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Sampling (signal processing)

Index Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. [1]

127 relations: Aliasing, Analog-to-digital converter, Analogue electronics, Analytic signal, Anti-aliasing filter, Arbitrarily large, Audio Engineering Society, Auditory system, Band-pass filter, Beta encoder, Bit rate, Blu-ray, Camcorder, Capacitor, Chrominance, Claude Shannon, Compact disc, Complex number, Constellation diagram, CT scan, D-1 (Sony), Decibel, Decimation (signal processing), Delta-sigma modulation, Digital audio, Digital Audio Tape, Digital eXtreme Definition, Digital recording, Digital signal processing, Digital television, Digital video, Digital-to-analog converter, Digitization, Dirac comb, Dirac delta function, Direct Stream Digital, Discrete time and continuous time, Distortion, DV, DVD, DVD-Audio, Eventually (mathematics), FM broadcasting, Frame rate, G.711, HD DVD, Hertz, High Definition Compatible Digital, High-definition television, Hilbert transform, ..., Intermodulation, Jitter, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Kell factor, Linear function, Low-pass filter, Luma (video), Magnetic resonance imaging, Mixing console, Moiré pattern, MP3, MPEG-1, Multidimensional sampling, Narrowband, NICAM, Nippon Columbia, Noise (electronics), Nonlinear system, NTSC, Nyquist frequency, Nyquist rate, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Oversampling, PAL, PCM adaptor, Philips, Phoneme, Phonograph record, Pixel, Positron emission tomography, Proceedings of the IEEE, ProDigi, Professional audio, Pulse-code modulation, Quantization (signal processing), Raster graphics, Rec. 601, Refresh rate, Sample and hold, Sample-rate conversion, Sampling (signal processing), Scan line, Seismic tomography, Serial digital interface, Sibilant, Signal processing, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio, Sine wave, Slew rate, Sony, Sound, Soundstream, Speech, Standard-definition television, Super Audio CD, Super Video CD, Telephone, Telephony, Ultrasound, Undersampling, Upsampling, Video CD, Voice over IP, Volume rendering, Voxel, Walkie-talkie, Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula, Wideband, Wireless intercom, Wireless microphone, Zero-order hold, 1080i, 1080p, 3M, 44,100 Hz, 720p. Expand index (77 more) »


In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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Analogue electronics

Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.

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Analytic signal

In mathematics and signal processing, an analytic signal is a complex-valued function that has no negative frequency components.

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Anti-aliasing filter

An anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is a filter used before a signal sampler to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to approximately or completely satisfy the sampling theorem over the band of interest.

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Arbitrarily large

In mathematics, the phrases arbitrarily large, arbitrarily small, and arbitrarily long are used in statements such as: which is shorthand for: "Arbitrarily large" is not equivalent to "sufficiently large".

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Audio Engineering Society

Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.

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Auditory system

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.

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Band-pass filter

A band-pass filter, also bandpass filter or BPF, is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range.

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Beta encoder

A beta encoder is an analog-to-digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2.

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Bit rate

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

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Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Chrominance (chroma or C for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y for short).

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Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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Constellation diagram

A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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D-1 (Sony)

D-1 or 4:2:2 Component Digital is a SMPTE digital recording video standard, introduced in 1986 through efforts by SMPTE engineering committees.

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The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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Decimation (signal processing)

In digital signal processing, decimation is the process of reducing the sampling rate of a signal.

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Delta-sigma modulation

Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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Digital audio

Digital audio is audio, or simply sound, signal that has been recorded as or converted into digital form, where the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence, typically at CD audio quality which is 16 bit sample depth over 44.1 thousand samples per second.

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Digital Audio Tape

Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987.

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Digital eXtreme Definition

Digital eXtreme Definition (DXD) is a digital audio format that originally was developed for editing high-resolution recordings recorded in DSD, the audio standard used on Super Audio CD (SACD).

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Digital recording

In digital recording, audio signals picked up by a microphone or other transducer or video signals picked up by a camera or similar device are converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes over time in air pressure for audio, and chroma and luminance values for video, then recorded to a storage device.

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Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.

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Digital television

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.

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Digital video

Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data.

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Digital-to-analog converter

In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.

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Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.

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Dirac comb

In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic tempered distribution constructed from Dirac delta functions for some given period T. The symbol \operatorname(t), where the period is omitted, represents a Dirac comb of unit period.

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Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

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Direct Stream Digital

DSD Records (DSD) is a trademark used by Sony and Philips for their system of digitally recreating audible signals for the Super Audio CD (SACD).

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Discrete time and continuous time

In mathematics and in particular mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variables that evolve over time.

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Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.

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DV is a format for storing digital video.

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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD.

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Eventually (mathematics)

In the mathematical areas of number theory and analysis, an infinite sequence (a_n) is said to eventually have a certain property if all terms beyond some (finite) point in the sequence have that property.

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FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.

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Frame rate

Frame rate (expressed in or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display.

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G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding.

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HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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High Definition Compatible Digital

High Definition Compatible Digital, or HDCD is a Microsoft proprietary audio encode-decode process that claims to provide increased dynamic range over that of standard Redbook audio CDs, while retaining backward compatibility with existing Compact disc players.

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High-definition television

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.

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Hilbert transform

In mathematics and in signal processing, the Hilbert transform is a specific linear operator that takes a function, u(t) of a real variable and produces another function of a real variable H(u)(t).

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Intermodulation (IM) or intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies, caused by nonlinearities in a system.

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In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal.

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Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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Kell factor

The Kell factor, named after RCA engineer Raymond D. Kell, is a parameter used to limit the bandwidth of a sampled image signal to avoid the appearance of beat frequency patterns when displaying the image in a discrete display device, usually taken to be 0.7.

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Linear function

In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.

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Low-pass filter

A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.

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Luma (video)

In video, luma represents the brightness in an image (the "black-and-white" or achromatic portion of the image).

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mixing console

In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.

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Moiré pattern

In mathematics, physics, and art, a moiré pattern or moiré fringes are large-scale interference patterns that can be produced when an opaque ruled pattern with transparent gaps is overlaid on another similar pattern.

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MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.

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MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

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Multidimensional sampling

In digital signal processing, multidimensional sampling is the process of converting a function of a multidimensional variable into a discrete collection of values of the function measured on a discrete set of points.

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In radio, narrowband describes a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth.

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Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex (NICAM) is an early form of lossy compression for digital audio.

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Nippon Columbia

, often pronounced Korombia,, is a Japanese record label founded in 1910 as.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Nonlinear system

In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.

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NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.

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Nyquist frequency

The Nyquist frequency, named after electronic engineer Harry Nyquist, is half of the sampling rate of a discrete signal processing system.

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Nyquist rate

In signal processing, the Nyquist rate, named after Harry Nyquist, is twice the bandwidth of a bandlimited function or a bandlimited channel.

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Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem

In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").

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In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate.

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Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).

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PCM adaptor

A PCM adaptor is a device used for recording digital audio in the PCM format, which in turn connects to a video cassette recorder (acting as a transport) for storage and playback of the digital audio information.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonograph record

A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.

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In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Proceedings of the IEEE

The Proceedings of the IEEE is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Mitsubishi's ProDigi was a professional audio, reel-to-reel, digital audio tape format with a stationary head position, similar to Sony's Digital Audio Stationary Head, which competed against ProDigi when the format was available in the mid-1980s through the early 1990s.

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Professional audio

Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment.

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Pulse-code modulation

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.

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Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

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Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

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Rec. 601

ITU-R Recommendation BT.601, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec.

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Refresh rate

The refresh rate (most commonly the "vertical refresh rate", "vertical scan rate" for cathode ray tubes) is the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer.

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Sample and hold

In electronics, a sample and hold (S/H, also "follow-and-hold"Horowitz and Hill, p. 220.) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time.

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Sample-rate conversion

Sample-rate conversion is the process of changing the sampling rate of a discrete signal to obtain a new discrete representation of the underlying continuous signal.

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Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

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Scan line

A scan line (also scanline) is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a line of video on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of a television set or computer monitor.

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Seismic tomography

Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.

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Serial digital interface

Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989.

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Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

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Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio

Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as PCM (pulse code modulation) and multimedia codecs.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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Slew rate

In electronics, slew rate is defined as the change of voltage or current, or any other electrical quantity, per unit of time.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Soundstream Inc. was the first audiophile digital audio recording company, providing commercial services for recording and computer-based editing.

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Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.

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Standard-definition television

Standard-definition television (SDTV or SD) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high- or enhanced-definition.

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Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.

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Super Video CD

Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a digital format for storing video on standard compact discs.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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In signal processing, undersampling or bandpass sampling is a technique where one samples a bandpass-filtered signal at a sample rate below its Nyquist rate (twice the upper cutoff frequency), but is still able to reconstruct the signal.

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In digital signal processing, upsampling can refer to the entire process of increasing the sampling rate of a signal, or it can refer to just one step of the process, the other step being interpolation.

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Video CD

Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc digital video) is a home video format and the first format for distributing films on standard optical discs.

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Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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Volume rendering

In scientific visualization and computer graphics, volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field.

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A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space.

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A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver.

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Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula

The Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula or sinc interpolation is a method to construct a continuous-time bandlimited function from a sequence of real numbers.

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In communications, a system is wideband when the message bandwidth significantly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel.

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Wireless intercom

A wireless intercom is a telecommunications device that enables voice communication without the need to run copper wires between intercom stations.

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Wireless microphone

A wireless microphone is a microphone without a physical cable connecting it directly to the sound recording or amplifying equipment with which it is associated.

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Zero-order hold

The zero-order hold (ZOH) is a mathematical model of the practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter (DAC).

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1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video.

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1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as '''Full HD''' or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1080 horizontal lines of vertical resolution; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced.

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The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.

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44,100 Hz

In digital audio, 44,100 Hz (alternately represented as 44.1 kHz) is a common sampling frequency.

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720p (1280×720 px; also called HD Ready or standard HD) is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1).

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16-bit sample, Audio sampling rate, Data Compression/sampling frequency, Digital audio sample, Digital audio samples, Digital audio sampling and dither, Digital sample, Digital samples, I/Q sampling, Kilosample, Megasample, Ms/s, Sampe rate, Sample (signal), Sample frequency, Sample interval, Sample rate, Sample time, Sampler (signal), Sampling (information theory), Sampling Frequency, Sampling frequencies, Sampling frequency, Sampling interval, Sampling period, Sampling rate, Sampling time, Super-Nyquist sampling, Time resolved.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(signal_processing)

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