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Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.
An academic term (or simply "term") is a portion of an academic year, the time during which an educational institution holds classes.
Acer platanoides (Norway maple) is a species of maple native to eastern and central Europe and western Asia, from France east to Russia, north to southern Scandinavia and southeast to northern Iran.
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
The federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, is divided into eighteen districts, which are in turn subdivided into municipal okrugs, municipal towns, and municipal settlements.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
The Admiralty building is the former headquarters of the Admiralty Board and the Imperial Russian Navy in St. Petersburg, Russia and the current headquarters of the Russian Navy.
The Admiralty Shipyard (Адмиралтейские верфи) (formerly Soviet Shipyard No. 194) is one of the oldest and largest shipyards in Russia, located in Saint Petersburg.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
A graduate of the National College of Art and Design, Aidan Dunne was art critic of In Dublin magazine, ''Sunday Press'' and the Sunday Tribune.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Alexandrovich Belov (Александр Александрович Белов) (November 9, 1951 – October 3, 1978) was a Soviet basketball player who won the gold medal with the senior Soviet Union national basketball team at the 1972 Summer Olympic Games, scoring the game-winning basket in the gold medal game.
Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (a; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet.
Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (a; 12 November 183327 February 1887) was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian-Russian origin, as well as a doctor and chemist.
The Alexander Column (Алекса́ндровская коло́нна, Aleksandrovskaya kolonna) also known as Alexandrian Column (Александри́йская коло́нна, Aleksandriyskaya kolonna), is the focal point of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; –) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.
Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (10 August 1865 – 21 March 1936) was a Russian composer, music teacher, and conductor of the late Russian Romantic period.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.
The Alexander Palace (Russian: Александровский дворец) is a former imperial residence at Tsarskoye Selo, on a plateau around 30 minutes by train from St Petersburg.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
The Alexandrinsky Theatre (Александринский театр) or Russian State Pushkin Academy Drama Theater (Российский государственный академический театр драмы им. А. С. Пушкина) is a theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Alexey Alexandrovich Kuznetsov (Borovichi—1 October 1950, Moscow) was a Soviet statesman, CPSU (since 1925) functionary, Lieutenant General, member of CPSU Central Committee (1939-1949).
Alexey Viktorovich Titarenko (Алексей Викторович Титаренко; born 1962 in Leningrad, USSR, now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian (and later, a naturalized American) photographer and artist.
Alisa (Алиса) is a Russian hard rock band, who are credited as one of the most influential bands in the Russian rock movement.
Allegro is a high-speed train service between Helsinki, Finland, and St. Petersburg, Russia.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Amatory (commonly typeset as, to fit their logo) is a Russian metalcore band, formed in 2001 in Saint Petersburg.
Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov or Liadov (Анато́лий Константи́нович Ля́дов) was a Russian composer, teacher and conductor.
Anatoly Aleksandrovich Sobchak (p, 10 August 1937 – 20 February 2000) was a Russian politician, a co-author of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the first democratically elected mayor of Saint Petersburg, and a mentor and teacher of both Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev.
Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (a), better known by the pen name Andrei Bely (a; – 8 January 1934), was a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic.
Andrei Gennadyevich Kirilenko (Андрей Геннадьевич Кириленко; born February 18, 1981) is a Russian-American retired professional basketball player, currently the commissioner of the Russian Basketball Federation.
Andrei Ivanovich Stakenschneider (Андрей Иванович Штакеншнейдер) (March 6, 1802 – August 20, 1865), also spelled Stackenschneider and Stuckenschneider, was a Russian architect.
Andrey Sergeyevich Arshavin (Андрей Сергеевич Аршавин; born 29 May 1981) is a Russian professional footballer who plays as a forward for FC Kairat in the Kazakhstan Premier League.
Andrey (Andrei) Nikiforovich Voronikhin (Андрей Никифорович Воронихин) (28 October 1759, Novoe Usolye, Perm Oblast – 21 February 1814, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian architect and painter.
Andreyan Zakharov (Андрея́н Дми́триевич Заха́ров; 19 August 1761 – 8 September 1811) was a Russian architect and representative of the Empire style.
The Anichkov Bridge (Russian: Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the oldest and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Anichkov Palace is a former imperial palace in Saint Petersburg, at the intersection of Nevsky Avenue and the Fontanka.
Animal ДжаZ ("ДжаZ" can be transliterated as "jazz", although "Джаз" is the usual Russian spelling) is a Saint Petersburg based band playing alternative rock and pop rock.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.
Anna Karenina is a 1997 American period drama film written and directed by Bernard Rose and starring Sophie Marceau, Sean Bean, Alfred Molina, Mia Kirshner and James Fox.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Anna Pavlovna (Matveyevna) Pavlova (Анна Павловна (Матвеевна) Павлова; – January 23, 1931) was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.
The Blagoveschensky(Annunciation) Bridge (Благовещенский мост - Blagoveshchensky most; from 1855 to 1918 Nikolaevsky Bridge, Николаевский мост; from 1918 to 2007 called Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge, Мост Лейтенанта Шмидта) is the first permanent bridge built across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.
Antonio Rinaldi (c. 1710 – April 10, 1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Aquarium or Akvarium (Аква́риум; often stylized as Åквариум) is a Russian rock group formed in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) in 1972.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
Armenians in Russia or Russian Armenians are one of the country's largest ethnic minorities and the largest Armenian diaspora community outside Armenia.
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
An artificial island or man-made island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means.
Artur Kapp (28 February 1878 – 14 January 1952) was an Estonian composer.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Auguste de Montferrand (January 23, 1786 – July 10, 1858) was a French Classicism architect who worked primarily in Russia.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Avant-garde music is music that is considered to be at the forefront of experimentation or innovation in its field, with the term "avant-garde" implying a critique of existing aesthetic conventions, rejection of the status quo in favor of unique or original elements, and the idea of deliberately challenging or alienating audiences.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
Azerbaijanis in Russia or Russian Azerbaijanis (Rusiya azərbaycanlıları (Latin), Русија азәрбајҹанлылары (Cyrillic); Азербайджанцы в России, Azerbajdzhanchy v Rossii) are Azerbaijani people in the Russian Federation, and are Russian citizens or permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baltic Klint (Clint, Glint; Balti klint, Балтийско-Ладожский уступ, Глинт) is an erosional limestone escarpment on several islands of the Baltic Sea, in Estonia, in Leningrad Oblast of Russia and in the islands of Gotland and Öland of Sweden.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic Shipyard (Baltiysky Zavod, formerly Shipyard 189) (С.) is one of the oldest shipyards in Russia and is part of United Shipbuilding Corporation today.
Baltika Brewery (Пивоваренная компания "Балтика") is the second largest brewing company in Europe and the leader of the Russian beer market with over 38% market share.
Bandit Petersburg (or Gangster Petersburg, Бандитский Петербург) is a Russian detective television series.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, is a Russian professional basketball team that is based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
BC Zenit Saint Petersburg (БК Зенит Санкт Петербург), formerly known as BC Dynamo Moscow Region (2003–2007) and BC Triumph Lyubertsy (2007–2014), is a Russian professional basketball team that is located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 2014.
Belarusians are a major ethnic group in Russia.
Belosselsky Belozersky Palace (Russian: Дворе́ц Белосе́льских-Белозе́рских; also known before the Revolution as the Palace of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna, the Sergei Palace, and the Dmitry Palace) is a Neo-Baroque palace at the intersection of the Fontanka River and Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
The blue spruce, green spruce, white spruce, Colorado spruce, or Colorado blue spruce, with the scientific name Picea pungens, is a species of spruce tree.
Bolshaya Neva is the largest armlet of Neva River.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bolshoi Obukhovsky Bridge (Большо́й Обу́ховский мост, Bolshoy Obukhovsky most) is the newest (not taking into account the Blagoveshchensky Bridge rebuilt in 2007) bridge across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Boris Eifman (Борис Яковлевич Эйфман) (born 22 July 1946 in Rubtsovsk) is a Russian choreographer.
Boris Borisovich Grebenshchikov (Бори́с Бори́сович Гребенщико́в), stage name Boris Grebenshikov, also known as Boris Purushottama Grebenshikov, is one of the most prominent members of the generation which is widely considered the "founding fathers" of Russian rock music.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, also known as Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), is the governing civic body of Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Horseman (Медный всадник, literally "copper horseman") is an equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
Brother (Брат, translit. Brat) is a 1997 Russian crime film directed by Aleksei Balabanov.
A burial vault is a structural underground tomb.
Count Burkhard Christoph von Münnich (9 May 1683 – 16 October 1767) (Христофо́р Анто́нович Миних) was a German soldier-engineer who became a field marshal and political figure in the Russian Empire.
Busan, formerly known as Pusan and now officially is South Korea's second most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million inhabitants.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Carlo di Giovanni Rossi (Karl Ivanovich Rossi; Карл Иванович Росси; 18 December 1775 – 18 April 1849) was a Russian architect born in Italy.
Carousel or Carousel International is a Russian television channel dedicated to children and youth.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
The Catherine Palace (Екатерининский дворец) is a Rococo palace located in the town of Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin), 30 km south of St. Petersburg, Russia.
The Catherine Park (Екатерининский парк) is a park, located in the town of Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin), 25 km south-east of St. Petersburg, Russia.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Cebu (Lalawigan sa Sugbu; Lalawigan ng Cebu) is a province of the Philippines located in the region, and consisting of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets.
Cebu City (Dakbayan sa Sugbu; Lungsod ng Cebu) is a first class highly urbanized city in the island province of Cebu in Central Visayas, Philippines.
Central Naval Museum (Центральный военно-морской музей) is a naval museum in St Petersburg, Russia.
Central Saint Petersburg is the central and the leading part of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Channel One (p, literally First Channel) is the first television channel to broadcast in the Russian Federation.
Charter of Saint Petersburg (Устав Санкт-Петербурга) is the basic law of the federal city of Saint Petersburg.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
The Chesme Church (Чесменская церковь; full name Church of Saint John the Baptist at Chesme Palace, also called the Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, це́рковь Рождества́ Иоа́нна Предте́чи при Че́сменском Дворце́), is a small Russian Orthodox church at 12 Lensoveta Street, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Christianity in Russia is by some estimates the largest religion in the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.
The Catholic Church of St Catherine (Католическая церковь Святой Екатерины) in St. Petersburg is the oldest Catholic church in the Russian Federation, and the only church with the title of basilica (status granted on 23 July 2013).
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Церковь Спаса на Крови, Tserkovʹ Spasa na Krovi) is one of the main sights of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The cinema of Russia began in the Russian Empire, widely developed in the Soviet Union and in the years following its dissolution, the Russian film industry would remain internationally recognized.
The terms city limit and city boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.
Classical ballet is any of the traditional, formal styles of ballet that exclusively employ classical ballet technique.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
The coat of arms of Saint Petersburg is the official symbol of the city and was adopted in April 2003.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Communal apartments (singular: коммуналка, коммунальная квартира, kommunalka, kommunal'naya kvartira) appeared in Tsarist Russia.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI) was a Danish research institute established in 1985 by the Danish Parliament.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
Daegu (대구, 大邱, literally 'large hill') formerly spelled Taegu and officially known as the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the nation with over 2.5 million residents.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
On Earth, daytime is roughly the period of the day during which any given point in the world experiences natural illumination from especially direct sunlight.
DDT (or ДДТ in Cyrillic) is a popular Russian rock band founded by its lead singer and the only remaining original member, Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук), in Ufa (Bashkir ASSR, RSFSR) in 1980.
Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Dekabristov Island (остров Декабристов), or 'Decembrists' Island, known before 1926 as Goloday Island (остров Голодай - possibly a corruption of a British merchant name Halliday) is an island in Vasileostrovsky District of Saint Petersburg, Russia, to the north of Vasilyevsky Island, separated from it by Smolenka River.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Dhaam Dhoom is a 2008 Tamil romantic thriller film, based on the 1997 American drama Red Corner.
Disney Channel Russia is a television channel which began broadcasting in Russia and other CIS countries.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Domashny or Domashniy (Домашний, literally: "Home Channel", "Domestic Channel") is a TV Network which targets female viewers aged 25–60.
Domenico Trezzini (c. 1670 – 1734) was a Swiss Italian architect who elaborated the Petrine Baroque style of Russian architecture.
Dozhd (a), also known as TV Rain, is a Russian independent television channel.
A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle and a number of towers, surrounded by a moat.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Duderhof Heights or Duderhof Hills (Дудергофские высоты; Duderhofer Höhen) is a small highland area in the southwestern part of Saint Petersburg (Krasnoselsky District), to the south of the town of Krasnoye Selo, on the northern edge of the Izhora Plateau, which consists of several hills, most notably, the Orekhovaya hill (Ореховая гора, lit. Hazel Hill), the highest point of Saint Petersburg at 176 m (577'), in the south, and the Voronya hill (Воронья гора, lit. Crow Hill), 147 m (482'), in the north.
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dynamo, also Dinamo, (Belarusian: Дынама, დინამო) is a sports and fitness society created in 1923 in the Soviet Union.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Echo of Moscow (Э́хо Москвы́, Ekho Moskvy) is a Russian radio station based in Moscow, broadcasting in many Russian cities, some of the former-Soviet republics (through partnerships with local radio stations), and via the Internet.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and collapse of Russia's controlled economy, a new Russian Federation was created under Boris Yeltsin in 1991.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edita Piekha (Эди́та Станисла́вовна Пье́ха, Edita Stanislavovna Pyekha, Edyta Piecha, Édith-Marie Pierha) is a Russian singer and actress of Polish descent.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
Elias Burton Holmes (1870–1958) was an American traveler, photographer and filmmaker, who coined the term "travelogue".
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
Emo is a rock music genre characterized by an emphasis on emotional expression, sometimes through confessional lyrics.
The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.
The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the English garden (Jardin à l'anglaise, Giardino all'inglese, Englischer Landschaftsgarten, Jardim inglês, Jardín inglés), is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Erarta is the largest private museum of contemporary art in Russia, located in Saint Petersburg.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
Europa Plus is Russia's first and most popular commercial radio station, owned by the European Media Group.
is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe.
European route E18 runs from Craigavon in Northern Ireland to Saint Petersburg in Russia, passing through Scotland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland.
The European route E 20 is part of the United Nations International E-road network.
The European route E95 is a road in Europe and a part of the United Nations International E-road network.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Birzhevoy(Exchange) Bridge (Биржево́й мост - Birzhevoy most) is the bridge across Malaya Neva (distributary of Neva River) in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Experimental pop is pop music that cannot be categorized within traditional musical boundaries or which attempts to push elements of existing popular forms into new areas.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
FC Dynamo Saint Petersburg was an association football club from Saint Petersburg, in Northwest Russia.
Football Club Zenit (Футбо́льный клуб «Зени́т», Zenith), also known as Zenit Saint Petersburg or simply Zenit, is a Russian football club from the city of Saint Petersburg.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (ˈfʲɵdər ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ʂɐˈlʲapʲɪn; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.
The Festival of Festivals, established in 1993, is Russia’s largest, non-competitive festival of recent outstanding works of international and Russian cinema.
The FIBA Saporta Cup was the name of the second-tier level European-wide professional club basketball competition, where the domestic National Cup winners, from all over Europe, played against each other.
The Field of Mars or Marsovo Polye (Ма́рсово по́ле) is a large park named after Mars, the Roman god of war, situated in the center of Saint-Petersburg, with an area of about.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
St Petersburg–Finlyandsky (Станция Санкт-Петербург-Финля́ндский Stantsiya Sankt-Peterburg-Finlyandskiy), is a railway station in St. Petersburg, Russia, handling transport to northern destinations including Helsinki and Vyborg.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
Finnish literature refers to literature written in Finland.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The flag of Saint Petersburg, in the Russian Federation, is a red field charged in the centre with the arms of the city, which consists of two silver anchors (a sea anchor, and a river anchor), and a gold scepter.
Floods in Saint Petersburg refer to a rise of water on the territory of St. Petersburg, a major city in Russia and its former capital.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fontanka (Фонтанка) is a left branch of the river Neva, which flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Frances Elisabeth Rosemary Lincoln (20 March 1945 – 26 February 2001) was an English independent publisher of illustrated books.
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли) (1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France — 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian architect of Italian origin.
Frank James Marshall (August 10, 1877 – November 9, 1944) was the U.S. Chess Champion from 1909 to 1936, and one of the world's strongest chess players in the early part of the 20th century.
Fraxinus pennsylvanica, the green ash or red ash, is a species of ash native to eastern and central North America, from Nova Scotia west to southeastern Alberta and eastern Colorado, south to northern Florida, and southwest to Oklahoma and eastern Texas.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Pyatnitsa! (Пятница!, literally Friday!) is Russian federal entertainment channel.
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
George Nicholas "Nick" Georgano (1932-22 October 2017 Alvis Archive Blog, 24 Oct. 2017 The Society of Automotive History) was a British author, specialising in motoring history.
The Gagarin Cup (Кубок Гагарина, Kubok Gagarina) is the trophy presented to the winner of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) playoffs, and is named after cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space.
Galina Vasilyevna Starovoitova (Гали́на Васи́льевна Старово́йтова; 17 May 1946, in Chelyabinsk – 20 November 1998, in St Petersburg) was a Soviet dissident, Russian politician and ethnographer known for her work to protect ethnic minorities and promote democratic reforms in Russia.
Galína Sergéyevna Ulánova (Гали́на Серге́евна Ула́нова, 21 March 1998) was a Russian ballet dancer.
Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.
Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The General Staff Building (Здание Главного штаба, Zdanie Glavnovo Shtaba) is an edifice with a 580 m long bow-shaped facade, situated on Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in front of the Winter Palace.
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.
George Balanchine (born Georgiy Melitonovich Balanchivadze; January 22, 1904April 30, 1983) was a choreographer.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgy Sergeyevich Poltavchenko (p; born on 24 February 1953, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union (today Azerbaijan) is a Russian politician. He has served as governor of Saint Petersburg since August 2011. Previously, he served as the Presidential Envoy to the Central Federal District.
A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or simply takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them.
Giacomo Quarenghi (ˈdʐakəmə kvɐˈrʲenʲɡʲɪ; 20 or 21 September 1744) was the foremost and most prolific practitioner of neoclassical architecture in Imperial Russia, particularly in Saint Petersburg.
Giuseppe D’Amato is an Italian historian, specializing in Russia and the former USSR, and a columnist of international politics.
The Gold Star medal (медаль «Золотая Звезда» medal “Zolotaya Zvezda”) is a special insignia that identifies recipients of the title "Hero" in the Soviet Union and some of its allies, and several post-Soviet states.
GoldenEye is a 1995 British spy film, the seventeenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 officer James Bond.
The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s.
Gorokhovaya Street (Горо́ховая у́лица) is a north-south thoroughfare in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
The Governor of Saint Petersburg (Губернатор Санкт-Петербурга) is the head of the executive branch of Saint Petersburg City Administration.
The Belmond Grand Hotel Europe (Гранд Отель Европа; known as Hotel Evropeiskaya during the Soviet period) vies with Corinthia Hotel St. Petersburg and Hotel Astoria for the title of the most luxurious five-star hotel in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
Great Gostiny Dvor (Большой Гостиный Двор) is a vast department store on Nevsky Avenue in St Petersburg.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Green Bridge (Zyelyoniy Most) (also known as Police Bridge and People Bridge) is a bridge across Moika River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Grenouer is a Russian rock/metal band, formed in late 1992 in Perm.
The Griboyedov Canal or Kanal Griboyedova is a canal in Saint Petersburg, constructed in 1739 along the existing Krivusha river.
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The letter Ъ (italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак tvjórdyj znak) in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet, and as debelo jer (дебело їер, "fat yer") in pre-reform Serbian orthography.
Zayachy (Hare) Island (Russian Заячий остров, transliteration Zayachy ostrov) is an island in the Neva River in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Heineken Lager Beer (Heineken Pilsener), or simply Heineken is a pale lager beer with 5% alcohol by volume produced by the Dutch brewing company Heineken International.
Heineken N.V. (at times self-styled as HEINEKEN) is a Dutch brewing company, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Amsterdam.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Helsinki Central Station (Helsingin päärautatieasema, Helsingfors centralstation) HEC is the main station for commuter rail and long-distance trains departing from Helsinki, Finland.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Hermitage Theatre (ɪrʲmʲɪˈtaʐnɨj tʲɪˈatər) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of five Hermitage buildings lining the Palace Embankment of the Neva River.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (formerly Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute) is one of the largest universities in Russia.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments is the name used by UNESCO when it collectively designated the historic core of the Russian city of St. Petersburg, as well as buildings and ensembles located in the immediate vicinity as a World Heritage Site in 1991.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong.
Hotel Astoria (гости́ница «Асто́рия») is a five-star hotel in Saint Petersburg, Russia, that first opened in December 1912.
Saint Petersburg was constructed in 1703.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.
An ice boat (often spelled as "iceboat") is a boat or purpose-built framework similar in functional design to a sail boat but fitted with skis or runners (skates) and designed to run over ice instead of through (liquid) water.
The Ice Palace (Russian: Ледовый Дворец, Ledovy Dvorets) is an arena in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Ilya Valeryevich Kovalchuk (Илья Валерьевич Ковальчук; born April 15, 1983) is a Russian professional ice hockey left winger who is currently playing for the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League (NHL).
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts.
InBev is a brewing company that resulted from the merger between Belgium-based company Interbrew and Brazilian brewer AmBev which took place in 2004.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.
The Ingrians (inkeriläiset, inkerinsuomalaiset; Ингерманландцы, Ingermanlandtsy), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire.
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
Foreign students are those who travel to a country different from their own for the purpose of tertiary study.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaak Osipovich Dunayevsky (Исаак Осипович Дунаевский; also transliterated as Dunaevski or Dunaevsky; 25 July 1955) was a Soviet film composer and conductor of the 1930s and 1940s, who achieved huge success in music for operetta and film comedies, frequently working with the film director Grigori Aleksandrov.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia, encompassing somewhere between 7% and 15% of all Russians.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivan VI Antonovich of Russia (Ioann Antonovich; Иоанн VI; Иоанн Антонович; –) was Emperor of Russia in 1740–41.
The Izhora Plateau (Ижорская возвышенность) is an elevated landform on Ordovician limestone bedrock in the southwestern part of Leningrad Oblast, between the Gulf of Finland in the north and the Luga River in the south.
The Izhora, also known as the Inger River, is a left tributary of the Neva River on its run through Ingria in northwestern Russia from Lake Ladoga to Gulf of Finland.
Izhorskiye Zavody or Izhora Plants (Ижо́рские заво́ды) is a Russian machine building joint stock company (OAO) belonging to the OMZ Group.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
A jazz club is a venue where the primary entertainment is the performance of live jazz music, although some jazz clubs primarily focus on the study and/or promotion of jazz-music.
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond (1679 – 10 March 1719) was a French architect and garden designer who became the chief architect of Saint Petersburg in 1716.
Small Hermitage, Saint-Petersburg Jean-Baptiste Michel Vallin de la Mothe (1729 – May 7, 1800) was a French architect whose major career was spent in St. Petersburg, where he became court architect to Catherine II.
Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (–) was a French neoclassical architect who worked in Eastern Europe in 1791–1813.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский; 24 May 1940 – 28 January 1996) was a Russian and American poet and essayist.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kamenny Islands (Каменные острова, Kamenny Ostrova, meaning 'Stony Islands') are a group of three islands in the Neva delta, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas; Karelska näset) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).
Oy Karelian Trains Ltd is a joint venture agreed on 23 November 2006 between Russian Railways (RZhD) and VR Group (Finnish Railways) to facilitate the operation of international express passenger rail services between Helsinki, Finland, and Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Karl Ilitch Eliasberg (Карл Ілліч Эліасберг; Карл Ильич Элиасберг) (10 June 1907 in Minsk – 12 February 1978 in Leningrad) was a Soviet conductor.
The Karpovka (Ка́рповка) is a small river of the Neva basin in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Kazan Cathedral or Kazanskiy Kafedralniy Sobor (Каза́нский кафедра́льный собо́р), also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, is a cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg.
The Kazan phenomenon (Казанский феномен) was a term used by journalists to describe the rise in street gang activity in the city of Kazan in the RSFSR and later, the Russian Federation.
Kazansky Bridge is a bridge across Griboyedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kino (lit) was a Soviet rock band formed in Leningrad in 1982.
(Finnish and, Киркенес) is a town in Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, in the far northeastern part of Norway.
The Kirov Plant, Kirov Factory or Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ) (Kirovskiy Zavod) is a major Russian machine-building manufacturing plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.
The SM Kirov Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world.
Kirpichi (translated as 'Bricks') is one of the most influential alternative groups in Russia, which formed in 1995 as "Bricks Are Heavy".
Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).
Kolpino (Колпино) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Konstantin Andreyevich Thon, also spelled Ton (Константи́н Андре́евич Тон; October 26, 1794 – January 25, 1881) was an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas I. His major works include the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Korol' i Shut (The King and the Jester, Король и Шут) were a Russian horror punk band from Saint Petersburg that took inspiration and costumes from tales and fables.
Kota Kinabalu (Jawi), formerly known as Jesselton, is the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia and the capital of the Kota Kinabalu District.
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kotlin (or Kettle, Retusaari, Reitskär) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
Krasnoselsky District (Красносе́льский райо́н) is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia.
Krasnoye Selo (Кра́сное Село́, lit. beautiful village).
Krestovsky Island (Крестовский остров) is a 3.4 km² island in Saint Petersburg, Russia, situated between several tributaries of the Neva: the Srednyaya Nevka, the Malaya Nevka and the Krestovka.
Krestovsky Stadium (стадион «Крестовский»), officially Saint Petersburg Stadium, also called Zenit Arena, is a retractable roof stadium in the western portion of Krestovsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which serves as home for FC Zenit Saint Petersburg.
Kresty (Кресты, literally Crosses) prison, officially Investigative Isolator No.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
The Naval cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Kronstadt (Морской Никольский собор, Morskoj Nikol'skij sobor) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral built in 1903–1913 as the main church of the Russian Navy and dedicated to all fallen seamen.
The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia.
Kurortny District (Куро́ртный райо́н) is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus along the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland.
The Kuryokhin Center, or more extended the Sergey Kuryokhin Center for Modern Art, is a non-profit cultural centre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
St.Petersburg-Ladozhsky (Ла́дожский вокза́л), is the newest and most modern passenger railway station in Saint Petersburg, Russia, opened in 2003.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
The Lakhta Centre is an 87-story skyscraper currently under construction in the outskirts of Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Lakhta (Ла́хта) is a historical area in Lakhta-Olgino Municipal Okrug of St. Petersburg, Russia, situated west of Lake Lakhta (hence the name).
Lake Lakhta (Russian: Лахтинский разлив; Lakhtinsky razliv; from Finnish lahti, 'gulf') is a lake (or inlet) in St. Petersburg's Primorsky District connected to the Neva Bay of the Baltic Sea by the 500-meter-long Bobylka River.
Lansing is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Lappeenranta Airport (Lappeenrannan lentoasema) is an international airport in Lappeenranta, Finland.
Larix sibirica, the Siberian larch or Russian larch, is a frost-hardy tree native to western Russia, from close to the Finnish border east to the Yenisei valley in central Siberia, where it hybridises with the Dahurian larch L. gmelinii of eastern Siberia; the hybrid is known as Larix × czekanowskii.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
The Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg (Законода́тельное собра́ние Санкт-Петербу́рга, ЗакС) is the legislative power body of Saint Petersburg, a federal subject of Russia, which has existed since 1994 and succeeded the Leningrad Council of People Deputies (Lensovet).
Kinostudiya "Lenfilm" (Киностудия Ленфильм) was a production unit of the Cinema of the Soviet Union, with its own film studio, located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, formerly Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R. Today OAO "Kinostudiya Lenfilm" is a corporation with its stakes shared between private owners and several private film studios, which are operating on the premises.
The Leningrad affair, or Leningrad case ("Ленинградское дело" in Russian, or "Leningradskoye delo"), was a series of criminal cases fabricated in the late 1940s–early 1950s by Joseph Stalin in order to accuse a number of prominent politicians and members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of treason and intention to create an anti-Soviet organisation based in Leningrad.
Leningrad Hero City Obelisk (Обелиск «Городу-герою Ленинграду») is a monument in the shape of an obelisk located in Vosstaniya Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which was known as Leningrad from 1924 to 1991.
Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The Leningrad première of Shostakovich's Symphony No.
The Leningrad Rock Club (Ленинградский рок-клуб) was a historic music venue of the 1980s in Leningrad, situated on Rubinstein Street in the city center.
Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod (Ленинградский Металлический Завод), also known as LMZ, is the largest Russian manufacturer of power machines and turbines for electric power stations.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (a) (19 January 19127 April 1986) was a Soviet mathematician and economist, known for his theory and development of techniques for the optimal allocation of resources.
Leonid Osipovich Utyosov or Utesov (Леони́д О́сипович Утёсов); real name Lazar (Leyzer) Iosifovich Vaysbeyn or Weissbein (Russian: Ла́зарь (Ле́йзер) Ио́сифович Вайсбе́йн) (Odessa – 9 March 1982, Moscow), was a famous Soviet jazz singer and comic actor of Jewish origin, who became the first pop singer to be awarded the prestigious title of People's Artist of the USSR in 1965.
Levashovo (Левашово) is a municipal settlement under the administrative jurisdiction of Vyborgsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, and a station of the Riihimäki – Saint Petersburg Railway.
Ligovsky Prospekt is a major street in Saint Petersburg.
Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line (the line between the city's Kirovsky District and Vyborgsky District) is the oldest line of the Saint Petersburg Metro, opened in 1955.
There are 342 bridges in the city limits of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
This is a list of buildings and structures in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures. The list excludes the city of Sevastopol and the cities/towns of the Republic of Crimea, as those were not a part of the 2010 Census, are a subject of an unresolved dispute between Russia and Ukraine, and are considered to be a part of Ukraine by the majority of the international community. The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities.
This is a list of diplomatic missions in Russia.
This is a list of famous people who have lived in Saint Petersburg, Russia (1914–1924: Petrograd, 1924–1991: Leningrad).
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
This is a list of authors who have written poetry in the Russian language.
This is a list of authors who have written works of prose and poetry in the Russian language.
This is the list of stations of Saint Petersburg Metro.
The world's tallest artificial structure is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates).
This list of tallest buildings in Europe ranks skyscrapers in Europe by height.
The first skyscrapers in Russia were built during the Stalinist Era in the USSR.
Saint Petersburg, Russia is home to more than a hundred theatres and theatre companies.
This is a list of places in Russia having standing links to local communities in other countries.
Liteyny Avenue (Лите́йный проспе́кт, Liteyny Prospekt) is a wide avenue in the Central District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Little Big is a Russian rave band, founded in 2013 in St. Petersburg.
LOMO (Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association) is a manufacturer of medical and motion-picture lenses and equipment based in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов; before 1948: Oranienbaum, Ораниенба́ум) is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg proper.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
The Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (in Лютеранская церковь Святых Петра и Павла or in German: Lutherische Kirche der Heiligen Peter und Paul) is a Lutheran church located in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
M-Radio (М-Радио) is a Russian Moscow-based radio station.
Malaya Neva (Ма́лая Нева́) is the second largest distributary of the Neva River.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester City Council is the local government authority for Manchester, a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England.
Mar del Plata is an Argentine city in the southeast part of Buenos Aires Province located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marble Palace (Мраморный дворец) is one of the first Neoclassical palaces in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Maribor (German: Marburg an der Drau) is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Lower Styria.
The Mariinsky Ballet is the resident classical ballet company of the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Mariinsky Palace, also known as Marie Palace (Мариинcкий дворец), was the last Neoclassical imperial palace to be constructed in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky or Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Maritime Victory Park (Приморский парк Победы) is a municipal park on Krestovsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Mark Matveyevich Antokolsky (Марк Матве́евич Антоко́льский in Russian; 2 November 184014 July 1902) was a Litvak sculptor.
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Medical equipment (also known as armamentarium) is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.
A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Menshikov Palace (Меншиковский дворец) is a Petrine Baroque edifice in Saint Petersburg, situated on Universitetskaya Embankment of the Bolshaya Neva on Vasilyevsky Island.
Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Midnight in Saint Petersburg is a 1996 made-for-television thriller film starring Michael Caine for the fifth and final time as British secret agent Harry Palmer.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (p; Mihails Barišņikovs; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Latvian and American dancer, choreographer, and actor.
Mikhail Sergeevich Boyarsky (Михаи́л Серге́евич Боя́рский; born 26 December 1949 in Leningrad) is a Soviet and Russian actor and singer.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.
Mikhail Manevich (Михаил Владиславович Маневич, February 18, 1961 in Leningrad, Soviet Union – August 18, 1997 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was a Russian economist and official of the Saint Petersburg City Administration.
Mikhail Osipovich Mikeshin (1835 — 1896) was a Russian artist who regularly worked for the Romanov family and designed a number of outdoor statues in the major cities of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Зо́щенко; – July 22, 1958) was a Soviet author and satirist.
Mikkeli (S:t Michel official writing, short for Sankt Michel) is a town and municipality in Finland.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles.
The Saint Petersburg Military Engineering-Technical University (Nikolaevsky) (Санкт-Петербургский Военный инженерно-технический университет, VITU), previously known as the Saint Petersburg Nikolaevsky Engineering Academy, was established in 1810 under Alexander I.
The Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps (Военно-исторический музей артиллерии, инженерных войск и войск связи.), also known simply as the Artillery Museum, is a state-owned military museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
Militsiya (mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə, міліцыя, miilits, միլիցիա, милиция, milicija, milicija, milicja, miliția, milicija/милиција, milica, милитсия, міліція, militsiya or милиция), often confused with militia, was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union and several Warsaw Pact countries, as well as in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia, and the term is still commonly used in some of the individual former Soviet republics such as Belarus, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the unrecognized republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Moika Palace or Yusupov Palace (Дворец Юсуповых на Мойке, literally the Palace of the Yusupovs on the Moika) was once the primary residence in St. Petersburg, Russia of the House of Yusupov.
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow 24 (Москва 24) is a Russian 24-hour TV channel, a part of the "Moscow Media" Incorporated editorial office of Moscow media sources and referred to All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK).
Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.
Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
The Moscow Triumphal Gate (Моско́вские Триумфа́льные воро́та, Moskovskiye Triumfalnye vorota) is a Neoclassical triumphal arch in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Moscow–Saint Petersburg motorway (Avtomagistral' Moskva-Sankt-Peterburg), designated as the М11, is a Russian federal highway under construction in the European part of Russia, running parallel to the M10 highway, serving from the federal cities of Moscow to St. Petersburg.
Moskovskaya (Моско́вская) is a station on the Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro.
Moskovsky Prospekt (Моско́вский проспе́кт, Moskovsky Avenue) is a 10 km-long prospekt in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
St.Petersburg-Glavny, is a railway station terminal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Moyka River (Мо́йка) is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
A museum ship, also called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
Music of Russia denotes music produced from Russia and/or by Russians.
A name day is a tradition in some countries in Europe, Latin America, and Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries in general.
Nampo (North Korean official spelling: Nampho), also spelled Namp'o, is a city and seaport in South Pyongan Province, North Korea, which lies on the northern shore of the Taedong River, 15 km east of the river's mouth.
The Narodniks (народники) were a politically conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against tsarism.
The Narva Triumphal Arch (На́рвские триумфа́льные Арка, lit. Narva Triumphal Gate) was erected in the vast Narva Square (known as Stachek Square since 1923), Saint Petersburg, in 1814 to commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleon.
Nashe Radio (Наше Радио, Our Radio, pronounced nush-eh) is a Russian Rock music radio station.
Natalia Romanovna Makarova (Ната́лия Рома́новна Мака́рова, born 21 November 1940) is a Soviet-Russian-born prima ballerina and choreographer.
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (known as the Imperial Public Library from 1795 to 1917; Russian Public Library from 1917 to 1925; State Public Library from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after M.Saltykov-Shchedrin); NLR), is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but also the first national library in the country.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Neva Bay (Russian: Невская губа, Nevskaya Guba), also known as the Gulf of Kronstadt, is the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland between Kotlin Island and the Neva River estuary where Saint Petersburg city centre is located.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
The Neva Yacht Club (Yacht-club Neva or simply Club Neva) is a sailing club located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, close to the Neva River.
Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, named after the 13th-century Russian prince Alexander Nevsky.
New Holland Island (Но́вая Голла́ндия) is a historic triangular artificial island in Saint Petersburg, Russia, dating from the 18th century.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nicholas Palace (Russian: Николаевский дворец, Nikolayevsky dvorets) was one of several St Petersburg palaces designed by Andreas Stackensneider (1802-65) for the children of Nicholas I of Russia.
Nicholas Roerich (October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist, theosophist, perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener, philosopher, and public figure, who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the spiritual.
Nikita Andreyevich Gusev (Никита Андреевич Гусев; born 8 July 1992) is a Russian professional ice hockey player.
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
Count Nikolay Alexandrovich Zubov (Николай Александрович Зубов; 24 April 1763 – 9 August 1805) was the eldest of the Zubov brothers who, together with Count Pahlen, masterminded the conspiracy to assassinate Tsar Paul of Russia.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
North Chungcheong Province, officially Chungcheongbuk-do, is a province in the centre of South Korea.
Northwestern economic region (Се́веро-За́падный экономи́ческий райо́н; tr.: Severo-Zapadny ekonomichesky rayon) is one of twelve economic regions of Russia.
Northwestern Federal District (Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ) is a Russian television channel that was launched as a subsidiary of Vladimir Gusinsky's company.
Nyenschantz (Ниенша́нц, Nienshants; Nyenskans; Nevanlinna) was a Swedish fortress at the confluence of the Neva River and Okhta River, the site of present-day Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Obvodny Canal (Обводный канал, lit. Bypass Canal) is the longest canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which in the 19th century served as the southern limit of the city.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Okhta Center or phonetically Oḱhta-Tseńtr (Russian: О́хта-це́нтр), known before March 2007 as Gazprom City (Russian:Газпро́м-си́ти), is a failed construction project of a business centre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Okhta River is a river in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast and the eastern part of the city of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Okrug (окръг, okrǎg, о́круг; округ,; окру́га, okruha; акруга, Akruha; okręg; оқрҿс; йырвел, jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states.
The Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange (also Bourse) and Rostral Columns, located in Saint Petersburg in the Russian Federation, are significant examples of Greek Revival architecture.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
Operation Albion was the codename for the German air, land and naval operation in October 1917 to occupy the West Estonian Archipelago, part of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, Russian Republic.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.
Osh (Ош, Ош, O'sh) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south".
Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (p; – 27 December 1938) was a Russian Jewish poet and essayist.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg – second-largest city in Russia.
Overcast or overcast weather, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization, is the meteorological condition of clouds obscuring at least 95% of the sky.
Palace Bridge (Dvortsoviy Most), a road- and foot-traffic bascule bridge, spans the Neva River in Saint Petersburg between Palace Square and Vasilievsky Island.
The Dvortsovaya(Palace) Embankment or Dvortsovaya(Palace) Quay is a street along the Neva River in Central Saint Petersburg which contains the complex of the Hermitage Museum buildings (including the Winter Palace), the Hermitage Theatre, the Marble Palace, the Vladimir Palace, the New Michael Palace, the Saltykov Mansion and the Summer Garden.
Palace Square (p), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
→ Paolo Petrovich Troubetzkoy (also known as Pavel or Paul; translit; Intra, Italy, 15 February 1866 — Pallanza, 12 February 1938) was an artist and a sculptor who was described by George Bernard Shaw as "the most astonishing sculptor of modern times".
A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure.
Pargolovo (Парголово) is a municipal settlement in the Vyborgsky District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Passage, from the French word passage, is an élite department store on Nevsky Avenue in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which was founded in 1848.
The Passenger Port of St.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pavel Valerievich Datsyuk (Па́вел Вале́рьевич Дацю́к,; born 20 July 1978), also known as The Magic Man, is a Russian professional ice hockey player and captain for SKA Saint Petersburg of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
Pavlovsk Palace (Павловский дворец) is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by the order of Catherine the Great for her son, Grand Duke Paul, in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.
Pavlovsk (Па́вловск) is a municipal town in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located south from St. Petersburg proper and about southeast from Pushkin.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Peretz (Rus. for pepper) is a Russian federal television channel.
Pesochny (Песочный; masculine), Pesochnaya (Песочная; feminine), or Pesochnoye (Песочное; neuter) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Baron Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, known in Russian as Pyotr Karlovich Klodt (Пётр Карлович Клодт; 1805 – 1867), was a favourite sculptor of Nicholas I of Russia.
Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death.
Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Peter the Great St.
Petergof (Петерго́ф) or Peterhof (German for "Peter's Court"), known as Petrodvorets (Петродворец) from 1944 to 1997, is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, located on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland.
Petersburg (Петербург, Peterbúrg) is a novel by Russian writer Andrei Bely.
Petersburg – Channel 5 or simply known as Channel Five (1938-1986 as Leningrad Television, 1987-2004 as Saint Petersburg Television), is a television channel based in St. Petersburg, Russia, also known simply as Channel 5 (Петербург–Пятый канал).
The Petersburg Fuel Company (PTK, in Russian: Петербургская топливная компания, ПТК) is an open joint-stock company of Saint Petersburg, Russia, founded in September 1994, after a fuel supply crisis had hit the city hard.
Petrine Baroque (Rus. Петровское барокко) is a name applied by art historians to a style of Baroque architecture and decoration favoured by Peter the Great and employed to design buildings in the newly founded Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, under this monarch and his immediate successors.
Petrogradsky Island (Russian: Петроградский остров) is the third largest island in the Neva River delta in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Petrozavodsk (p; Karelian, Vepsian & Petroskoi; Finland Swedish: Petroskoj) is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Onega for some.
Piknik (Picnic, Пикни́к) is a Russian rock band known for its unique style which is a mixture of art rock, progressive rock and original Russian rock.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Piter FM is a 2006 Russian comedy romance film directed by Oksana Bychkova and starring Ekaterina Fedulova, Evgeniy Tsyganov and Alexey Barabash.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the framework of a federal semi-presidential republic.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Port Vila is the capital and largest city of Vanuatu and is on the island of Efate.
Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbor) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
There are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
OJSC Power Machines (translit. Siloviye Mashiny abbreviated as Silmash, ОАО «Силовы́е маши́ны») is a Russian energy systems machine-building company founded in 2000.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Public Television of Russia (PTR, Общественное Телевидение России - Obshchestvennoye Televideniye Rossii - OTR), a Russian television station, started broadcasting on 19 May 2013.
Pulkovo Airport (p) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Pushkin (Пу́шкин) is a municipal town in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located south from the center of St. Petersburg proper, and its railway station, Tsarskoye Selo, is directly connected by railway to the Vitebsky Rail Terminal of the city.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.
A racket is a planned or organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal or extorted money regularly or briefly but repeatedly.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radio Maximum is a Russian radio station, specializing in pop and rock music.
Radio Rossii (Радио России, Radio of Russia) is the primary public radio station in Russia.
Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide.
Rap rock is a fusion genre that fuses vocal and instrumental elements of hip hop with various forms of rock.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
RBK TV (РБК) is the first (and so far only) 24-hour business news television channel in Russia.
Real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation is the process of developing an opinion of value, for real property (usually market value).
Regional parliaments of Russia are the legislative/parliamentary bodies of power in the regions of Russia (republics, krais, oblasts, autonomous okrugs and federal cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg), which have different names, often collectively referred to in the media as regional parliaments.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
REN TV (РЕН ТВ) is one of the largest private federal TV channels in Russia.
Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.
The Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg railway is a long segment of the Helsinki–Saint Petersburg connection, which is divided between Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast in Russia and the province of Southern Finland in Finland.
The Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Memorial Museum-Apartment is a branch of the St. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.
The Road of Life (Доро́га жи́зни, doroga zhizni) was the ice road winter transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad while the perimeter in the siege was maintained by the German Army Group North and the Finnish Defence Forces.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Rostelecom (ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев Rudolf Xämid ulı Nuriyev, p; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet ballet and contemporary dancer and choreographer.
Rudolf Tobias (– 29 October 1918) was the first Estonian professional composer, as well as a professional organist.
Russia-1 (Россия-1) is a state-owned Russian television channel first aired on 22 March 1951 as Programme One in the Soviet Union.
Russia-2 (Россия-2) was a Russian television channel operated by VGTRK.
Russia-24 (Россия-24) is a state-owned Russian-language news channel from Russia.
Russia-K (translit) is a Russian television network, broadcasting culture and arts-oriented shows.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
Russian ballet (Ballet russe) is a form of ballet characteristic of or originating from Russia.
The Russian Basketball Cup is the primary professional national domestic basketball cup competition of Russia.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Aurora (p) is a 1900 Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in Saint Petersburg.
Russian culture has a long history.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.
The State Russian Museum (Государственный Русский музей), formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III (Русский Музей Императора Александра III) is the largest depository of Russian fine art in Saint Petersburg.
The Russian Museum of Ethnography (Российский этнографический музей) is a museum in St. Petersburg that houses a collection of about 500,000 items relating to the ethnography, or cultural anthropology, of peoples of the former Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Football Championship (Чемпионат России по футболу, Chempionat Rossii po Futbolu), or Russian Football Premier League (Российская футбольная премьер-лига), is the top division professional association football league in Russia.
Presidential elections were held in the Russian SFSR on 12 June 1991.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Railway Museum is situated next to Baltiysky Railway station in Saint Petersburg.The museum opened to public on November 1 2017.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Russian Standard (Russkij Standart) Vodka is a major Russian company producer of the premium vodka brand with the same name.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Russo-Balt (sometimes Russobalt or Russo-Baltique) was one of the first Russian companies that produced cars between 1909 and 1923.
Sadovaya Street or Garden Street is a major thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg, Russia, passing through the historic city center.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Isaac's Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor (Исаа́киевский Собо́р) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, also known as the Botanic Gardens of the Komarov Botanical Institute or the Komarov Botanical Garden, is the oldest botanical garden in Russia.
Saint Petersburg City Administration (Администрация Санкт-Петербурга) is the superior executive body of Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Russian Federation.
The Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange is based in a housing complex in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory (Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) is a music school in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex (kompleks zashchitnykh sooruzheniy Sankt-Peterburga ot navodneniy), unofficially the Saint Petersburg Dam, is a complex of dams for flood control near Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Saint Petersburg Governorate (Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1927.
The Saint Petersburg Metro (Петербу́ргский метрополитен) is the underground railway system in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Saint Petersburg Mining University (Санкт-Петербургский горный университет), is Russia's oldest technical university, and one of the oldest technical colleges in Europe.
Saint Petersburg Mint (Санкт-Петербу́ргский моне́тный двор) is one of the world's largest mints.
The Saint Petersburg Mosque (Санкт-Петербу́ргская мече́ть), when opened in 1913, was the largest mosque in Europe outside Turkey, its minarets 49 meters in height and the dome is 39 meters high.
The Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra was formed in 1882, and is Russia's oldest symphony orchestra.
The Saint Petersburg Ring Road is a 142 km (88 mile) orbital freeway encircling Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет экономики и финансов) as it was known formally was established in 1930 as "Leningrad Institute of Finance and Economics" (Ленинградский финансово-экономический институт; hence the colloquial name Финэк (Finec)).
Saint Petersburg Television Tower is a Russian steel lattice television tower in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Saint Petersburg to Moscow Railway runs for through four oblasts: Leningrad, Novgorod, Tver and Moscow.
The Peter and Paul Cathedral (Петропавловский собор) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Salix fragilis, with the common names crack willow and brittle willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and Western Asia.
Santa Cruz de Tenerife (commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz is a global city (with Sufficiency status) and capital (jointly with Las Palmas) of the Canary Islands, the capital of Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and of the island of Tenerife. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its administrative limits. The urban zone of Santa Cruz extends beyond the city limits with a population of 507,306 and 538,000 within urban area. It is the second largest city in the Canary Islands and the main city on the island of Tenerife, with nearly half the island population living in or around it. Santa Cruz is located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean. The distance to the nearest point of mainland Spain is about. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands, until 1927 when a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. on wikisource at the official website of the Canary Islands Government The port is of great importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands. The city is home to the Parliament of the Canary Islands, the Canarian Ministry of the Presidency (shared on a four-year cycle with Las Palmas), one half of the Ministries and Boards of the Canarian Government, (the other half being located in Gran Canaria), the Tenerife Provincial Courts and two courts of the Superior Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. There are several faculties of the La Laguna University in Santa Cruz, including the Fine Arts School and the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spain's busiest; it comprises three sectors. It is important for commercial and passenger traffic, as well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the world's largest carnivals. The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site, and is the most important of Spain and the second largest in the world. The main landmarks of the city include the Auditorio de Tenerife (Auditorium of Tenerife), the Santa Cruz Towers (Torres de Santa Cruz) and the Iglesia de la Concepción. Santa Cruz de Tenerife hosts the first headquarters of the Center UNESCO in the Canary Islands. In recent years the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife has seen the construction of a significant number of modern structures and the city's skyline is the sixth in height across the country, only behind Madrid, Benidorm, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao. In 2012, the British newspaper The Guardian included Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the list of the five best places in the world to live. The 82% of the municipal territory of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is considered a natural area, this is due in large part to the presence of the Anaga Rural Park. This fact makes Santa Cruz the third largest municipality in Spain with the highest percentage of natural territory, after Cuenca (87%) and Cáceres (83%).
Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city of Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province.
The Sapsan (Peregrine Falcon, known as Velaro RUS EVS) is a Russian gauge high speed electric express train.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959), known professionally as Sean Bean, is an English actor.
Secret (Секрет, lit.: Secret) was a Soviet Russian rock and roll band founded in 1982 in Leningrad.
Senate Square (Сенатская площадь), formerly known as Decembrists' Square (Площадь Декабристов) in 1925-2008, and Peter's Square (Петрова площадь), before 1925, is a city square in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Serapion Brothers (or Serapion Fraternity, Серапионовы Братья) was a group of writers formed in Petrograd, Russian SFSR in 1921.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sergei Andreyevich Bobrovsky (Серге́й Андреевич Бобровский; born 20 September 1988) is a Russian professional ice hockey goaltender currently playing for the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (Серге́й Константинович Крикалёв, also transliterated as Sergei Krikalyov; born August 27, 1958) is a Russian cosmonaut and mechanical engineer.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Sergei Sergeyevich Shirokov (Серге́й Серге́евич Широков,; born 10 March 1986) is a Russian professional ice hockey winger currently with SKA Saint Petersburg of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
Sergei Mironovich Kirov (born Kostrikov; – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.
Sergey Anatolyevich Kuryokhin (Серге́й Анато́льевич Курёхин, also transliterated as Sergei Kuriokhin, Sergei Kurekhin, Sergueï Kouriokhine, Sergey Kuriokhin, etc.; nicknamed "The Captain"; 16 June 1954 – 9 July 1996) was a Russian composer, pianist, music director, experimental artist, film actor and writer, based in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Sergey Vladimirovich Shnurov (Серге́й Влади́мирович Шну́ров; born 13 April 1973) is a Russian musician and songwriter, best known as Shnur (lit. cord), of the ska-punk band Leningrad which he formed in 1997 and was the frontman of till the end of 2008.
The Sestra (or Siestarjoki) is a river in Vsevolozhsky and Vyborgsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast and Kurortny District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Sestroretsk (Сестроре́цк; Siestarjoki; Systerbäck) is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, the Sestra River and the Sestroretskiy Lake northwest of St. Petersburg.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Siemens Velaro is a family of high-speed EMU trains used in Germany, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, China, Russia and Turkey.
Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac Merritt Singer with New York lawyer Edward Clark.
Singer House (Дом компании «Зингер»), also widely known as the House of Books (Дом книги), is a building in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Hockey Club SKA (Хоккейный клуб СКА), often referred to as SKA Saint Petersburg and literally as the Sports Club of the Army, is a Russian professional ice hockey club based in Saint Petersburg.
The Hockey Club SKA-1946 Saint Petersburg (Хоккейный клуб "СКА-1946" Санкт-Петербург), is a Russian junior ice hockey club based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
HC SKA-Neva (Хоккейный Клуб СКА-Нева) is a Russian professional ice hockey team playing in the VHL, the second level of Russian ice hockey.
Smolenka (Смоленка) is a minor river in the city of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Smolny is a place name in central Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Smolny Convent or Smolny Convent of the Resurrection (Voskresensky), located on Ploschad Rastrelli, on the bank of the River Neva in Saint Petersburg, Russia, consists of a cathedral (sobor) and a complex of buildings surrounding it, originally intended for a convent.
The Smolny Institute (Смольный институт, Smol'niy institut) is a Palladian edifice in St Petersburg that has played a major part in the history of Russia.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Sophie Marceau (born Sophie Danièle Sylvie Maupu; 17 November 1966) is a French actress, director, screenwriter, and author.
Sosnovka (Сосновка) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
Sovcomflot (Modern Commercial Fleet) is a Russian maritime shipping company specializing in petroleum and LNG shipping, a 100% state-owned corporation founded in 1995.
The 1989 Soviet census (Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989, "1989 All-Union Census"), conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR.
The Soviet Top League, known after 1970 as the Higher League (Высшая лига) served as the top division of Soviet Union football from 1936 until 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.
Splean (Сплин) is a popular Russian rock band.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The State Museum of the History of St.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Stepan Timofeyevich Razin (Степа́н Тимофе́евич Ра́зин,; 1630 –), known as Stenka Razin (Стенька), was a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia in 1670-1671.
Stigmata is a Russian metalcore band based in Saint Petersburg that formed in 2000.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stroganov Palace (Russian: Строгановский дворец) is a Late Baroque palace at the intersection of the Moika River and Nevsky Prospect in St. Petersburg, Russia.
STS (from Сеть Телевизионных Станций, Set' Televizionnykh Stantsiy, Network of television stations) is a commercial television station based in Moscow, Russia.
The Summer Garden (Ле́тний сад, Letniy sad) occupies an island between the Fontanka, Moika, and the Swan Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia and shares its name with the adjacent Summer Palace of Peter the Great.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
The Supreme Hockey League (Высшая хоккейная лига (ВХЛ), Vysshaya hokkeinaya liga (VHL)), also known as the Major Hockey League or Higher Hockey League (HHL), is a professional ice hockey league in Eurasia, and the second highest level of Russian hockey.
Suvorov Memorial Museum (Russian: Музей Суворова) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is a military museum dedicated to the memory of Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov (1729-1800).
The Swedish Royal Navy (Svenska marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
Italian language in Switzerland or Swiss Italian (svizzero italiano) is the name used for the variety of the Italian language spoken in the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland.
Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No.
Listed below is a table of historical exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar, at present the most widely traded currency in the world.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tambov Gang (in Тамбовская преступная группировка, Tambovskaya prestupnaya gruppirovka) is a large gang in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tauride Palace (Russian: Tavrichesky dvorets, Таврический дворец) is one of the largest and most historic palaces in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Tequilajazzz was a Russian alternative rock band led by bassist Eugeniy "Ai-yai-yai" Fedorov (Евгений "Ай-яй-яй" Фёдоров) based in Saint Petersburg.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The Irony of Fate, or Enjoy Your Bath! (Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!, literally: The Irony of Fate, or With A Light Steam; trans. Ironiya sudby, ili S lyogkim parom!) is a 1976 Soviet romantic comedy television film directed by Eldar Ryazanov.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film and television, having numerous, often overlapping subgenres.
Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
Tinkoff Brewery (Тинькофф) is a Russian brewery founded in St. Petersburg by local businessman Oleg Tinkov in 1998 as a brewpub.
TNT (Means: Your New Television. ТНТ, Твоё Новое Телевидение, Tvoyo Novoye Televideniye, or Television of new Millennium (ТНТ, Телевидение нового тысячелетия, Televideniye Novogo Tisyachelyetiya)) is a Russian federal TV channel founded in 1997 and considered one of the five most popular TV channels in Russia.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The Toyota Camry (Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
Trams in Saint Petersburg are a major mode of public transit in the city of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
A transport corridor is a generally linear area that is defined by one or more modes of transportation like highways, railroads or public transit which share a common course.
The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
Troitskiy(Trinity Bridge) (Тро́ицкий мост, Troitskiy Most) is a bascule bridge across the Neva in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Trinity Cathedral (Троицкий собор, Troitsky sobor; Троице-Измайловский соборTroitse-Izmailovsky sobor), sometimes called the Troitsky Cathedral, in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is a late example of the Empire style, built between 1828 and 1835 to a design by Vasily Stasov.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tsarskoye Selo (a, "Tsar's Village") was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located south from the center of Saint Petersburg.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
TV Centre (TV Tsentr; formerly abbreviated as ТВЦ, TVC or ТВЦ-Москва, TVC-Moskva - "TVC Moscow") is a state-run Russia TV station with the fourth largest coverage area in Russia, after Channel One, Russia-1 and NTV.
TV-3 is a Russian television channel focused on entertainment.
The Twelve Collegia, or Twelve Colleges (Двeнaдцaть Коллегий) is the largest edifice from the Petrine era remaining in Saint Petersburg.
Tyumen Oblast (Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia.
Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single diaspora group of the Ukrainian people.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher located in Lawrence, KS that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas: Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University (K-State), Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas (KU), and Wichita State University.
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
The USSR Basketball Cup, or Soviet Union Basketball Cup, was the national basketball cup competition of the former Soviet Union.
The USSR Premier Basketball League, or Soviet Union Premier Basketball League (also called Supreme League), was the first-tier men's professional basketball league in the former Soviet Union.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
V.V. Dokuchaev Central Museum of Soil was founded in 1902 at Saint Petersburg by Vasilli Vasil'evich Dokuchaev (1846–1903).
The Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet is a school of classical ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (p, Валентина Іванівна Матвієнко, (née Tyutina (Тю́тина;, Тютіна); born 7 April 1949), is a Russian politician serving as the Senator from Saint Petersburg and Chairwoman of the Federation Council since 2011. As Chairwoman Matviyenko attained the highest rank of any female politician in Russia and became the most powerful woman in Russia since Catherine the Great. Previously she was Governor of Saint Petersburg from 2003 to 2011. Born in Ukraine, Matviyenko started her political career in the 1980s in Leningrad (now called Saint Petersburg), and was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Communist Party of the City from 1984 to 1986. at petersburgcity.com In the 1990s, Matviyenko served as the Russian Ambassador to Malta (1991–1995), and to Greece (1997–1998). From 1998 to 2003, Matviyenko was Deputy Prime Minister for Welfare, and briefly the Presidential Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District in 2003. By that time, Matviyenko was firmly allied with Russian President Vladimir Putin, an alliance which secured her a victory in the gubernatorial elections in Saint Petersburg, Putin's native city. Matviyenko became the first female leader of Saint Petersburg. RIAN Since the start of Matviyenko's service as governor, a significant share of taxation money was transferred from the federal budget to the local budget, and along with the booming economy and improving investment climate the standard of living significantly increased in the City, making income levels much closer to Moscow, and far above most other Russian federal subjects. The profile of Saint Petersburg in Russian politics has risen, marked by the transfer of the Constitutional Court of Russia from Moscow in 2008. Matviyenko developed a large number of megaprojects in housing and infrastructure, such as the construction of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, including the Big Obukhovsky Bridge (the only non-draw bridge over the Neva River in the city), completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam aimed to put an end to the infamous Saint Petersburg floods, launching Line 5 of Saint Petersburg Metro, and starting land reclamation in the Neva Bay for the new Marine Facade of the city (the largest European waterfront development project) Official website containing the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg. Several major auto-producing companies were drawn to Saint Petersburg or its vicinity, including Toyota, General Motors, Nissan, Hyundai Motor, Suzuki, Magna International, Scania, and MAN SE (all having plants in the Shushary industrial zone), thus turning the city into an important center of automotive industry in Russia, specializing in foreign brands. Another development of Matviyenko's governorship was tourism; by 2010 the number of tourists in Saint Petersburg doubled and reached 5.2 million, which placed the city among the top five tourist centers in Europe. RIAN Some actions and practices of Governor Matviyenko have drawn significant criticisms from the Saint Petersburg public, the media, and opposition groups. In particular, new construction in already heavily built-up areas and several building projects were deemed to conflict with the classical architecture of the city, where the entire centre is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Some projects eventually were cancelled or modified, such as the controversial design of a 400-metre-tall Okhta Center skyscraper, planned to be built adjacent to the historical center of the city; however, after a public campaign and the personal involvement of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, it was relocated from Okhta to the Lakhta suburb. Another major point of criticism was Matviyenko's handling of the city's snow removal problems during the unusually cold and snowy winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11. On 22 August 2011, soon after completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam, Matviyenko resigned from office. As a member of the ruling United Russia Party, on 21 September 2011, Matviyenko was elected as Chairwoman of the Federation Council, RIAN the country's third-highest elected office.
Varshavsky station (Варша́вский вокза́л, Varshavsky vokzal), or Warsaw station, is a former passenger railway station in Saint Petersburg, Russia, now home of the Central Museum of Railway Transport, Russian Federation.
Vasily Petrovich Stasov (Russian: Васи́лий Петро́вич Ста́сов; 4 August 1769 – 5 September 1848) was a Russian architect.
Vasilyevsky Island (Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia, bordered by the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva Rivers (in the delta of the Neva River) in the south and northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland in the west.
Vaslav Nijinsky (also Vatslav; Ва́цлав Фоми́ч Нижи́нский;; Wacław Niżyński; 12 March 1889/18908 April 1950) was a ballet dancer and choreographer cited as the greatest male dancer of the early 20th century.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The following is an incomplete list of settlements nicknamed Venice of the North.
Viktor Vasilievich Tikhonov (Виктор Васильевич Тихонов; born 12 May 1988) is a Latvian-born Russian professional ice hockey forward currently playing for SKA St. Petersburg of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
Viktor Robertovich Tsoi (Ви́ктор Ро́бертович Цой; 21 June 1962 – 15 August 1990) was a Soviet singer and songwriter who co-founded Kino, one of the most popular and musically influential bands in the history of Russian music.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
St Petersburg-Vitebsky (Ви́тебский вокза́л) is a railway station in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Vladimir Anatolyevich Yakovlev (p; born November 25, 1944, in Olyokminsk, Yakutia, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician, currently retired.
Vladimir Petrovich Kondrashin (Cyrillic: Владимир Петрович Кондрашин) (January 14, 1929 in Leningrad, Soviet Union – December 23, 1999 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was a Russian professional basketball coach.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir Andreyevich Tarasenko (Влади́мир Андре́евич Тарасе́нко; born 13 December 1991) is a Russian professional ice hockey right winger currently serving as an alternate captain for the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Влади́мир Ива́нович Верна́дский; Володи́мир Іва́нович Верна́дський; – 6 January 1945) was a Russian, Ukrainian, and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist who is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology, and was a founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
The von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor also known as pVHL is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VHL gene.
Vosstaniya Square (Пло́щадь Восста́ния, lit. Uprising Square) is a major square in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Voznesensky Prospekt (Вознесенский проспект) is a 1.8 km long street in Admiralteysky District of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
VR (formally VR Group) is a government-owned railway company in Finland.
Vsevolozhsky District (Все́воложский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #17-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Vyacheslav Gennadievich Butusov (Вячеслав Геннадьевич Бутусов; born October 15, 1961, in Bugach, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union), is a Russian singer and songwriter.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind.
West Estonian archipelago (Lääne-Eesti saarestik, also Moonsund archipelago) is a group of Estonian islands, around Väinameri, located in the Baltic Sea.
The Western High-Speed Diameter (ЗСД, ZSD, Западный скоростной диаметр) is a toll motorway in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
White Nights is a 1985 American drama film directed by Taylor Hackford and starring Mikhail Baryshnikov, Gregory Hines, Jerzy Skolimowski, Helen Mirren and Isabella Rossellini.
Organised by the Saint Petersburg City Administration, the festival begins in May with the "Stars of the White Nights" at Mariinsky Theatre and ends in July.
White pride is a motto primarily used by white separatist, white nationalist, neo-Nazi and white supremacist organizations in order to signal racist or racialist viewpoints.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
The World Book Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published in the United States.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A xylotheque or xylothek (from the Greek xylon for "wood" and "theque" meaning "repository") is special form of herbarium that consists of a collection of authenticated wood specimens.
A yacht club is a sports club specifically related to yachting.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yelagin Island is an island at the mouth of the Neva River which is part of St. Petersburg, Russia.
Yelagin Palace (Елагин дворец; also Yelaginsky or Yelaginoostrovsky Dvorets) is a villa in Saint Petersburg which is situated on Yelagin Island in the Neva River and served as a royal summer palace during the reign of Tsar Alexander I. The villa was designed for Alexander's mother, Maria Fyodorovna, by the architect Carlo Rossi.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Mravinsky (Евге́ний Алекса́ндрович Мрави́нский) (19 January 1988), HSL, PAU, was a Soviet and Russian conductor.
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (p; 20 January (Julian) / 1 February (Gregorian), 1884 – 10 March 1937), sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire.
Yuri Yulianovich Shevchuk (Ю́рий Юлиа́нович Шевчу́к; born 16 May 1957, Yagodnoye, Magadan Oblast) is a Soviet and Russian rock musician and singer/songwriter who leads the rock band DDT, which he founded with Vladimir Sigachev in 1980.
Yuri Khatuevich Temirkanov (Ю́рий Хату́евич Темирка́нов; Темыркъан Юрий; born December 10, 1938) is a Russian conductor of Circassian (Kabardian) origin.
Yury Matveyevich Felten (Ю́рий Матве́евич Фе́льтен, German name Georg Friedrich Veldten) (1730–1801) was a court architect to Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zelenogorsk (Зеленогорск) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Zelenogorsk (Зеленого́рск; before 1948 Terijoki, a name still used in Finnish and Swedish), is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland.
Zemlyane (Земляне, meaning Earthlings) is a Soviet, and later Russian rock band which enjoyed great popularity in the early 1980s.
The Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a Russian museum devoted to zoology.
Zoopark (Зоопа́рк) was one of the founding rock groups which began the Russian rock movement.
Zvezda (a) is a Russian nationwide TV network run by the Russian Ministry of Defence.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1st Battalion, 68th Armor Regiment (1–68 Armor) is a battalion of the 68th Armor Regiment, United States Army.
The 2007–08 UEFA Cup was the 37th edition of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second tier club football tournament.
The 2008 UEFA Super Cup was the 33rd UEFA Super Cup, a football match played between the winners of the previous season's UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup competitions.
The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves included severe heat waves that impacted most of the United States, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, North Africa and the European continent as a whole, along with parts of Canada, Russia, Indochina, South Korea and Japan during May, June, July, and August 2010.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
2x2 (Russian: "Dvazhdy dva", English: "Twice Two") is a Russian television channel.
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