144 relations: Afghanistan, Ahmad Sanjar, Andranik Margaryan, Armenia, Ashgabat, Assembly of Turkmenistan, Association of Turkmens of the World, Öwezgeldi Ataýew, BBC, Binge drinking, Cabinet of Ministers (Turkmenistan), Chewing tobacco, China, CNN, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party of Turkmenistan, Constitution of Turkmenistan, Coronary artery disease, Cotton, Coup d'état, Cult of personality, Cyrillic script, Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, Deutsche Bank, Diabetes mellitus, Dictator, Eccentricity (behavior), Embassy of Turkmenistan in Moscow, Emomali Rahmon, Encyclopædia Britannica, European Commission, European Parliament, European Union, Excellency, Georgia (country), Germany, Global Witness, Gold teeth, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanmyrat Ataýew, Gurbansoltan Eje, Gypjak, Hamid Karzai, Han Ahmedow, Hippocratic Oath, Hu Jintao, Ice rink, ..., India, Interior ministry, Interpol, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kidney failure, Latin alphabet, Laylat al-Qadr, Lip sync, List of Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran, Manmohan Singh, Manouchehr Mottaki, Melon Day, Meteorite, Midwife, Mikhail Fradkov, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moscow, Most favoured nation, Muhammetnazar Gapurow, Murat Niyazov, Muza Niyazova, Myocardial infarction, National anthem of Turkmenistan, NATO, Natural gas, Nazi Germany, Neutral country, Nursing, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Orderly, Pakistan, Parviz Davoodi, Pension, People's Council of Turkmenistan, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Physician, Planned economy, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, President for Life, President of Afghanistan, President of Kazakhstan, President of Tajikistan, President of the People's Republic of China, President of Turkmenistan, Prime Minister of Armenia, Prime Minister of Georgia, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister of Turkey, Prime Minister of Ukraine, Ramadan, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Renaming of Turkmen months and days of week, 2002, Richard Boucher, Ruhnama, Russia, Saifuddin Soz, Secretary (title), Seljuq dynasty, Shaukat Aziz, Soviet Union, State councillor (China), Sunni Islam, Tajikistan, Tang Jiaxuan, TASS, Türkmenbaşy Ruhy Mosque, Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan, Totalitarianism, Trial, Turkey, Turkmen alphabet, Turkmen presidential election, 1992, Turkmen presidential election, 2007, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmen State Medical University, Turkmen tribes, Turkmenistan, Turkmens, Ukraine, United Nations, United States, United States dollar, Vice President of Iran, Viktor Yanukovych, World War II, Zurab Noghaideli, 1,000,000,000, 1948 Ashgabat earthquake, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 28th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 60 Minutes. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahmad Sanjar (Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik-Shah) (b. 1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118 Encyclopædia Iranica when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157.
Andranik Nahapeti Margaryan (Անդրանիկ Նահապետի Մարգարյան, alternative spelling: Andranik Margarian) (12 June 1949 – 25 March 2007) served as the Prime Minister of Armenia from 12 May 2000, when the President appointed him, until his death on 25 March 2007.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.
The Assembly (Mejilis) is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan.
The Association of Turkmens of the World (also Humanitarian Association of Turkmen of the World, or HATW) is the organization meant to bring together Turkmen people in Turkmenistan and other parts of the world.
Öwezgeldi Ataýew (Russian: Овезгелды Атаев, Ovezgeldy Atayev, born 1951) was Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan from 2002 to 2006.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan is the chief executive body in Turkmenistan.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR (Коммунистическая партия Туркменистана; Türkmenistanyň Kommunistik Partiyasy) was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Constitution of Turkmenistan adopted on 18 May 1992 is the supreme law of Turkmenistan (Article 5).
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Demokratik partiýasy) (TPD) is a political party in Turkmenistan.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Eccentricity (also called quirkiness) is unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual.
The Embassy of Turkmenistan in Moscow is the diplomatic mission of Turkmenistan to the Russian Federation.
Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.
Gold teeth are a form of dental prosthesis.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow (born June 29, 1957) IPA:, is a Turkmen politician who has served as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007.
Gurbanmyrat (Amandurdyýewiç) Ataýew (born 1965) has served as the Oil and Gas Minister in the Government of Turkmenistan since Turkmenbashi Saparmurat Niyazov appointed him on 16 December 2005.
Gurbansoltan Eje ("Mother of Gurbansoltan"; born 1913 in Gypjak, Turkmenistan; died 5 or 6 October 1948 in Aşgabat during the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake) was the mother of the first post-Soviet president Saparmurat Niyazov ("Türkmenbaşy").
Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of Aşgabat.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Han Ahmedowiç Ahmedow (in Russian: Хан Ахмедов, Khan Akhmedovich Akhmedov, June 16, 1936 – December 6, 2006) was Prime Minister of Turkmenistan from December 1989 to May 1992.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
An ice rink (or ice skating rink) is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
(from لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is in Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Lip sync (short for lip synchronization) is a technical term for matching a speaking or singing person's lip movements with prerecorded sung or spoken vocals that listeners hear, either through the sound reinforcement system in a live performance or via television, computer, cinema speakers, or generally anything with audio output in other cases.
The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkmenistan (from October 25, 1990: Republic of Turkmenistan) was the parliamentary speaker of the legislature, which was succeeded by the Majlis in 1992.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran and a member of the Cabinet.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Manouchehr Mottaki (منوچهر متکی; born 12 May 1953) is an Iranian politician and diplomat.
Melon Day is an annual national holiday in Turkmenistan devoted to festivities to celebrate the country's muskmelon, in particular a recent crossbreed product named "Turkmenbashi melon" (after Turkmenistan's first president), which is praised for its aroma, taste and large size.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.
Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (p; born 1 September 1950) is a Russian politician who was the Prime Minister of Russia from March 2004 to September 2007.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
Muhammetnazar Gapurowiç Gapurow (15 February 192213 July 1999) (sometimes referred to by the Russianized name Мухамедназар Гапурович Гапуров Mukhamednazar Gapurovich Gapurov) served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR from 1969 until 1985.
Murat Niyazov (born 18 April 1967) is the son of the late President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov and his wife Muza Sokolova.
Muza Niyazova née Melnikova is a Turkmen public figure who served as the First Lady of Turkmenistan from 1991 until 2006.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The national anthem of Turkmenistan is called the National Anthem of Independent Neutral TurkmenistanTurkmenistan to the Heights of the Golden Age, Ashgabat, 2005.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
In healthcare, an orderly (also known as a ward assistant, nurse assistant or healthcare assistant) is a hospital attendant whose job consists of assisting medical and nursing staff with various nursing and medical interventions.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Parviz Davoodi (پرویز داوودی; born 5 February 1952 in Tehran) is an Iranian hardline conservative politician.
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.
The Halk Maslahaty (Халк Маслахаты xɑlq mɑθlɑxɑt̪ɯ; "People's Council") was the highest representative body in Turkmenistan (Article 45 of the 1992 Constitution).
Peter the Great St.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
President for Life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy.
The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is Ashraf Ghani.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respy'bli'kasynyn' Prezi'denti, Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті) is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The President of Tajikistan is the head of state and the highest position within the Government of Tajikistan.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
President of Turkmenistan (Turkmen:Türkmenistanyň prezidenti) is the head of state and of the executive power, is the highest official of Turkmenistan, and has the constitutional charter to act as a guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity, and adherence to the Constitution and international agreements.
The Prime Minister of Armenia is the head of government and most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to "determine the main directions of policy of the Government, manage the activities of the Government and coordinate the work of the members of the Government." Also, according to the constitution, the Prime Minister heads the Security Council, which prescribes the main directions of the country's defense policy.
The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of Georgia, appointed by the President of Georgia.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.
The Prime Minister of Turkey (Turkish: Başbakan) was the head of government of Turkey.
The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Прем'єр-міністр України, Prem'ier-ministr Ukrayiny) is Ukraine's head of government, presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
On August 10, 2002, the government of Turkmenistan adopted a law to rename all the months and most of the days of week. The names were chosen according to Turkmen national symbols, as described in the Ruhnama, a book written by Saparmurat Niyazov, Turkmenistan's first president for life.
Richard A. Boucher (born 1951 in Bethesda, Maryland) is an American diplomat who was Deputy Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from 2009 until 2013.
The Ruhnama (The Book of the Soul) is a book written by Saparmurat Niyazov, the President of Turkmenistan from 1990 to 2006, combining spiritual/moral guidance, autobiography and revisionist history; much of it is of dubious or disputed factuality and accuracy.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saifuddin Soz (Kashmiri: सैफ़ुद्दीन सोज़) (born 23 November 1937) is an Indian professor and a long-time Member of the Parliament of India.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Shaukat Aziz (شوکت عزیز) (born 6 March 1949 in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan) is a Pakistani economist and financier who served as 18th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 20 August 2004 to 15 November 2007, as well as the Finance Minister of Pakistan from 6 November 1999 to 15 November 2007.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The state councilor is a high-ranking position within the State Council of the People's Republic of China, the executive organ of China's central government (comparable to a cabinet).
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tang Jiaxuan (born January 17, 1938) was foreign minister of the People's Republic of China from 1998–2003.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque or Gypjak Mosque (Türkmenbaşy Ruhy Metjidi) is a mosque in the village of Gypjak, Turkmenistan.
Türkmenbaşy (Turkmen Cyrillic: Түркменбашы, Turkmen Arabic; ترکمنباشی, also spelled Turkmenbashi, Түркменбаши), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Красноводск) and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in Turkmenistan is a Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values and, respectively.
Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on 21 June 1992.
Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on February 11, 2007, following the death of President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov on 21 December 2006.
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Түркменистан Совет Социалистик Республикасы, Türkmenistan Sowet Sotsialistik Respublikasy; Туркменская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Turkmenskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly known as Turkmenistan or Turkmenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union located in Central Asia existed as a republic from 1925 to 1991.
Turkmen State Medical University (Türkmenistanyň Döwlet lukmançylyk uniwersitety.) is a Turkmen medical university.
The major Turkmen tribes are Teke (Tekke), Yomut (Yomud), Ersari (Ärsary), Chowdur (Choudur) and Saryk (Saryq).
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zurab Noghaideli (ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი) (born 22 October 1964) is a Georgian businessman and a politician who served as the Prime Minister of Georgia from February 2005 until he resigned, citing health problems, on 16 November 2007.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake (1948 Ашгабат ыер титремеси; 1948 Aşgabat yer titremesi; Ашхабадское землетрясение 1948 года; Ashkhabadskoye zemletryasenie 1948 goda) occurred on 6 October with a surface wave magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme).
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 28th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 28th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 28th Congress.
60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.
Niazov, Nijazov, Niyazov, Niyazov, Saparmurad A., Niyazov, Saparmurat, Nyýazow, Sapamurat Nijazov, Saparmirat Turkmenbashi, Saparmourad Niazov, Saparmourad Niyazov, Saparmourat Niazov, Saparmourat Niyazov, Saparmurad A. Niyazov, Saparmurad Atajevich Niyazov, Saparmurad Niyazov, Saparmurat Atajevich Niyazov, Saparmurat Atajevich Niyazov Turkmenbashi, Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov, Saparmurat Ataýewiç Nyýazow, Saparmurat Niazov, Saparmurat Nyýazow, Saparmurat Turkmenbashy, Saparmyrat Atayevich Niyazov, Saparmyrat Atayewic Nyyazow, Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow, Saparmyrat Niazov, Saparmyrat Niyazov, Saparmyrat Nyyazow, Saparmyrat Nyyazow Turkmenbasy, Saparmyrat Nyýazow, Saparmyrat Nyýazow Turkmenbasy, Saparnurat Niyazov, Turkmenbasi, Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов.