348 relations: Affricate consonant, Agni (missile), Akash (missile), Alexander the Great, All India Radio, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Amsterdam, Ancient Greek, Anti-Indian sentiment, Anusvara, Aorist, Approximant consonant, ASCII, Ashoka, Ashtanga vinyasa yoga, Aspirated consonant, Atharvaveda, Australia, Austronesian languages, Avestan, Ayodhya, Āryabhaṭa numeration, Śāradā script, Bahasa, Bali, Baltic languages, Bangalore, Bangladesh, Banswara district, Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series), Baudhayana sutras, Bengali alphabet, Bhajan, Bhaktamara Stotra, Brahmana, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Brahmin, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Buddhism, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Cambridge Digital Library, Carnatic music, Cebuano language, Central Asia, Central Board of Secondary Education, Chittorgarh, Computer keyboard, Conditional mood, ..., Darbhanga, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Dharma, Diphthong, Dravidian languages, East Asia, East India, Edicts of Ashoka, English language, Enigma (musical project), First language, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Future tense, Gayatri Mantra, Glottal consonant, Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grantha script, Greater India, Gupta Empire, Gupta script, Gurukula, HAL Tejas, Haridwar, Harvard-Kyoto, Haryana, Heinrich Roth, Hemant Goswami, High culture, Higher School Certificate (New South Wales), Hindi, Hindu philosophy, Hindu temple, Hinduism, Hindustani classical music, Hindustani language, History of India, Hyderabad, Imperative mood, Imperfect, India, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Indian classical drama, Indian epic poetry, Indian people, Indian subcontinent, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-European studies, Indo-Iranian languages, Indomania, Indonesia, Indonesian Army, Indonesian language, Indonesian Marine Corps, Indonesian National Armed Forces, Indonesian National Police, Indosphere, Inner Asia, Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Iranian languages, Islam by country, ITRANS, Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Rajasthan Sanskrit University, Jain Agamas, Jain literature, Jainism, Jaipur, Janani Janmabhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi, Java, Javanese language, Jhiri, Rajgarh, Jnanpith Award, Johann Ernst Hanxleden, John Benjamins Publishing Company, John Keay, John Williams, Junagadh, Kalady, Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University, Kanchipuram, Kannada, Kannada alphabet, Karnataka, Karnataka Samskrit University, Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University, Kātyāyana, Kendujhar district, Kerala, Kharosthi, Khmer language, Kirtan, Kolkata, Krishnadevaraya, Kurukshetra University, Labial consonant, Language death, Language revitalization, Languages with official status in India, Lanka, Lao language, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lexicon, Lingua franca, Linguistic prescription, Liquid consonant, List of English words of Sanskrit origin, List of loanwords in Malay, List of loanwords in Thai, List of Sahitya Akademi Award winners for Sanskrit, Literary language, Loanword, London, Madhav Kashinath Deshpande, Madhya Pradesh, Madonna (entertainer), Mahabharata, Maharishi Panini Sanskrit Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya, Maharshi Dayanand University, Mahayana, Mahābhāṣya, Mainland China, Malay language, Malayalam, Malayalam script, Malwa, Mantra, Manusmriti, Marathi grammar, Marathi language, Mattur, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Motto, Munda languages, Music (Madonna album), Mutual intelligibility, Mysore, Nag (missile), Nagpur, Nasal consonant, Neelakantha Chaturdhara, Nepal, Nepal Sanskrit University, Nepalis, New Delhi, Newar Buddhism, Odia alphabet, Odisha, Old Javanese, Old Persian, Optative mood, Oral tradition, Paithan, Pakistan, Palatal consonant, Paskhas, Patanjali, Pāṇini, Perfect (grammar), Petrus Josephus Zoetmulder, Philip Glass, Philippine languages, Philology, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonology, Poetry, Popular music, Prakrit, Present tense, Prithvi (missile), Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Pune, Punjab and Haryana High Court, Puri, Rajasthan, Rajgarh district, Ramayana, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, Ravana, Ray of Light, Register (sociolinguistics), Retroflex consonant, Rigveda, Rishi, Romanization, Rudradaman I, Sa Dingding, Sacred language, Sadvidya Pathashala, Sahitya Akademi, Saka, Samaveda, Samhita, Samskrita Bharati, Satya Vrat Shastri, Satyagraha (opera), Satyameva Jayate, Scientific literature, Scientific racism, Scythians, Sheldon Pollock, Shimoga district, Shiva, Shloka, Shree Somnath Sanskrit University, Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Shyamsundarpur, Sic, Siddhaṃ script, Sikhism, Sino-Tibetan languages, Slavic languages, Social class, Sociolinguistics, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spanish language, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Sri Lanka, St James Independent Schools, Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Stop consonant, Stotra, Subject–object–verb, Subjunctive mood, Sudharma, Sydney, Sydney Grammar School, Syntax, Tadbhava, Tagalog language, Tatsama, Tattvartha Sutra, Telugu language, Telugu script, Tengyur, Thai language, The Asiatic Society, The Battle for Sanskrit, The Matrix Revolutions, The Sanskrit College and University, The Spitzer manuscript, The Week (Indian magazine), Thomas Trautmann, Tibetan Buddhism, Tirupati, Transliteration, Ujjain, Unicode, Upanishads, Uralic languages, Uttarakhand, Uttarakhand Sanskrit University, Vadodara, Varanasi, Vedanga, Vedas, Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Vedic chant, Vedic period, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar consonant, Veraval, Vijayanagara Empire, Visarga, Vocabulary, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voiceless retroflex fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vyākaraṇa, William Jones (philologist), Word order, Writ, Yajurveda, Yoga, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, 1991 Census of India, 2001 Census of India, 2011 Nepal census, 2nd millennium BC. 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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
The Agni missile (Agnī, "fire"; also the Hindu God of Fire) is a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by India, named after one of the five elements of nature.
Akash (Sanskrit: Ākāśa "Sky") is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) for Missile Systems and Bharat Electronics (BEL) for other radars, control centers in India.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anti-Indian sentiment or Indophobia refers to negative feelings and hatred towards India, Indians, and Indian culture.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a style of yoga codified and popularized by K. Pattabhi Jois during the 20th century which is often promoted as a modern-day form of classical Indian yoga.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Ayodhya (IAST Ayodhyā), also known as Saketa, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana.
The numeration is a system of numerals based on Sanskrit phonemes.
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
Bahasa, bhasa, basa, or phasa is the word for "language" in many Asian languages, which derives from the Sanskrit word भाषा "speech, spoken language".
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Banswara District has an area of 5,037 km2, 1.47% of Rajasthan state, India.
Battlestar Galactica (BSG) is an American military science fiction television series, and part of the ''Battlestar Galactica'' franchise.
The Baudhayana sūtras are a group of Vedic Sanskrit texts which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
A bhajan literally means "sharing".
Bhaktamara Stotra is a famous Jain Sanskrit prayer.
The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to the language used in a class of Indian Buddhist texts, such as the Perfection of Wisdom sutras.
The Cambridge Digital Library is a project operated by the Cambridge University Library designed to make items from the unique and distinctive collections of Cambridge University Library available online.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India.
Chittorgarh (also Chittor or Chittaurgarh) is a city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
Darbhanga was, as of 2011, the sixth-largest urban agglomeration in the Indian state of Bihar with a population of nearly three lakh people.
Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute also referred to as Deccan College is a post-graduate institute of Archeology, Linguistics and Sanskrit & Lexicography Pune, India.
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enigma is a German musical project founded in 1990 by Romanian-German musician and producer Michael Cretu.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala 3.62.10), dedicated to Savitr, the sun deity.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Government Sanskrit College was the first college in Benaras.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script)Sharma, Ram.
Gurukula (gurukula) was a type of residential schooling system in ancient India with shishya (students) living near or with the guru, in the same house.
The HAL Tejas is an Indian single-seat, single-jet engine, multirole light fighter designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy.
Haridwar (pron:ˈ), also spelled Hardwar, is an ancient city and municipality in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India.
The Harvard-Kyoto Convention is a system for transliterating Sanskrit and other languages that use the Devanāgarī script into ASCII.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Heinrich Roth (December 18, 1620 in Dillingen, Germany – June 20, 1668 in Agra; also known as Henricus Rodius or Henrique Roa) was a missionary and pioneering Sanskrit scholar.
Hemant Goswami (born 1971) is an Indian social activist working on social issues like public health, environmental activism, child rights, child labour and many other civil right issues.
High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.
The Higher School Certificate (HSC) is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete senior high school level studies (Years 11 and 12 or equivalent) in New South Wales, Australia.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination, a private board of school education in India.
The term Indian classical drama refers to the tradition of dramatic literature and performance in ancient India.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indomania or Indophilia refer to the special interest India, Indians and Indian culture have generated in the Western world, more specifically the culture and civilisation of the Indian subcontinent, especially in Germany.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian Army (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Indonesian Marine Corps (Korps Marinir) previously known as KKO (Korps Komando Operasi), officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy is currently an integral part of the Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the naval infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia.
The Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI; literally "Indonesian National Military") are the military forces of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, "POLRI") is the national police force of Indonesia.
Indosphere is a term coined by the linguist James Matisoff for areas of Indian linguistic and cultural influence in Southeast Asia.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly for Devanagari script.
Jagadguru Ramanadacharya Rajasthan Sanskrit University formerly known as Rajasthan Sanskrit University, is a public state university situated in Madau (Bhankrota) Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
"Janani Janma-bhoomi-scha Swargadapi Gariyasi"Devanagari: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी, IAST: jananī janmabhūmiśca svargādapi garīyasī) is a Sanskrit shloka and the national motto of Nepal.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Jhiri is a village in Rajgarh, Madhya Pradesh, India.
The Jnanpith Award is an Indian literary award presented annually by the Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author for their "outstanding contribution towards literature".
Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681-1732), famously known as Arnos Paathiri was a German Jesuit priest, missionary in India and a Malayalam/Sanskrit poet, grammarian, lexicographer, and philologist.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS, widely known as John Keay, (pronounced 'Kay') is a British historian, journalist, radio presenter and lecturer specialising in popular histories of India, the Far East and China, often with a particular focus on their colonisation and exploration by Europeans.
John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer, conductor, and pianist.
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Kalady or Kaladi is a census town located in Angamaly east of the Periyar river, in the Ernakulam district of Kerala, India, not far from Cochin International Airport.
Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University (KSDSU) is a state university located at Darbhanga, Bihar, India, dedicated to the teaching and promotion of Sanskrit.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
The Kannada Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Karnataka Samskrit University is a university in Bangalore, Karnataka.
Kavikulguru Kalidas Sanskrit University (KKSU) is an institution dedicated to the advanced learning of Sanskrit, which is considered one of the oldest languages on earth.
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) (c. 300 BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.
Kendujhar District, also known as Keonjhar District(କେନ୍ଦୁଝର ଜିଲ୍ଲା)is an administrative district of Odisha state and one of the 5th scheduled areas of Odisha.￼￼￼The town of Kendujhar or Kendujhargarh is the district headquarters.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Krishnadevaraya (IAST) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529.
Kurukshetra University is a university established on 11January 1957 in Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana, from the capital, Delhi.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Lanka is the name given in Hindu epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana in the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin.
The Malay language has many loanwords from Sanskrit, Persian, Tamil, Greek, Latin, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, Arabic (in particular many religious terms) and English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).
The Thai language has many borrowed words from mainly Sanskrit, Pali and some Prakrit, Khmer, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, Arabic (in particular many Islamic terms) and English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).
The Sahitya Akademi Award is an annual award, given by the Sahitya Akademi (India's National Academy of Letters), to writers in 24 Indian languages.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Madhav Kashinath Deshpande (Devanagari: माधव काशीनाथ देशपांडे) (1910–1974) was a Marathi writer from Maharashtra, India and a renowned professor of English language and literature of his times.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madonna Louise Ciccone (born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maharishi Panini Sanskrit Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya (MPSVV), formerly Maharshi Panini Sanskrit University or Maharishi Panini Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, is a state university situated in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Maharshi Dayanand University is a university in Rohtak, Haryana, India.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
The (महाभाष्य,, great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on selected rules of Sanskrit grammar from 's treatise, the ''Ashtadhyayi'', as well as Kātyāyana's Varttika, an elaboration of Pāṇini's grammar.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
The grammar of the '''Marathi''' language shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Gujarati or Punjabi.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mattur (or Mathur) is a village in Shimoga district near the city of Shivamogga in Karnataka state, India, known for the usage of Sanskrit for day-to-day communication, although the general language of the state is Kannada.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Music is the eighth studio album by American singer Madonna, released on September 18, 2000 by Maverick and Warner Bros. Records.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
The Nag missile (IAST: Nāga; "Cobra") is an Indian third generation "fire-and-forget" anti-tank guided missile.
Nagpur is the winter capital, a sprawling metropolis, and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Neelakantha Chaturdhara (नीलकण्ठ चतुर्धर, IAST: Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara) was a scholar who lived in Varanasi in the later half of the 17th century, famous for his commentary on the Mahabharata.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepal Sanskrit University (formerly Mahendra Sanskrit University), established in December 1986, has its central office at Beljhundi in Dang district of mid western Development Region, Nepal, which is 13 km from the headquarters, Ghorahi.
Nepalis or Nepalese (नेपाली) also known as Gurkha or Gorkhali are citizens of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal under the provisions of Nepali nationality law.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Newar Buddhism is the form of Vajrayana Buddhism practiced by the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Paithan (Paiṭhaṇ), formerly Pratiṣṭhāna, is a town with municipal council in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Paskhas (Indonesian: Korps Pasukan Khas) is the air force infantry and special forces corps of the Indonesian Air Force ("TNI-AU").
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
Petrus Josephus Zoetmulder S.J. (January 29, 1906 – July 8, 1995) was a Dutch expert in the Old Javanese language.
Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Prithvi (Sanskrit: pṛthvī "Earth") is a tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
High Court of Punjab and Haryana is the common High Court for Indian states of Haryana and Punjab and Union Territory of Chandigarh based in Chandigarh, India.
Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajgarh district is a District of Madhya Pradesh state in central India.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan is a Deemed University under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt of India in New Delhi, India.
Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha is a Deemed University in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is a Jain text composed by Samantbhadra (second century CE), an acharya of the Digambara sect of Jainism.
Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa;; Sanskrit: रावण) is a character in the Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as the Rakshasa king of Lanka.
Ray of Light is the seventh studio album by American singer Madonna.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.
Sa Dingding (born Zhou Peng (周鹏)) is a Chinese folk singer and songwriter.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Sadvidya Educational Institutions is one of the leading educational institutions in Mysore, Karnataka, India, providing education in the languages English, Kannada, Hindi and Sanskrit.
The Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, from "song" and "knowledge"), is the Veda of melodies and chants.
Samhita literally means "put together, joined, union", a "collection", and "a methodically, rule-based combination of text or verses".
(संस्कृतभारती) is a non-profit organisation working to revive Sanskrit.
Satya Vrat Shastri (born 29 September 1930) is a highly decorated Sanskrit scholar, writer, grammarian and poet from India.
Satyagraha (Sanskrit सत्याग्रह, satyāgraha "insistence on truth") is a 1979 opera in three acts for orchestra, chorus and soloists, composed by Philip Glass, with a libretto by Glass and Constance DeJong.
"Satyameva Jayate" (सत्यमेव जयते; lit. "Truth alone triumphs.") is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad.
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Sheldon I. Pollock is a scholar of Sanskrit, the intellectual and literary history of India, and comparative intellectual history.
Shimoga district is a district in the Karnataka state of India.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक śloka; meaning "song", from the root śru, "hear"Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students, Appendix II, p. 232 (Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927).) is a category of verse line developed from the Vedic Anustubh poetic meter.
Shree Somnath Sanskrit University (SSSU) is located in Veraval, Gir Somnath, Gujarat.
Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya, also known as Shri Jagannath Sanskrit University, is located in Puri, Odisha, India.
Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha is a Sanskrit language university, located in New Delhi, India.
Syamsundarpur is a village in Jharkhand, India.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrith (SSUS) is a research oriented Public University located at Kalady near Kochi in Kerala.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
St James' Independent Schools in London (UK) are three fee-paying schools for children aged 4 to 18.
Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace is a 1999 American epic space opera written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Stotra or Stotram is a Sanskrit word, that means "ode, eulogy or a hymn of praise".
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Sudharma (सुधर्मा) is the only daily newspaper published in Sanskrit.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Sydney Grammar School (colloquially known as Grammar) is an independent, non-denominational, day school for boys, located in Darlinghurst, Edgecliff and St Ives, all suburbs of Sydney, Australia.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
(lit. "arising from that") is the Sanskrit word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, alongside tatsama and deśi words.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Telugu script (Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states.
The Tengyur or Tanjur or Bstan-’gyur (Tibetan: "Translation of Teachings") is the Tibetan collection of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings, or "Translated Treatises".
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Asiatic Society was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir William Jones, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research.
The Battle for Sanskrit: Is Sanskrit Political or Sacred, Oppressive or Liberating, Dead or Alive? is a 2016 book written by Rajiv Malhotra which criticizes the work of the American indologist Sheldon Pollock.
The Matrix Revolutions is a 2003 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowski Brothers.
The Sanskrit College and University (erstwhile Sanskrit College) is a state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
The Spitzer Manuscript (1st-2nd Century CE) is the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript ever found.
The Week is an Indian news magazine founded in the year 1982 and is published by The Malayala Manorama Co.
Thomas R. Trautmann is a renowned American historian and Professor Emeritus of History and Anthropology at the University of Michigan.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Tirupati is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Uttarakhand Sanskrit University is an Indian State university located in the city of Haridwar, Uttarakhand.
Vadodara (formerly known as Baroda) is the third-largest.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, "limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
The oral tradition of the Vedas (Śrauta) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic mantras.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Veraval is a municipality and the headquarters of Gir Somnath district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
The 1991 Census of India was the 13th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
Nepal conducted a widespread national census in 2011 by the Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
Classical Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit language, ISO 639:sa, ISO 639:san, Modern Sanskrit, Neo-Sanskrit, Origin of sanskrit, Paninian Sanskrit, Samskrit, Samskrita, Samskritam, Samskrta, Samskrtam, Samskrut, Samskrutham, Sanscreet, Sanscript, Sanscrit, Sanskirt, Sanskrit Language, Sanskrit alphabet, Sanskrit language, Sanskrit language (Indian subcontinent), Sanskritam, Sanskrith, Sanskritic, Sanskrt, Sanskrut, Saṃskṛta, Saṃskṛtam, Skt., Snskrt, Spoken Sanskrit, Termination of spoken Sanskrit, Termination of spoken sanskrit, संस्कृत, संस्कृतम्.