillation, also Bølling interstadial, was a cool temperate climatic interstadial between the glacial Oldest Dryas and Older Dryas stadials, between 14,700 and 14,100 BP, near to the end of the last glacial period.
The Beja people (Beja: Oobja; البجا) are an ethnic group inhabiting Sudan, as well as parts of Eritrea and Egypt.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bilma is an oasis town and commune in north east Niger with a population of 4,016 people.
Biskra (بسكرة; Berber) is the capital city of Biskra Province, Algeria.
The black-faced firefinch (Lagonosticta larvata) is a common species of estrildid finch found in Africa.
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
Borku (Borkou) or Borgu (Borgou) is a region of Central Africa, mostly in Northern Chad, forming part of the transitional zone between the arid wastes of the Sahara and the fertile lands of the central Sudan.
Bou Bernous is a village in the commune of Oum El Assel, in Tindouf Province, Algeria, located in a remote part of the Sahara Desert.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cairo–Dakar Highway is Trans-African Highway 1 in the transcontinental road network being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (ADB), and the African Union.
The Canary Current is a wind-driven surface current that is part of the North Atlantic Gyre.
The Cape to Cairo Road or Pan-African Highway, sometimes called the Great North Road in sub-Saharan Africa, was a proposed road that would stretch the length of Africa, from Cape Town to Cairo, through the Cape to Cairo Red Line of British colonies.
The Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb that lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BC.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Due to the multiple benefits from cattle, there are varying beliefs about cattle in societies and religions.
Cenchrus biflorus is a species of annual grass in the Poaceae family.
Cerastes is a genus of small, venomous vipers found in the deserts and semi-deserts of northern North Africa eastward through Arabia and Iran.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chott Melrhir also known as Chott Melghir or Chott Melhir is an endorheic salt lake in northeastern Algeria.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
Cornulaca monacantha is a species of flowering plant in the genus Cornulaca, that is now included in the family Amaranthaceae, (formerly Chenopodiaceae).
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
Dakhla Oasis (الداخلة), translates to the inner oasis, is one of the seven oases of Egypt's Western Desert.
The dama gazelle, addra gazelle, or mhorr gazelle (Nanger dama, formerly Gazella dama) is a species of gazelle.
Dansgaard–Oeschger events (often abbreviated D–O events) are rapid climate fluctuations that occurred 25 times during the last glacial period.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Death Valley National Park is an American national park that straddles the California—Nevada border, east of the Sierra Nevada.
The deathstalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus) is a species of scorpion, a member of the Buthidae family.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day.
The dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas), also known as the ariel gazelle, is a small and common gazelle.
The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The Eastern Desert is the part of the Sahara desert that is located east of the Nile river, between the river and the Red Sea.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
El Oued (اﻟﻮادي, Suf meaning the River), Souf or Oued Souf is a city, and the capital of El Oued Province, in Algeria.
Emi Koussi (also known as Emi Koussou) is a high pyroclastic shield volcano that lies at the southeast end of the Tibesti Mountains in the central Sahara of the northern Borkou Region of northern Chad.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The Ennedi Plateau, located in the northeast of Chad, in the regions of Ennedi-Ouest and Ennedi-Est, is a sandstone bulwark in the middle of the Sahara.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Esparto, halfah grass, or esparto grass, is a fiber produced from two species of perennial grasses of north Africa and southern Europe.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
European colonialism refers to the worldwide colonial expansion of European countries, which began in the early modern period, c. 1500.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
The Farafra depression (واحة الفرافرة) is a geological depression, the second biggest by size in Western Egypt and the smallest by population, near latitude 27.06° north and longitude 27.97° east.
Faya-Largeau (also known as Faya, فايا لارجو or فايا) is the largest city in northern Chad and was the capital of the region of Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti.
The fennec fox or fennec (Vulpes zerda) is a small nocturnal fox found in the Sahara of North Africa, the Sinai Peninsula, South West Israel (Arava desert) Encyclopedia of Zoology, Ynet and the Arabian desert.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
Frank White (5 March 1927 – 12 September 1994) was a botanist who was an expert on African flora and curator of the herbarium at the University of Oxford.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
French Sudan (Soudan français; السودان الفرنسي) was a French colonial territory in the federation of French West Africa from around 1880 until 1960, when it became the independent state of Mali.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Mount Uwaynat or Gabal El Uweinat (جبل العوينات "mountain of sourcelets") is a mountain range in the area of the Egyptian-Libyan-Sudanese border.
The Garamantes (possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a Berber tribe, who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya.
Ghardaïa (غرداية, Mzab-Berber: Taɣerdayt) is the capital city of Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.
Ghat (Berber: Ɣat or ⵗⴰⵜ; غات) is the capital of the Ghat District in the Fezzan region of southwestern Libya.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Gobero archaeological site, dating to approximately 8000 BCE, is the oldest known graveyard in the Sahara Desert.
The Guanche language is an extinct Berber language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 17th century or possibly later.
Hacettepe University is a major state university in Ankara, Turkey.
The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface.
A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.
A hamada (Arabic, حمادة ḥammāda) is a type of desert landscape consisting of high, largely barren, hard rocky plateaus, where most of the sand has been removed by deflation.
Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
Hassi Messaoud (حاسي مسعود) is a town in Ouargla Province, eastern Algeria, located southeast of Ouargla.
The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.
A Heinrich event is a natural phenomenon in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hydrobiologia: The International Journal of Aquatic Sciences is a scientific journal specialising in hydrobiology, including limnology and oceanography, systematics of aquatic organisms and aquatic ecology.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hyraxes (from the Greek ὕραξ, hýrax, "shrewmouse"), also called dassies, are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
In Salah or Ain Salah (عين صالح) is an oasis town in central Algeria.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
Jobaria was a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived in the current-day Niger during the middle Jurassic Period, between 164–161 million years ago.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Kano is the state capital of Kano State in North West, Nigeria.
The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kharga Oasis (الخارجة), (meaning "the outer") is the southernmost of Egypt's five western oases.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
The Kiffian culture is a prehistoric industry, or domain, that existed between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago in the Sahara Desert, during the Neolithic Subpluvial.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kufra is a basinBertarelli (1929), p. 514.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
This is a list of deserts sorted by the region of the world in which the desert is located.
This is the list of the largest deserts in the world by area.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
Luxor (الأقصر; Egyptian Arabic:; Sa'idi Arabic) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mechta-Afalou (Mechtoid) are a population that inhabited parts of North Africa during the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub are generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.
Myrtus, with the common name myrtle, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, described by Swedish botanist Linnaeus in 1753.
N’Djamena (N'Djaména; انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad.
Nabta Playa was once a large internally drained basin in the Nubian Desert, located approximately 800 kilometers south of modern-day Cairo or about 100 kilometers west of Abu Simbel in southern Egypt, 22.51° north, 30.73° east.
World Wind is an open-source (released under the NOSA license) virtual globe.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.
Nerium oleander is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North African climate cycles have a unique history that can be traced back millions of years.
The North African ostrich or red-necked ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus), also known as the Barbary ostrich, is the nominate subspecies of the common ostrich from West and North Africa.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic low and the Azores high.
The North Saharan steppe and woodlands is a desert ecoregion, in the Deserts and xeric shrublands biome, that forms the northern edge of the Sahara.
The Northeast African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) is a cheetah subspecies occurring in Northeast Africa.
The Northwest African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki), also known as the Saharan cheetah, is a cheetah subspecies native to the Sahara desert and the Sahel.
Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nubian Desert (صحراء النوبة, Şaḩrā’ an Nūbyah) is in the eastern region of the Sahara Desert, spanning approximately 400,000 km² of northeastern Sudan and northern Eritrea, between the Nile and the Red Sea.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
Ouallene or Ouallen is a desert town and bordj in southern Algeria.
Ouargla (Berber: Wargren or Wargla, ورجلان، ورقلة, old Berber name: Wareglan) is the capital city of Ouargla Province in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria.
Ouarzazate (Warzazat), nicknamed The door of the desert, is a city and capital of Ouarzazate Province in Drâa-Tafilalet region of south-central Morocco.
Ouranosaurus (meaning "brave (monitor) lizard", alternatively "sky lizard" after the primordial Greek god Ouranos) is a genus of herbivorous iguanodont dinosaur that lived during the early Cretaceous (Aptian to early Albian age) at some point between 125 and 112 million years ago, in what is now Africa.
The pale fox (Vulpes pallida) is a species of fox found in the band of African Sahel from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the east.
Paul Callistus Sereno (born October 11, 1957) is a professor of paleontology at the University of Chicago and a National Geographic "explorer-in-residence" who has discovered several new dinosaur species on several continents, including at sites in Inner Mongolia, Argentina, Morocco and Niger.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A physiographic province is a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphology, and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
In meteorology, the polar front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell around the 60° latitude in each hemisphere.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Port Sudan (بور سودان) is a port city in eastern Sudan, and the capital of the state of Red Sea.
Potential evaporation (PE) or potential evapotranspiration (PET) is defined as the amount of evaporation that would occur if a sufficient water source were available.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).
The Qattara Depression (منخفض القطارة Munḫafaḍ al-Qaṭṭārah) is a depression in northwestern Egypt, specifically in the Matruh Governorate.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Rüppell's fox (Vulpes rueppellii), also spelled Rueppell's fox, is a species of fox living in North Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reggane (from Berber "Argan"; رقان) is a town and commune, and the capital of Reggane District, in Adrar Province, central Algeria.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
The rhim gazelle or rhim (Gazella leptoceros), also known as the slender-horned gazelle, sand gazelle or Loder's gazelle, is a pale-coated gazelle with long slender horns and well adapted to desert life.
The Richat Structure, also known as the Eye of the Sahara and Guelb er Richat, is a prominent circular feature in the Sahara near Ouadane, west–central Mauritania.
The Sahara Conservation Fund (SCF) is an international non-governmental organization established in 2004 to conserve the wildlife, including the endangered species, of the Sahara desert and bordering Sahelian grasslands.
The Sahara Desert ecoregion, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), includes the hyper-arid center of the Sahara, between 18° and 30° N. It is one of several desert and xeric shrubland ecoregions that cover the northern portion of the African continent.
The Sahara pump theory is a hypothesis that explains how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a land bridge in the Levant region.
The Sahara Sea was the name of a hypothetical macro-engineering project which proposed flooding endorheic basins in the Sahara Desert with waters from the Atlantic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea.
The Saharan Atlas (الأطلس الصحراوي) is a range of the Atlas Mountain System.
Saharan explorers include.
The Saharan silver ant (Cataglyphis bombycina) is a type of ant that lives in the Sahara Desert.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun.
The Sanhaja (Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; صنهاجة, Ṣanhaja) were once one of the largest Berber tribal confederations, along with the Iznaten and Imesmuden confederations.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Scyllatoxin (also leiurotoxin I) is a toxin, from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, which blocks small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
Sohag (Saidi pronunciation), also known as Sawhāj, Suhag and Suhaj, is a city in Egypt that lies on the west bank of the Nile.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.
The South Saharan steppe and woodlands is a deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregion of northern Africa.
Speleothems (Ancient Greek: "cave deposit"), commonly known as cave formations, are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The subtropical ridge, also known as the subtropical high or horse latitudes, is a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere.
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years.
Tamanrasset (تمنراست, also known as Tamenɣest, Tamanghasset or Tamenghest, Tuareg: ⵜⵎⵏⵘⵙⵜ) is an oasis city and capital of Tamanrasset Province in southern Algeria, in the Ahaggar Mountains.
The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
The Tanezrouft (تنزروفت) is a natural region located along the borders of Algeria, Niger and Mali, west of the Hoggar mountains.
Tassili n'Ajjer (Tasili n Ajjer, طاسيلي ناجر; "Plateau of the Rivers") is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria.
Tazerbu (تازربو), is an oasis located in the Libyan Desert in the Kufra District of Libya, about 250 km to the northwest of Kufra.
The Ténéré (Berber: Tiniri, literally: desert, wilderness) is a desert region in the south central Sahara.
The Tenerian culture is a prehistoric industry that existed between the 5th millennium BC and mid-3rd millennium BC in the Sahara Desert.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
Thermal lows, or heat lows, are non-frontal low-pressure areas that occur over the continents in the subtropics during the warm season, as the result of intense heating when compared to their surrounding environments.
The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya.
The Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands ecoregion, in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, is located in the eastern Sahara.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Timimoun (ﺗﻴﻤﻴﻤﻮن) is a town and commune, and capital of Timimoun District, in Adrar Province, south-central Algeria.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The Trans-African Highway network comprises transcontinental road projects in Africa being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (ADB), and the African Union in conjunction with regional international communities.
The Trans-Sahara Highway is a proposed transnational highway project to pave, improve and ease border formalities on an existing trade route across the Sahara Desert.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
The Tripoli–Cape Town Highway is Trans-African Highway 3 in the transcontinental road network being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (AfDB), and the African Union.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian salt lakes are a series of lakes in central Tunisia, lying south of the Atlas Mountains at the northern edge of the Sahara.
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species.
Uan Muhuggiag is an archaeological site in Libya.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Wādī Ḥalfā (وادي حلفا) is a city in the Northern state of Sudan on the shores of "Lake Nubia" (the Sudanese section of Lake Nasser).
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).
The West Saharan montane xeric woodlands is an ecoregion that extends across several highland regions in the Sahara.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The White Nile (النيل الأبيض) is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
The Zaghawa people, also called Beri or Zakhawa, are a Central African Muslim ethnic group of eastern Chad and western Sudan, including Darfur.
Zenaga (autonym) is a moribund Berber language spoken from the town of Mederdra in southwestern Mauritania to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal.
The 20th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, Climate of the Sahara, Flora and fauna of the Sahara, Grasslands of the Sahara, Great Desert, History of the Sahara, Moroccan Desert, Moroccan desert, Sa'hrāʾ al-Kubrā, Sahara Desert, Sahara climate, Sahara desert, Sahara weather, Saharah, Saharan Africa, Saharan Desert, Saharan desert, The Sahara, Weather in the Sahara, الصحراء الكبرى.