97 relations: Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Advayataraka Upanishad, Ahimsa, Akhara, Akrodha, Alf Hiltebeitel, Anchorite, Aparigraha, Aranyaka, Arjuna, Arthashastra, Arthur Llewellyn Basham, Aruneya Upanishad, Ashrama (stage), Asteya, Avadhutaka Upanishad, Baudhayana sutras, Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti, Bhikkhu, Bhikkhuni, Bhikshuka Upanishad, Brahma Upanishad, Brahmacharya, Brahman, Brahmana, Brihat-Sannyasa Upanishad, British Raj, Buddhism, Cenobitic monasticism, Christianity, Colonialism, Copulative a, Delhi Sultanate, Dharma, Dharmaśāstra, Dvija, Gosains, Grihastha, Guṇa, Gymnosophists, Hindu, Hinduism, Jabala Upanishad, Jain monasticism, Kathashruti Upanishad, Kundika Upanishad, Mahatma Gandhi, Maitrayaniya Upanishad, ..., Maitreya Upanishad, Manusmriti, Max Müller, Michael Witzel, Missiology (journal), Moksha, Monk, Mukhya Upanishads, Muktikā, Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, Nirvana Upanishad, Nun, Ochre, Parabrahma Upanishad, Paramahamsa, Paramahamsa Parivrajaka Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Patrick Olivelle, Paul Deussen, Purvashrama, Raja Ravi Varma, Rajneesh movement, Rigveda, Rishi, Robin Hood, Saṃsāra, Sacred Books of the East, Saffron (color), Samhita, Sanskrit, Sanyasa yoga, Shaivism, Shatyayaniya Upanishad, Shaucha, Shiva, Sutra, Turiyatitavadhuta Upanishad, Upanishads, Vairagya, Vaishnavism, Vanaprastha, Vishishtadvaita, Yajnavalkya, Yajnavalkya Upanishad, Yājñavalkya Smṛti, Yoga, Yogi. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Advayataraka Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Akhara or Akhada (Sanskrit and Hindi: अखाड़ा, shortened to khara Hindi: खाड़ा) is an Indian word for a place of practice with facilities for boarding, lodging and training, both in the context of Indian martial artists or a sampradaya monastery for religious renunciates in Guru–shishya tradition.
Akrodha (Sanskrit: अक्रोध) literally means "free from anger".
Alf Hiltebeitel is Columbian Professor of Religion, History, and Human Sciences at George Washington University in Washington DC, USA.
An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.
In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.
Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Arthur Llewellyn Basham (24 May 1914 – 27 January 1986) was a noted historian and Indologist and author of a number of books.
Aruneya Upanishad (Sanskrit: आरुणेय उपनिषद्) is a minor Upanishad in the corpus of the 108 Upanishads of Hinduism.
An Ashrama (Sanskrit: āśrama) in Hinduism is one of four age-based life stages discussed in ancient and medieval era Indian texts.
Asteya is the Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".
The Avadhuta Upanishad is a medieval era Sanskrit text and is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
The Baudhayana sūtras are a group of Vedic Sanskrit texts which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
The Bhikshuka Upanishad (भिक्षुक उपनिषत्, IAST: Bhikṣuka Upaniṣad), also known as Bhikshukopanishad, is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism and is written in Sanskrit.
Brahma Upanishad (ब्रह्मोपनिषत्) is an ancient Sanskrit text and one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.
The Brihat-Sannyasa Upanishad (संन्यास उपनिषत्., IAST: Bṛhat-Saṃnyāsa Upaniṣad) is a 14th- or 15th-century Sanskrit text and one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The copulative a (also a copulativum, a athroistikon) is the prefix ha- or a- expressing unity in Ancient Greek, derived from Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-, cognate to English same (see also Symbel).
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dharmaśāstra (धर्मशास्त्र) is a genre of Sanskrit texts, and refers to the treatises (shastras) of Hinduism on dharma.
Dvija (Sanskrit: द्विज) means "twice-born".
Gosains, who are also known as Gossains and as Goswami, are Hindu ascetics of India.
Grihastha (Sanskrit: gr̥hastha) literally means "being in and occupied with home, family" or "householder".
depending on the context means "string, thread, or strand", or "virtue, merit, excellence", or "quality, peculiarity, attribute, property".
Gymnosophists (Greek γυμνοσοφισταί, gymnosophistai, i.e. "naked philosophers" or "naked wise men") is the name given by the Greeks to certain ancient Indian philosophers who pursued asceticism to the point of regarding food and clothing as detrimental to purity of thought.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Jabala Upanishad (जाबाल उपनिषत्., IAST: Jabala Upaniṣad), also called Jabalopanisad, is a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community.
The Kathashruti Upanishad (कठश्रुति उपनिषत्., IAST: Kaṭhaśruti Upaniṣad) is a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
The Kundika Upanishad (कुण्डिका उपनिषत्., IAST: Kuṇḍikā Upaniṣad), also known as Kundikopanishad, is an ancient text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Maitrayaniya Upanishad (मैत्रायणीय उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit text that is embedded inside the Yajurveda.
The Maitreya Upanishad (Sanskrit: मैत्रेय उपनिषत्, IAST: Maitreya Upaniṣad) is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
Missiology: An International Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of missiology.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are the most ancient, widely studied Upanishads of Hinduism.
The Muktikā (Sanskrit: " मुक्तिका ", English: "deliverance") refers to the canon of 108 Upaniṣads.
The Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad (नारदपरिव्राजक उपनिषत्., IAST: Nāradaparivrājaka Upaniṣad) is a medieval era Sanskrit text and one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
The Nirvana Upanishad (निर्वाण उपनिषत्., IAST: Nirvana Upaniṣad) is an ancient sutra-style Sanskrit text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
The Parabrahma Upanishad (परब्रह्म उपनिषत्.) is one of the medieval era minor Upanishads of Hinduism composed in Sanskrit.
Paramahamsa (परमाहंस), also spelled paramahansa or paramhansa, is a Sanskrit religio-theological title of honor applied to Hindu spiritual teachers who are regarded as having attained enlightenment.
The Paramahamsa Parivrajaka Upanishad (IAST: परमहम्स परिव्रजक उपनिस्हद्), is a medieval era Sanskrit text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
The Paramahamsa Upanishad (परमहम्स उपनिस्हद्), is one of the 108 Upanishadic Hindu scriptures, written in Sanskrit and is one of the 31 Upanishads attached to the Atharvaveda.
Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.
Paul Jakob Deussen (7 January 1845 – 6 July 1919) was a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy at University of Kiel.
Purvashrama (पूर्वाश्रम), is a term used with reference to Sanyasis.
Raja Ravi Varma (29 April 1848 – 2 October 1906) was a celebrated Malayali Indian painter and artist.
The Rajneesh movement comprises persons inspired by the Indian mystic Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (1931–1990), also known as Osho, particularly initiated disciples who are referred to as "neo-sannyasins" or simply "sannyasins".
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.
Saffron,also known as Saffron Orange,is a color that is a tone of golden orange resembling the color of the tip of the saffron crocus thread, from which the spice saffron is derived.
Samhita literally means "put together, joined, union", a "collection", and "a methodically, rule-based combination of text or verses".
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanyasa yoga in Hindu astrology are the peculiar planetary situations or combinations seen in certain horoscopes that indicate Sanyasa i.e. renunciation of worldly material life by persons born with those yogas.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
The Shatyayaniya Upanishad (शाट्यायनीय उपनिषत्., IAST: Śāṭyāyanīya Upaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text, composed about the start of 13th-century, and is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
Shaucha (Sanskrit: शौच, also spelled Saucha, Śauca) literally means purity, cleanliness and clearness.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The Turiyatitavadhuta Upanishad (तुरीयातीत अवधूत उपनिषत्., IAST: Turīyatītāvadhūta Upaniṣad) is a medieval era Sanskrit text and is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Vairāgya (वैराग्य) is a Sanskrit term used in Hindu philosophy that roughly translates as dispassion, detachment, or renunciation, in particular renunciation from the pains and pleasures in the material world (Maya).
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vanaprastha (वनप्रस्थ) literally means "giving up worldly life".
Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) was a Hindu Vedic sage.
The Yajnavalkya Upanishad (याज्ञवल्क्य उपनिषत्., IAST: Yājñavalkya Upaniṣad) is a late medieval era Sanskrit text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.
The Yajnavalkya Smriti (IAST) is one of the many Dharma-related texts of Hinduism composed in Sanskrit.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.
Bhokta, Samnyasa, Samnyasi, Samnyasin, Sannasi, Sannyas, Sannyasan, Sannyasi, Sannyasin, Sannyasins, Sannyassa, Sannyassi, Sannyassin, Sannyāsa, Sannyāsi, Sanyaasa, Sanyas, Sanyasa, Sanyasi, Sanyasin, Sanyass, Sanyassa, Sanyassi, Sanyassin, Saṃnyāsa, Saṃnyāsī, Senyasan, Senyasen, Vairagi.