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Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure. 

Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling is a sampling plan used when mutually homogeneous yet internally heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population.

Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling (also known as grab sampling, accidental sampling, or opportunity sampling) is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand.

Data

Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

Enumeration

An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection.

Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.

Extrapolation

In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

Independence (probability theory)

In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.

Independent and identically distributed random variables

In probability theory and statistics, a sequence or other collection of random variables is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d. or iid or IID) if each random variable has the same probability distribution as the others and all are mutually independent.

Inference

Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.

Judgment sample

Judgment sample, or Expert sample, is a type of nonrandom sample that is selected based on the opinion of an expert.

Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.

Nonprobability sampling

Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population or to inform about (social) processes that are meaningful beyond the particular cases, individuals or sites studied.

Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

Quasi-Monte Carlo method

In numerical analysis, the quasi-Monte Carlo method is a method for numerical integration and solving some other problems using low-discrepancy sequences (also called quasi-random sequences or sub-random sequences).

Quota sampling

Quota sampling is a method for selecting survey participants that is a non-probabilistic version of stratified sampling.

Replication (statistics)

In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.

Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.

Sample size determination

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample.

Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.

Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

Samuel S. Wilks

Samuel Stanley Wilks (June 17, 1906 – March 7, 1964) was an American mathematician and academic who played an important role in the development of mathematical statistics, especially in regard to practical applications.

Simple random sample

In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population).

Snowball sampling

In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling) is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.

Statistic

A statistic (singular) or sample statistic is a single measure of some attribute of a sample (e.g. its arithmetic mean value).

Statistical population

In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.

Statistical unit

A unit in a statistical analysis is one member of a set of entities being studied.

Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

Stratified sampling

In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population.

Subset

In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

Survey sampling

In statistics, survey sampling describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a survey.

Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame.

William Gemmell Cochran

William Gemmell Cochran (15 July 1909 – 29 March 1980) was a prominent statistician.

References

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