222 relations: Abbreviated New Drug Application, Ablynx, Aflibercept, Alfuzosin, Alirocumab, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Alsace, Amgen, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Amyloid, Amyloidosis, Annual general meeting, Antacid, Antisense therapy, Apotex, AstraZeneca, Aventis Pharma, Bayer, BCG vaccine, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Berlin, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Biopharmaceutical, Biotechnology Innovation Organization, Bioverativ, Blood test, Boehringer Ingelheim, Breast cancer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Cabazitaxel, CAC 40, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Carmustine, Cassella, Cefotaxime, Celanese, Cell surface receptor, Cemiplimab, Central nervous system, Chairman, Chattem, Chickenpox, Chief executive officer, Cholera, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic pain, ..., Circulatory system, Clomifene, Clopidogrel, Codeine, Colorectal cancer, Competition law, Contaminated haemophilia blood products, Coppertone (sunscreen), Dade Behring, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diphtheria, DLL4, Docetaxel, Drug discovery, Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, Dupilumab, Elf Aquitaine, Enoxaparin sodium, Epilepsy, Epinephrine autoinjector, Euro, Euro Stoxx 50, EuropaBio, European Commission, European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Federal Trade Commission, Female infertility, Fexofenadine, Financial endowment, Food and Drug Administration, Forbes, France, Fusion protein, General manager, Genetically modified maize, Genomics, Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Genzyme, Germany, Glimepiride, Gold Bond, Golden handshake, Haemophilus influenzae, Health Canada, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hoechst AG, Hypertension, Influenza, Innovative Medicines Initiative, Insomnia, Institut Mérieux, Insulin, Insulin glargine, Insulin glulisine, Interleukin 6, Internal medicine, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Irbesartan, Japanese encephalitis, Ketoprofen, L'Oréal, Levofloxacin, Liniment, Low-density lipoprotein, Lung cancer, Macrocycle, Marion Merrell Dow, Measles, Medication, Meningococcal vaccine, Merial, Methods in Molecular Biology, Metoclopramide, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Mipomersen, Monoclonal antibody, Multinational corporation, Multiple sclerosis, Mumps, Mylan, Nerve growth factor, Novartis, Olivier Brandicourt, Oncology, Option (finance), Oral contract, Osteoporosis, Over-the-counter drug, Oxaliplatin, Paget's disease of bone, Paracetamol, Patent cliff, PCSK9, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Phases of clinical research, Plant Genetic Systems, Plerixafor, Pneumococcal vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Pre-clinical development, Prescription drug, Prostate cancer, Pseudoephedrine/loratadine, Public company, Rabies, Ramipril, Rare disease, Recombinant DNA, Regeneron, Research and development, Reuters, Rhône-Poulenc, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rhodia (company), Rifapentine, Risedronic acid, RNA interference, Roussel Uclaf, Rubella, Rue La Boétie, S.A. (corporation), Sanofi, Sanofi Biogenius Canada, Sanofi Pasteur, Sarilumab, Ségolène Royal, Schering AG, Schiltigheim, Selsun Blue, Serge Weinberg, Series A round, Sevelamer, Shantha Biotechnics, Shareholder rights plan, Smallpox, Sodium hyaluronate, StarLink corn recall, Stéphane Le Foll, Sterling Drug, Stock market index, Strasbourg, Syngenta, Takeover, Teriflunomide, Tetanus, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Thomson Financial, Thrombosis, Total S.A., Transthyretin, Treasury stock, Triamcinolone, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Vaccine, Valproate, Vandetanib, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Whooping cough, World Health Organization, Yellow fever, Zentiva, Zolpidem, 13th arrondissement of Paris, 8th arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
An Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) is an application for a U.S. generic drug approval for an existing licensed medication or approved drug.
Ablynx is a biopharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery and development of nanobodies, based in Science Park Zwijnaarde, Ghent.
Aflibercept is a biopharmaceutical drug invented by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of wet macular degeneration under the trade name Eylea, and for metastatic colorectal cancer as Zaltrap.
Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.
Alirocumab (trade name Praluent), World Health Organization is a biopharmaceutical drug approved by the FDA on July 24, 2015 as a second line treatment for high cholesterol for adults whose cholesterol is not controlled by diet and statin treatment.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics for genetically defined diseases.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
An annual general meeting (commonly abbreviated as AGM, also known as the annual meeting) is a meeting of the general membership of an organization.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Antisense therapy is a form of treatment for genetic disorders or infections.
Apotex Inc. is a Canadian pharmaceutical corporation.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
Sanofi India Limited, headquartered in Mumbai, is a part of Sanofi group.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization in the world that represents the biotechnology industry.
Bioverativ Inc. is an American multinational biotechnology that specializes in the discovery, development, and delivery of therapies for the treatment of haemophilia.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
C.H. Boehringer Sohn AG & Ko.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.
The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.
Cabazitaxel (previously XRP-6258, trade name Jevtana) is a semi-synthetic derivative of a natural taxoid. It was developed by Sanofi-Aventis and was approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer on June 17, 2010. It is a microtubule inhibitor, and the fourth taxane to be approved as a cancer therapy. Cabazitaxel in combination with prednisone is a treatment option for hormone-refractory prostate cancer following docetaxel-based treatment.
The CAC 40 (CAC quarante) (Cotation Assistée en Continu) is a benchmark French stock market index.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carmustine (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea, BCNU, BiCNU) is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy It is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent.
Cassella AG, formerly Leopold Cassella & Co. and Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur AG, commonly known as Cassella, was a German chemical and pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Frankfurt am Main.
Cefotaxime is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Celanese Corporation, also known as Hoechst Celanese, is a Fortune 500 global technology and specialty materials company with its headquarters in Irving, Texas, United States.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
Cemiplimab (REGN-2810) is a monoclonal antibody under development as a drug for the treatment of squamous cell skin cancer, myeloma, and lung cancer.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
Chattem is an American, Chattanooga, Tennessee-based, producer and marketer of over-the-counter healthcare products, toiletries, dietary supplements, topical analgesics, and medicated skin care products.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.
Clopidogrel, sold as the brandname Plavix among others, is an antiplatelet medication that is used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
Contaminated haemophilia blood products were a serious public health problem in the late 1970s up to 1985.
Coppertone is the brand name for an American sunscreen, owned by Bayer, formerly Merck & Co., Inc., formerly Schering-Plough.
Dade Behring was a company which manufactured testing machinery and supplies for the medical diagnostics industry, based in Deerfield, Illinois and Glasgow, Delaware (formerly a DuPont site).
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Delta-like 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLL4 gene.
Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (Public Law 98-417), informally known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, is a 1984 United States federal law which encourages the manufacture of generic drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and established the modern system of government generic drug regulation in the United States.
Dupilumab, sold under the trade name Dupixent, is a monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of allergic diseases such as eczema.
Elf Aquitaine was a French oil company which merged with TotalFina to form TotalFinaElf.
Enoxaparin sodium, sold under the brand name Lovenox among others, is an anticoagulant medication (blood thinner).
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epinephrine autoinjector is a medical device for injecting a measured dose or doses of epinephrine (adrenaline) by means of autoinjector technology.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The EURO STOXX 50 is a stock index of Eurozone stocks designed by STOXX, an index provider owned by Deutsche Börse Group.
EuropaBio ("The European Association for Bioindustries") is Europe's largest and most influential biotech industry group, whose members include Solvay S.A., Monsanto, Bayer and other biotechnology companies.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) is a Brussels-based trade association founded in 1978 representing the research-based pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.
Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.
A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.
A General Manager is an executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement, known as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility.
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Gentilly is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
Sanofi Genzyme is an American biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glimepiride (original trade name Amaryl) is an orally available medium-to-long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug.
Gold Bond is a brand of over-the-counter skin care products produced by Chattem of Chattanooga, Tennessee, now a subsidiary of the French pharmaceutical company Sanofi.
A golden handshake is a clause in an executive employment contract that provides the executive with a significant severance package in the case that the executive loses their job through firing, restructuring, or even scheduled retirement.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is a European initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of pharmaceutical research.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Institut Mérieux is a French holding company owned by the Mérieux family from Lyon.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin glargine, marketed under the names Lantus, among others, is a long-acting basal insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes.
Insulin glulisine is a rapid-acting insulin analogue that differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Ionis Pharmaceuticals (known as Isis Pharmaceuticals until December 2015) is a publicly traded pharmaceutical company based in Carlsbad, California, United States.
Irbesartan (INN) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
Ketoprofen, (RS)-2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects.
L'Oréal S.A. is a French personal care company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris.
Levofloxacin, sold under the trade names Levaquin among others, is an antibiotic.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Macrocycles are often described as a molecule containing twelve or more atoms with at least one large ring.
Marion Merrell Dow and its predecessor Marion Laboratories was a U.S. pharmaceutical company based in Kansas City, Missouri from 1950 until 1996.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Meningococcal vaccine refers to any of the vaccines used to prevent infection by Neisseria meningitidis.
Merial is a multinational animal health company.
Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Takeda Oncology, (originally Millennium Pharmaceuticals), is a biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Mipomersen (INN; trade name Kynamro) is used to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and is administered by subcutaneous injection.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
Mylan N.V. is an American global generic and specialty pharmaceuticals company registered in the Netherlands, with principal executive offices in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK and global headquarters in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, US.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Olivier Brandicourt (born 13 February 1956 in Casablanca) is a French business executive and physician, and the current chief executive officer of Sanofi.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.
An oral contract is a contract, the terms of which have been agreed by spoken communication.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.
Paget's disease of bone (commonly known as Paget's disease or historically, osteitis deformans) is a condition involving cellular remodeling and deformity of one or more bones.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
The term patent cliff refers to the phenomenon of patent expiration dates and an abrupt drop in sales that follows for a group of products capturing high percentage of a market.
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is an enzyme encoded by the PCSK9 gene in humans on chromosome 1.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA, pronounced), formerly known as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, is a trade group representing companies in the pharmaceutical industry in the United States founded in 1958.
The phases of clinical research are the steps in which scientists do experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which would be useful as a medical treatment.
Plant Genetic Systems (PGS), since 2002 part of Bayer CropScience, is a biotech company located in Ghent, Belgium.
Plerixafor (INN and USAN, trade name Mozobil) is an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients into the bloodstream.
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Pseudoephedrine/loratadine (trade names Claritin-D, Clarinase, Clarinase Repetabs, Lorinase) is an orally administered combination drug used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and the common cold.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Ramipril, sold under the brand name Altace among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and congestive heart failure.
A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biotechnology company headquartered in Eastview, near Tarrytown, New York.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rhône-Poulenc was a French chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1928.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rhodia was a group specialized in fine chemistry, synthetic fibers and polymers which was acquired by the belgian Solvay group after a successful tender offer completed in September 2011.
Rifapentine (RPT), sold under the brand name Priftin, is an antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Risedronic acid (INN) often used as its sodium salt risedronate sodium (USAN) is a bisphosphonate used to strengthen bone, treat or prevent osteoporosis, and treat Paget's disease of bone.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Roussel Uclaf S.A. was a French pharmaceutical company and one of several predecessor companies of today's Sanofi.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
The rue La Boétie is a street in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, running from rue d'Astorg to avenue des Champs-Élysées.
S.A. (and variants) designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law.
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.
Sanofi Biogenius Canada (SBC), formerly known as the Sanofi BioGENEius Challenge Canada (SBCC), is a national, biotechnology-focused science competition for Canadian high school and CEGEP students.
Sanofi Pasteur is the vaccines division of the multinational pharmaceutical company Sanofi.
Sarilumab (trade name Kevzara) is a human monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor.
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party.
Schering AG was a research-centered German multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Wedding, Berlin, which operated as an independent company from 1851 to 2006.
Schiltigheim (and sometimes by non-local speakers of French; Alsatian: Schelige) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Selsun Blue is an over-the-counter brand of dandruff shampoo now owned by Sanofi.
Serge Weinberg (born 10 February 1951) is Founder and Chairman of Weinberg Capital Partners, an investment firm.
A series A round is the name typically given to a company's first significant round of venture capital financing.
Sevelamer (rINN) is a phosphate binding drug used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Shantha Biotechnics is an Indian biotechnology company based in Hyderabad.
A shareholder rights plan, colloquially known as a "poison pill", is a type of defensive tactic used by a corporation's board of directors against a takeover.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sodium hyaluronate is the sodium salt of hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan found in various connective tissue of humans.
The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000, when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption.
Stéphane Le Foll (born 3 February 1960) is a French politician for the Socialist Party.
Sterling Drug was an American global pharmaceutical company, known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc. after the merger with Winthrop-Stearns Inc. (which resulted from the merger of Winthrop Chemical Company Inc. and Frederick Stearns & Company).
A stock index or stock market index is a measurement of a section of the stock market.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Syngenta AG is a global company agribusiness that produces agrochemicals and seeds.
In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder).
Teriflunomide (trade name Aubagio, marketed by Sanofi) is the active metabolite of leflunomide.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (טבע תעשיות פרמצבטיות בע"מ) is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel.
Thomson Financial was an arm of information provider Thomson Corporation.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol.
A treasury stock or reacquired stock is stock which is also bought back by the issuing company, reducing the amount of outstanding stock on the open market ("open market" including insiders' holdings).
Triamcinolone is an intermediate-acting synthetic glucocorticoid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Vandetanib (INN, trade name Caprelsa) is an anti-cancer drug that is used for the treatment of certain tumours of the thyroid gland.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zentiva N.V. is an international pharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and marketing modern generic pharmaceutical products.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
The 13th arrondissement of Paris (XIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
The 8th arrondissement of Paris (VIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
Aventis, Chinoin, Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Connaught Medical Research Laboratory, Gérard Le Fur, Jean-François Dehecq, Safoni, Sanofe, Sanofi Aventis, Sanofi Pasteur Inc, Sanofi Synthelabo, Sanofi Winthrop, Sanofi-Aventis, Sanofi-Synthelabo, Sanofi-Synthélabo, Sanofi-aventis, Synthelabo, Synthélabo.