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Sanitation

Index Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. [1]

166 relations: Air pollution, Alloy, Anemia, Ascariasis, Asia, Bacteria, Bacteriological water analysis, Behavior change (public health), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Biofuel, Biopharmaceutical, Biosolids, Biotechnology, Black Death, Bronze Age, Bucket toilet, Campylobacteriosis, Chemical toilet, Cholera, Civil engineering, Clean-in-place, Cloaca Maxima, Code of Federal Regulations, Coliform bacteria, Collective action, Combined sewer, Common Era, Community-led total sanitation, Compost, Container-based sanitation, Daily cover, Decentralized wastewater system, Defecation, Dengue fever, Dermatophytosis, Developed country, Developing country, Diarrhea, Dignity, Drinking water, Dry toilet, Dysentery, Earth Summit 2002, Ecological sanitation, Ecology, Electropolishing, Emergency sanitation, Escherichia coli, Europe, Fecal sludge management, ..., Fecal–oral route, Feces, Food and Drug Administration, Frank Kreith, Gastroenteritis, George Tchobanoglous, Groundwater, Hand washing, Handbook, Helminthiasis, Helminths, Hepatitis, High Middle Ages, Human right to water and sanitation, Human rights, Human waste, Hygiene, Improved sanitation, Indicator organism, Industrial Revolution, Industrial waste, Industrial wastewater treatment, Influenza-like illness, Internally displaced person, International development, International Year of Sanitation, Japan External Trade Organization, Japanese encephalitis, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Landfill, Latrine, Leachate, Leptospirosis, Liquid, List of abbreviations used in sanitation, List of water supply and sanitation by country, Malaria, Malaysia, Malnutrition, Malnutrition in children, Micrometre, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Millennium Development Goals, Molybdenum, Municipal solid waste, Ocean, Onsite sewage facility, Open defecation, Pandemic, Pathogen, Pit latrine, Plague of Justinian, Poliomyelitis, Portable toilet, Public health, Reclaimed water, Recycling, Refugee, Reuse, Reuse of excreta, Risk management, River, Sanitary sewer, Sanitary sewer overflow, Sanitation, Sanitation in ancient Rome, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures, Scabies, Schistosomiasis, Self-supply of water and sanitation, Septic tank, Sewage, Sewage sludge, Sewage treatment, Sewerage, Shigellosis, Soil, Soil-transmitted helminth, Sphere Project, Spring (hydrology), Springer Science+Business Media, Stainless steel, Storm drain, Stormwater, Stunted growth, Surface runoff, Surface water, Sustainability, Sustainable Development Goal 6, Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable sanitation, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, Tiber, Toilet, Toxicity, Trachoma, Transmission (medicine), Turbulence, Typhoid fever, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United States, Urination, Urine-diverting dry toilet, WASH, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water supply, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, Waterborne diseases, World Health Organization, World Toilet Day. Expand index (116 more) »

Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alloy

An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Anemia

Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Ascariasis

Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriological water analysis

Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are.

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Behavior change (public health)

Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change people's personal habits to prevent disease.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Biosolids

Biosolids is a term used for several types of treated sewage sludges that can be used as soil conditioner.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bucket toilet

A bucket toilet is a basic form of a dry toilet whereby a bucket (pail) is used to collect excreta.

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Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni.

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Chemical toilet

A chemical toilet collects human excreta in a holding tank and uses chemicals to minimize odors.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.

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Clean-in-place

Clean-in-place (CIP) is a method of cleaning the interior surfaces of pipes, vessels, process equipment, filters and associated fittings, without disassembly.

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Cloaca Maxima

The Cloaca Maxima (Cloaca Massima) is one of the world's earliest sewage systems.

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Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.

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Coliform bacteria

Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.

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Collective action

Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.

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Combined sewer

A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Community-led total sanitation

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an approach used to improve sanitation and hygiene practices in a community.

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Compost

Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.

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Container-based sanitation

Container-based sanitation (CBS) refers to a sanitation system where toilets collect human excreta in sealable, removable containers (also called cartridges) that are transported to treatment facilities.

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Daily cover

Daily cover is the name given to the layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a day's deposition of waste on an operational landfill site.

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Decentralized wastewater system

Decentralized wastewater systems (also referred to as decentralized wastewater treatment systems) convey, treat and dispose or reuse municipal and industrial wastewater from small communities, buildings and dwellings in remote areas, individual public or private properties.

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Defecation

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

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Dengue fever

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.

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Dermatophytosis

Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dignity

Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Dry toilet

A dry toilet (or non-flush toilet, no flush toilet or toilet without a flush) is a toilet that operates without flush water, unlike a flush toilet.

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Dysentery

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Earth Summit 2002

The World Summit on Sustainable Development, WSSD or ONG Earth Summit 2002 took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002.

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Ecological sanitation

Ecological sanitation, commonly abbreviated to ecosan (also spelled eco-san or EcoSan), is an approach which is characterized by a desire to safely "close the loop" (mainly for the nutrients and organic matter) between sanitation and agriculture.

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Ecology

Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Electropolishing

Electropolishing, also known as electrochemical polishing, anodic polishing or electrolytic polishing (especially in the metallography field), is an electrochemical process that removes material from a metallic workpiece.

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Emergency sanitation

Emergency sanitation is the management and technical processes required to provide sanitation in emergency situations.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fecal sludge management

Fecal sludge management (FSM) (or faecal sludge management in British English) is the collection, transport, and treatment of fecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation systems.

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Fecal–oral route

The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.

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Feces

Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Frank Kreith

Frank Kreith (15 December 1922 – 8 January 2018), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

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Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.

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George Tchobanoglous

George Tchobanoglous (born May 24, 1935) is an American civil and environmental engineer, writer and professor.

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Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Hand washing

Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.

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Handbook

A handbook is a type of reference work, or other collection of instructions, that is intended to provide ready reference.

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Helminthiasis

Helminthiasis (plural helminthiases), also known as worm infection, is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths.

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Helminths

Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hepatitis

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Human right to water and sanitation

The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human waste

Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.

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Hygiene

Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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Improved sanitation

Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.

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Indicator organism

Indicator organisms are used as a proxy to monitor conditions in a particular environment, ecosystem, area, habitat, or consumer product.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrial waste

Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations.

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Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product.

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Influenza-like illness

Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.

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Internally displaced person

An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.

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International development

International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.

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International Year of Sanitation

The year 2008 was declared the International Year of Sanitation by the United Nations in conjunction with the Water for Life Decade.

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Japan External Trade Organization

is an Independent Administrative Institution established by Japan Export Trade Research Organization as a nonprofit corporation in Osaka in February 1952, reorganized under the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in 1958 (later the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry or METI), and became an Independent Administrative Institution in 2003 to consolidate Japan's efforts in export promotion.

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Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

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Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG6) since 2016.

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Landfill

A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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Latrine

A latrine is a toilet or an even simpler facility which is used as a toilet within a sanitation system.

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Leachate

A leachate is any liquid that, in the course of passing through matter, extracts soluble or suspended solids, or any other component of the material through which it has passed.

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Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.

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Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of abbreviations used in sanitation

This is a list of abbreviations and acronyms commonly used in the sanitation sector.

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List of water supply and sanitation by country

This list of water supply and sanitation by country provides information on the status of water supply and sanitation at a national or, in some cases, also regional level.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Malnutrition in children

Malnutrition in children is common globally and may result in both short and long term irreversible negative health outcomes.

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Micrometre

The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Municipal solid waste

Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.

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Ocean

An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Onsite sewage facility

Onsite (or on-site) sewage facilities (OSSF) are wastewater systems designed to treat and dispose of effluent on the same property that produces the wastewater.

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Open defecation

Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.

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Pandemic

A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pit latrine

A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.

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Plague of Justinian

The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.

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Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Portable toilet

A portable toilet or mobile toilet is a toilet that may easily be moved around.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Reclaimed water

Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.

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Recycling

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Reuse

Reuse is the action or practice of using something again, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfil a different function (creative reuse or repurposing).

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Reuse of excreta

Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine.

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Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

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River

A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.

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Sanitary sewer overflow

Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sanitation in ancient Rome

Sanitation in ancient Rome was well advanced compared to other ancient cities and was providing water supply and sanitation services to residents of Rome.

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Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation

The ancient Indus Valley Civilisation of South Asia, including current day Pakistan and Northwest India, was prominent in hydraulic engineering, and had many water supply and sanitation devices that were the first of their kind.

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Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures is the common name given to the sanitation procedures in food production plants which are required by the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA and regulated by 9 CFR part 416 in conjunction with 21 CFR part 178.1010.

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Scabies

Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

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Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.

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Self-supply of water and sanitation

Self-supply of water and sanitation (also called household-led water supply or individual supply) refers to an approach of incremental improvements to water and sanitation services, which are mainly financed by the user.

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Septic tank

A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.

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Sewage

Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.

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Sewage sludge

Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Sewerage

Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.

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Shigellosis

Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Soil-transmitted helminth

The soil-transmitted helminths (also called geohelminths) are a group of intestinal parasites belonging to the phylum Nematoda that are transmitted primarily through contaminated soil.

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Sphere Project

The Sphere Project was launched in 1997 to develop a set of minimum standards in core areas of humanitarian assistance.

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Spring (hydrology)

A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Storm drain

A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.

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Stormwater

Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.

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Stunted growth

Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.

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Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.

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Surface water

Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.

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Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sustainable Development Goal 6

Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6 or SDG 6), one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015.

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Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.

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Sustainable sanitation

Sustainable sanitation is a sanitation system designed to meet certain criteria and to work well over the long-term.

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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose network of organizations who are "working along the same lines towards achieving sustainable sanitation".

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Tiber

The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.

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Toilet

A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Trachoma

Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

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Transmission (medicine)

In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

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Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urination

Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.

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Urine-diverting dry toilet

A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide.

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WASH

WASH (or Watsan, WaSH) is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene".

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Wastewater

Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.

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Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is a United Nations membership organization that advocates for improved sanitation and hygiene for the most vulnerable and marginalized people around the world.

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Waterborne diseases

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Toilet Day

World Toilet Day (WTD) is an official United Nations international observance day on 19 November to inspire action to tackle the global sanitation crisis.

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Dry sanitation, Hygienisation, On-site sanitation, Onsite sanitation, Public sanitation, Sanitary, Sanitary conditions, Sanitation barrier, Sanitise, Sanitized, School sanitation, Sterilization-in-place, Unsanitary.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation

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