108 relations: Acts of the Apostles, Alexander Jannaeus, Alypius of Antioch, Ammianus Marcellinus, Aryeh Kaplan, Assembly of Notables, Aulus Gabinius, Av Beit Din, Avner Falk, Bar Kokhba revolt, Beit She'arim National Park, Beth din shel Kohanim, Byzantine Empire, Council of Jamnia, David, Deliberative assembly, Edict of Milan, Eleazar ben Azariah, England, Exegesis, Galilee, Galilee earthquake of 363, Gamaliel, Gamaliel II, Gamaliel III, Gamaliel IV, Gamaliel V, Grand Sanhedrin, Great Assembly, Greek language, Greek New Testament, Halakha, Hall of Hewn Stones, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, Herem (war or property), High Priest of Israel, Hillel II, Hillel the Elder, Interregnum, Iron, Israel, Israel Antiquities Authority, Jacob Berab, Jerusalem, Jewish holidays, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Jews, Jose ben Joezer, ..., Joseph Karo, Joshua ben Perachiah, Judah ha-Nasi, Judah II, Judah III, Judah IV, Judaism, Julian (emperor), Land of Israel, Magnum Concilium, Maimonides, Minyan, Mishnah, Moses, Napoleon, Nasi (Hebrew title), Paris, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Polis, Prefect, Psalms of Solomon, Raban Gamaliel VI, Rabbi, Roman Empire, Roman governor, Sabbath, Saint Stephen, Sanhedrin (tractate), Sanhedrin trial of Jesus, Second Temple, Second Temple period, Semikhah, Sepphoris, Shabbat, Shammai, Shefa-'Amr, Shmaya (tanna), Shmita, Simeon ben Gamliel, Simeon ben Gamliel II, Simeon ben Hillel, Simeon ben Shetach, Synedrion, Syria Palaestina, Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina, Tanakh, Temple Mount, Theodosius I, Tiberias, Tombs of the Sanhedrin, Tribunal, Usha (city), Wanderings: Chaim Potok's History of the Jews, Yavne, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Yeshiva, Yisroel ben Shmuel of Shklov. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alypius of Antioch was a geographer and a vicarius of Roman Britain, probably in the late 350s AD.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (אריה משה אליהו קפלן.; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi and author known for his knowledge of physics and kabbalah.
An Assembly of Notables (French: Assemblée des notables) was a group of high-ranking nobles, ecclesiastics, and state functionaries convened by the King of France on extraordinary occasions to consult on matters of state.
Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.
The av beit din (ʾabh bêth dîn, "chief of the court" or "chief justice"or "chief justice"), also spelled av beis din or abh beth din and abbreviated ABD, was the second-highest-ranking member of the Sanhedrin during the Second Temple period, and served as an assistant to the Nasi.
Avner Falk (אבנר פלק; born 1943) is an Israeli clinical psychologist and author.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Beit She'arim (בֵּית שְׁעָרִים, "House of the Gates") is the currently used name for the ancient Jewish town of Bet She'arāyim ("House of Two Gates") or Kfar She'arāyim ("Village of Two Gates").
The Beth Din of the priests or Court of the Priests ("house of judgement of the priests" Hebrew: בית דין של כהנים) was the court of Jewish law, composed of twenty-three senior priests that would oversee the day-to-day operation of the Temple in Jerusalem, including the sacrifices and offerings, the verification of Aaronic lineage, and the safeguarding of the vessels used in the Temple.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Council of Jamnia, presumably held in Yavneh in the Holy Land, was a hypothetical late 1st-century council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible was formerly believed to have been finalized and which may also have been the occasion when the Jewish authorities decided to exclude believers in Jesus as the Messiah from synagogue attendance, as referenced by interpretations of in the New Testament.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure to make decisions.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
For other people named Eleazer.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
The Galilee earthquake of 363 was a pair of severe earthquakes that shook the Galilee and nearby regions on May 18 and 19.
Gamaliel the Elder (also spelled Gamliel; Hebrew: רבן גמליאל הזקן; Greek: Γαμαλιὴλ ὁ Πρεσβύτερος) or Rabban Gamaliel I, was a leading authority in the Sanhedrin in the early 1st century AD.
Rabban Gamaliel II (also spelled Gamliel; רבן גמליאל דיבנה) was the first person to lead the Sanhedrin as Nasi after the fall of the second temple, which occurred in 70 CE.
Gamaliel III (רבן גמליאל ברבי, read as Rabban Gamaliel beRabbi, that is: son of the Rabbi, as his father was referred to as Rabbeinu HaKadosh or Rebbi).
Gamaliel IV (fl. probably late 3rd century CE; also known as Gamaliel IV ben Judah II, being the son of the nasi Judah II) was and father of Judah III.
Gamaliel V held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 365 and 385 CE.
The Grand Sanhedrin was a Jewish high court convened in Europe by Napoleon I to give legal sanction to the principles expressed by the Assembly of Notables in answer to the twelve questions submitted to it by the government.
According to Jewish tradition the Great Assembly (כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה) or Anshei Knesset HaGedolah (אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה, "The Men of the Great Assembly"), also known as the Great Synagogue, or Synod, was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets since the early Second Temple period to the early Hellenistic period.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek New Testament is the original form of the books that make up the New Testament as they appeared in Koine Greek, the common dialect from 300 BC to 300 AD.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
The Hall of Hewn Stones (in Hebrew, לשכת הגזית Lishkat ha-Gazit) was the meeting place of the Sanhedrin during the Second Temple period.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herem or cherem (Hebrew: חרם, ḥērem), as used in the Tanakh, means ‘devote’ or ‘destroy’.
High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.
Hillel II (Hebrew: הלל נשיאה, Hillel the Nasi), also known simply as Hillel held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 320 and 385 CE.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA, רשות העתיקות rashut ha-'atiqot; داﺌرة الآثار, before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities.
Jacob Berab (יעקב בירב), also spelled Berav or Bei-Rav, (1474 – April 3, 1546), was an influential rabbi and talmudist best known for his attempt to reintroduce rabbinic ordination.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish Palestinian Aramaic was a Western Aramaic language spoken by the Jews during the Classic Era in Judea and the Levant, specifically in Hasmonean, Herodian and Roman Judea and adjacent lands in the late first millennium BCE and later in Syria Palaestina and Palaestina Secunda in the early first millennium CE.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jose ben Joezer (also spelt Yose ben Yoezer) was a rabbi of the early Maccabean period, possibly a disciple of Antigonus of Soko and member of the ascetic group known as the Hasidæans, though neither is certain.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Rabbi Joshua ben Perahiah or Joshua ben Perachya (יהושע בן פרחיה, Yehoshua Ben Perachia) was Nasi of the Sanhedrin in the latter half of the 2nd century BCE.
Judah ha-Nasi (יהודה הנשיא, Yehudah HaNasi or Judah the Prince) or Judah I, also known as Rabbi or Rabbenu HaQadosh ("our Master, the holy one"), was a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah.
Judah II or Nesi'ah I was a famous Jewish sage who lived in Tiberias in the Land of Israel, in the middle of the third century CE.
Judah III (or Nesi'ah II; Hebrew: יהודה הנשיא) held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 290 and 320 CE.
Judah IV (or Nesi'ah III) held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 385 and 400 CE, following Gamaliel V. He was succeeded by Gamaliel VI, the last occupant of the office.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
In Judaism, a minyan (מִנְיָן lit. noun count, number; pl. minyanim) is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
() is a Hebrew title meaning "prince" in Biblical Hebrew, "Prince " in Mishnaic Hebrew, or "president" in Modern Hebrew.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
One of the apocryphal books, the Psalms of Solomon is a group of eighteen psalms (religious songs or poems) written in the that are not part of any scriptural canon (they are, however, found in copies of the Peshitta and the Septuagint).
Gamaliel VI (c. 370–425) was the last nasi of the ancient Sanhedrin.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
Sabbath is a day set aside for rest and worship.
Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.
Sanhedrin (סנהדרין) is one of ten tractates of Seder Nezikin (a section of the Talmud that deals with damages, i.e. civil and criminal proceedings).
In the New Testament, the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin (a Jewish judicial body) following his arrest in Jerusalem and prior to his dispensation by Pontius Pilate.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
Smicha or semikhah (סמיכה, "leaning "), also smichut ("ordination"), smicha lerabbanut ("rabbinical ordination"), or smicha lehazzanut ("cantorial ordination"), is derived from a Hebrew word which means to "rely on" or "to be authorized".
Sepphoris or Zippori (צִפּוֹרִי Tzipori; Σέπφωρις Sépphōris; صفورية Saffuriya), also called Diocaesaraea (Διοκαισάρεια) and, during the Crusades, Sephory (La Sephorie), is a village and an archeological site located in the central Galilee region of Israel, north-northwest of Nazareth.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shammai (50 BCE – 30 CE, שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.
Shefa-ʻAmr, also Shfar'am (شفاعمرو, Šafā ʻAmr, שְׁפַרְעָם, Šəfarʻam) is an Arab city in the Northern District of Israel.
Shemaiah (שְׁמַעְיָה Šəmaʿyāh; Σαμαίᾱς Samaíās) or Shmaya (Modern Hebrew) was a rabbinic sage in the early pre-Mishnaic era who lived at the same time as Avtalyon.
The sabbath year (shmita שמיטה, literally "release") also called the sabbatical year or shǝvi'it (literally "seventh") is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel, and still observed in contemporary Judaism.
Simeon ben Gamliel (I) (or רשב"ג הראשון, c. 10 BCE – 70 CE) was a Tanna sage and leader of the Jewish people.
Simeon (or Shimon) ben Gamliel II (Hebrew: רבן שמעון בן גמליאל השני) was a Tanna of the third generation and president of the Great Sanhedrin.
Very little is known about Shimon ben Hillel.
Simeon ben Shetach, or Shimon ben Shetach or Shatach, circa 120-40 BCE, was a Pharisee scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin during the reigns of Alexander Jannæus (c. 103-76 BCE) and his successor, Queen Salome Alexandra (c. 76-67 BCE), who was Simeon's sister.
A synedrion or synhedrion (Greek: συνέδριον, "sitting together", hence "assembly" or "council"; סנהדרין, sanhedrin) is an assembly that holds formal sessions.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM) in what is called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources, at the time otherwise known as Asōristān (under the Sasanian Empire) or Iraq (under the Muslim caliphate until the 11th century).
The Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina were yeshivot that served as centers for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Syria Palaestina (and later Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda) between the destruction of the Second Temple circa 70 CE and the deposition of Raban Gamliel VI circa 425 CE.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Tombs of the Sanhedrin (קברי הסנהדרין, Kivrei HaSanhedrin), also called Tombs of the Judges, is an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
Usha was a city in the Western part of Galilee.
Wanderings: Chaim Potok's History of the Jews was first published in 1978 by Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Yavne (יַבְנֶה) is a city in the Central District of Israel.
Yehuda Leib Maimon (יהודה לייב מימון, 11 December 1875 – 10 July 1962, also known as Yehuda Leib Hacohen Maimon) was an Israeli rabbi, politician and leader of the Religious Zionist movement.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yisroel ben Shmuel Ashkenazi of Shklov (c. 1770 – May 22, 1839) was a Talmudist, one of a group of Talmudical scholars of Shklov who were attracted to Vilna by Elijah Gaon (1720–97).