135 relations: Aa (river, France), Abbey of Saint Bertin, Aerodrome, Alexandre Ribot, Anne Boleyn, Antoine Davion, Archaeology, Arnulf I, Count of Flanders, Arnulf III, Count of Flanders, Audomar, Éperlecques, Żagań, Baldwin I, Latin Emperor, Battle of Bouvines, Battle of Saint-Omer, Belgium, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Blockhouse, Brewing, Bruges, Burgundian Netherlands, Calais, Canal, Canal de Neufossé, Capital punishment, Cardinal Richelieu, Cenotaph, Charles Blondin, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Childeric III, City rights in the Low Countries, Colleges of St Omer, Bruges and Liège, Communauté d'agglomération du Pays de Saint-Omer, Communes of France, County of Artois, County of Flanders, Daniel Carroll, Deal, Kent, Departments of France, Detmold, Diocese, Douglas Bader, Eastern Christianity, England, Famine, Ferdinand, Count of Flanders, First Folio, Fontinettes boat lift, Fortification, ..., French organ school, French Revolution, Germany, Gravelines, Greek Orthodox Church, Greeks, Gutenberg Bible, Habsburg Netherlands, Harbor, Helfaut, Henry VIII of England, Hippolyte Carnot, Jean Titelouze, Jesus, Joan, Countess of Flanders, John Carroll (bishop), John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John the Apostle, John, King of England, Joseph Liouville, La Coupole, Lancashire, Liège, Lille, Linen, List of Prime Ministers of France, Lock (water navigation), Louis XIV of France, Luftwaffe, Lycée Alexandre Ribot, Lys (river), Mary, mother of Jesus, Monastery, Museum, Mustard (condiment), No. 16 Squadron RAF, No. 9 Squadron RAF, Normans, North Sea, Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Penal Laws (Ireland), Philip I of France, Philip II of France, Pilgrimage, Poland, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Public library, Queen consort, Reformation, Robert I, Count of Flanders, Robert Persons, Royal Air Force, Royal Flying Corps, Saint-Omer Cathedral, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seat of local government, Siege, Sister city, Soap, Society of Jesus, Spain, Spanish Netherlands, Stained glass, Stonyhurst, Subprefecture, Subprefectures in France, Sugar, Thérouanne, Theatre, Thierry, Count of Flanders, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Becket, Transept, Treaties of Nijmegen, Treaty of Pont-à-Vendin, Turkish people, United Kingdom, V-2 rocket, William Clito, World War I, World War II, Ypres. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
The Aa is an long river in northern France.
The Abbey of St.
An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (7 February 184213 January 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.
Anne Boleyn (1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.
Antoine Davion was originally from Saint-Omer in Artois, France.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arnulf of Flanders (c. 890 – 27 March 965), called the Great, was the first Count of Flanders, who ruled the County of Flanders, an area that is now northern France (Nord), northwestern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands.
Arnulf III (died 22 February 1071) was Count of Flanders from 1070 until his death at the Battle of Cassel in 1071.
Saint Audomar (died c. 670), better known as Saint Omer, was a Burgundy-born bishop of Thérouanne, after whom nearby Saint-Omer in northern France was named.
Éperlecques is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).
Baldwin I (Boudewijn; Baudouin; July 1172 –) was the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
The Battle of Bouvines, was a medieval battle fought on 27 July 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders.
The battle of Saint-Omer was a large action fought in 1340 as part of King Edward III's summer campaign against France launched from Flanders in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
The Canal de Neufossé is a French canal connecting the Aa River in Arques to the Canal d'Aire in Aire-sur-la-Lys.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere.
Charles Blondin (born Jean François Gravelet, 28 February 182422 February 1897) was a French tightrope walker and acrobat.
Charles Carroll (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832), known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III to distinguish him from his similarly named relatives, was a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short.
City rights are a feature of the medieval history of the Low Countries.
The Colleges of St Omer, Bruges and Liège were successive expatriate institutions for the Catholic education of English students and were run by the Jesuits.
The Communauté d'agglomération du Pays de Saint-Omer (CAPSO) is located in the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The County of Artois was an historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
Daniel Carroll (July 22, 1730May 7, 1796) was an American politician and plantation owner from Maryland, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Deal is a town in Kent, England, which lies on the border of the North Sea and the English Channel, eight miles north-east of Dover and eight miles south of Ramsgate.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 73,400 (2013).
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader, (21 February 1910 – 5 September 1982) was a Royal Air Force flying ace during the Second World War.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Ferdinand (24 March 1188 – 27 July 1233; Portuguese: Fernando, French and Dutch: Ferrand) reigned as jure uxoris Count of Flanders and Hainaut from his marriage to Countess Joan, celebrated in Paris in 1212, until his death.
The Fontinettes Boat Lift (French: Ascenseur des Fontinettes or Ascenseur à bateaux des Fontinettes was built in 1888 on the Canal de Neufossé and connected the River Aa and the Neuffossé Canal in Arques, near Saint-Omer in the Pas-de-Calais.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The French organ school formed in the first half of the 17th century.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gravelines is a commune in the Nord department in Northern France.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe.
Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Helfaut is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Lazare Hippolyte Carnot (6 October 1801, Saint-Omer – 16 March 1888) was a French statesman.
Jean (Jehan) Titelouze (c. 1562/63 – 24 October 1633) was a French composer, poet and organist of the early Baroque period.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Joan, often called Joan of Constantinople (1200? – 5 December 1244), ruled as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut from 1205 until her death.
John Carroll (January 8, 1735 – December 3, 1815) was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the first bishop and archbishop in the United States.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Joseph Liouville FRS FRSE FAS (24 March 1809 – 8 September 1882) was a French mathematician.
La Coupole (The Dome), also known as the Coupole d'Helfaut-Wizernes and originally codenamed Bauvorhaben 21 (Building Project 21) or Schotterwerk Nordwest (Northwest Gravel Works), is a Second World War bunker complex in the Pas-de-Calais department of northern France, about from Saint-Omer, and some 14.4 kilometers (8.9 miles) south-southeast from the less developed Blockhaus d'Eperlecques V-2 launch installation in the same area.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
The Prime Minister of France is the head of the Government of France.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The Lycée Alexandre Ribot is a school located at 42 rue Gambetta, in the town of Saint-Omer (Pas-de-Calais département), France.
The Lys (French) or Leie (Dutch/German) is a river in France and Belgium, and a left-bank tributary of the Scheldt.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Odo IV or Eudes IV (1295 – 3 April 1349) was Duke of Burgundy from 1315 until his death and Count of Burgundy and Artois between 1330 and 1347.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.
Philip I (23 May 1052 – 29 July 1108), called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Prince Eugene of Savoy (French: François-Eugène de Savoie, Italian: Principe Eugenio di Savoia-Carignano, German: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen; 18 October 1663 – 21 April 1736) was a general of the Imperial Army and statesman of the Holy Roman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria and one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna.
A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is generally funded from public sources, such as taxes.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Robert I of Flanders (–1093), known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to his death in 1093.
Robert Persons (24 June 1546 – 15 April 1610), later known as Robert Parsons, was an English Jesuit priest.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
Saint-Omer Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Saint-Omer) is a Roman Catholic former cathedral, a minor basilica, and a national monument of France, located in Saint-Omer.
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Stonyhurst is the name of a rural estate owned by the Society of Jesus near Clitheroe in Lancashire, England.
Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.
In France, a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Thérouanne (Dutch: Terwaan; French Flemish Terenburg) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Theoderic (Diederik, Thierry, Dietrich; – January 17, 1168), commonly known as Thierry of Alsace, was the fifteenth count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice.
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Traités de Paix de Nimègue; Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679.
The Treaty of Pont-à-Vendin was a treaty signed on 25 February 1212 at Pont-à-Vendin between king Philip II of France and the count (iure uxoris) and countess of Flanders.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
William Clito (25 October 1102 – 28 July 1128) reigned as Count of Flanders and claimed the Duchy of Normandy.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.