118 relations: Alkali feldspar, Alluvial fan, Anhydrite, Aquifer, Argillaceous minerals, Arkose, Asphalt concrete, Baryte, BBC, Beach, Biotite, Bowen's reaction series, Breccia, Building material, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Cementation (geology), Chalk, Chert, Clastic rock, Clay, Clay minerals, Coal, Collyhurst, Compaction (geology), Conglomerate (geology), Corundum, Crystal, Depositional environment, Desert, Dimension stone, Dune, Earthquake, Erg (landform), Europe, Facade, Feldspar, Francis J. Pettijohn, Friability, Garnet, Gazzi-Dickinson method, Global Heritage Stone Resource, Grain size, Granitoid, Greywacke, Grindstone, Gritstone, Groundwater, Gypsum, Hematite, ..., Hierarchy, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hue, Hydraulic head, Igneous rock, Iron oxide, James Madison University, Jasper, Kurkar, Lake, Levee, Liesegang rings (geology), Limestone, Limonite, List of sandstones, Lithic fragment (geology), Magnetite, Manganese, Mar del Plata style, Masonry, Matrix (geology), Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Mineral, Mineralogy, Mongolia, Mudflat, Muscovite, North West England, Olivine, Opal, Orogeny, Outwash plain, Percolation, Permeability (earth sciences), Petroleum reservoir, Plagioclase, Porosity, Pyroxene, QFL diagram, Quartz, Quartzite, River, River delta, Road surface, Rock fragment, Rutile, Sand, Sand wave, Sedimentary basin, Sedimentation, Shale, Silicate, Silicon dioxide, Siltstone, Sydney sandstone, Terracotta, Terrain, Thin section, Topography, Tourmaline, Turbidite, United Kingdom, Volcanic rock, Weathering, Zeolite, Zircon, ZTR index. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
The alkali feldspar group are those feldspar minerals rich in the alkali elements like potassium and sodium.
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (ἄργιλλος.
Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar.
Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who summarized, based on experiments and observations of natural rocks, the crystallization sequence of typical basaltic magma undergoing fractional crystallization (i.e., crystallization wherein early-formed crystals are removed from the magma by crystal settling, say, leaving behind a liquid of slightly different composition).
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Cementation involves ions carried in groundwater chemically precipitating to form new crystalline material between sedimentary grains.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Collyhurst is an inner city area of Manchester, England, northeast of the city centre on Rochdale Road (A664) and Oldham Road (A62).
In sedimentology compaction refers to the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading.
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g., granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, larger than in diameter.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Francis John Pettijohn (June 20, 1904 – April 23, 1999) was an American geologist who served for many years on the faculty of Johns Hopkins University.
Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
The Gazzi-Dickinson method is a point-counting technique used in geology to statistically measure the components of a sedimentary rock, chiefly sandstone.
The Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) designation seeks international recognition of natural stone resources that have achieved widespread utilisation in human culture.
Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks.
A granitoid or granitic rock is a variety of coarse grained plutonic rock similar to granite which mineralogically is composed predominantly of feldspar and quartz.
Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.
A grindstone is a round sharpening stone used for grinding or sharpening ferrous tools.
Gritstone or grit is a hard, coarse-grained, siliceous sandstone.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
James Madison University (also known as JMU, Madison, or James Madison) is a public coeducational research university located in Harrisonburg, Virginia, United States.
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.
Kurkar (كركار /כורכר) is the term used in Palestinian Arabic and modern Hebrew for the rock type of which lithified sea sand dunes consist.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Liesegang rings (also called Liesegangen rings or Liesegang bands) are colored bands of cement observed in sedimentary rocks that typically cut-across bedding.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition.
This is a list of types of sandstone that have been or are used economically as natural stone for building and other commercial or artistic purposes.
Lithic fragments, or lithics, are pieces of other rocks that have been eroded down to sand size and now are sand grains in a sedimentary rock.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Mar del Plata style (Estilo Mar del Plata, chalet Mar del Plata or chalet marplatense) is a domestic architectural style very popular during the decades between 1935 and 1950 mainly in the Argentine resort city of Mar del Plata, but extended to other coastal towns like Miramar and Necochea.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
An outwash plain, also called a sandur (plural: sandurs), sandr or sandar, is a plain formed of glacial sediments deposited by meltwater outwash at the terminus of a glacier.
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
A QFL diagram or QFL triangle is a type of ternary diagram that shows compositional data from sandstones and modern sands, point counted using the Gazzi-Dickinson method.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
A rock fragment, in sedimentary geology, is a sand-sized particle or sand grain that is made up of multiple grains that are connected on the grain scale.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
A sand wave is a lower regime sedimentary structure that forms across from tidal currents.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.
Sydney sandstone is the common name for Sydney Basin Hawkesbury Sandstone, one variety of which is historically known as Yellowblock, and also as "yellow gold" a sedimentary rock named after the Hawkesbury River north of Sydney, where this sandstone is particularly common.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
A turbidite is the geologic deposit of a turbidity current, which is a type of sediment gravity flow responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
The ZTR index is a method of determining how weathered, both chemically and mechanically, a sediment (or a corresponding sedimentary rock) is.